Finding Errorless Pessiland in Error-Prone Heuristica
Average-case complexity has two standard formulations, i.e., errorless complexity and error-prone complexity. In average-case complexity, a critical topic of research is to show the equivalence between these formulations, especially on the average-case complexity of NP.
In this study, we present a relativization barrier for such an equivalence. Specifically, we construct an oracle relative to which NP is easy on average in the error-prone setting (i.e., DistNP ⊆ HeurP) but hard on average in the errorless setting even by 2^o(n/log n)-size circuits (i.e., DistNP ⊈ AvgSIZE[2^o(n/log n)]), which provides an answer to the open question posed by Impagliazzo (CCC 2011). Additionally, we show the following in the same relativized world:
- Lower bound of meta-complexity: GapMINKT^𝒪 ∉ prSIZE^𝒪[2^o(n/log n)] and GapMCSP^𝒪 ∉ prSIZE^𝒪[2^(n^ε)] for some ε > 0.
- Worst-case hardness of learning on uniform distributions: P/poly is not weakly PAC learnable with membership queries on the uniform distribution by nonuniform 2ⁿ/n^ω(1)-time algorithms.
- Average-case hardness of distribution-free learning: P/poly is not weakly PAC learnable on average by nonuniform 2^o(n/log n)-time algorithms.
- Weak cryptographic primitives: There exist a hitting set generator, an auxiliary-input one-way function, an auxiliary-input pseudorandom generator, and an auxiliary-input pseudorandom function against SIZE^𝒪[2^o(n/log n)].
This provides considerable insights into Pessiland (i.e., the world in which no one-way function exists, and NP is hard on average), such as the relativized separation of the error-prone average-case hardness of NP and auxiliary-input cryptography. At the core of our oracle construction is a new notion of random restriction with masks.
average-case complexity
oracle separation
relativization barrier
meta-complexity
learning
auxiliary-input cryptography
Theory of computation~Computational complexity and cryptography
25:1-25:28
Regular Paper
The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for many helpful comments.
Shuichi
Hirahara
Shuichi Hirahara
National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo, Japan
JST, PRESTO Grant Number JPMJPR2024, Japan.
Mikito
Nanashima
Mikito Nanashima
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
JST, ACT-X Grant Number JPMJAX190M, Japan.
10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.25
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Shuichi Hirahara and Mikito Nanashima
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