Since its early days, combinatorial group theory was deeply interwoven with computability theory. In the last 20 years we have seen many new successful interactions between group theory and computer science. On one hand, groups played an important rule in many developments in complexity theory and automata theory. On the other hand, concepts from these computer science fields as well as efficient algorithms, cryptography, and data compression led to the formulation of new questions in group theory. The Dagstuhl Seminar Algorithmic Problems in Group Theory was aimed at bringing together researchers from group theory and computer science so that they can share their expertise. This report documents the material presented during the course of the seminar.