eng
Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik
Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics
1868-8969
2019-09-17
63:1
63:19
10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.63
article
Pairwise Independent Random Walks Can Be Slightly Unbounded
Narayanan, Shyam
1
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
A family of problems that have been studied in the context of various streaming algorithms are generalizations of the fact that the expected maximum distance of a 4-wise independent random walk on a line over n steps is O(sqrt{n}). For small values of k, there exist k-wise independent random walks that can be stored in much less space than storing n random bits, so these properties are often useful for lowering space bounds. In this paper, we show that for all of these examples, 4-wise independence is required by demonstrating a pairwise independent random walk with steps uniform in +/- 1 and expected maximum distance Omega(sqrt{n} lg n) from the origin. We also show that this bound is tight for the first and second moment, i.e. the expected maximum square distance of a 2-wise independent random walk is always O(n lg^2 n). Also, for any even k >= 4, we show that the kth moment of the maximum distance of any k-wise independent random walk is O(n^{k/2}). The previous two results generalize to random walks tracking insertion-only streams, and provide higher moment bounds than currently known. We also prove a generalization of Kolmogorov’s maximal inequality by showing an asymptotically equivalent statement that requires only 4-wise independent random variables with bounded second moments, which also generalizes a result of Błasiok.
https://drops.dagstuhl.de/storage/00lipics/lipics-vol145-approx-random2019/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.63/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.63.pdf
k-wise Independence
Random Walks
Moments
Chaining