eng
Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik
Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics
1868-8969
2022-07-11
26:1
26:41
10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.26
article
Symmetry of Information from Meta-Complexity
Hirahara, Shuichi
1
National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo, Japan
Symmetry of information for time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity is a hypothetical inequality that relates time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity and its conditional analogue. In 1992, Longpré and Watanabe showed that symmetry of information holds if NP is easy in the worst case, which has been the state of the art over the last three decades. In this paper, we significantly improve this result by showing that symmetry of information holds under the weaker assumption that NP is easy on average. In fact, our proof techniques are applicable to any resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity and enable proving symmetry of information from an efficient algorithm that computes resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity.
We demonstrate the significance of our proof techniques by presenting two applications. First, using that symmetry of information does not hold for Levin’s Kt-complexity, we prove that randomized Kt-complexity cannot be computed in time 2^o(n) on inputs of length n, which improves the previous quasi-polynomial lower bound of Oliveira (ICALP 2019). Our proof implements Kolmogorov’s insightful approach to the P versus NP problem in the case of randomized Kt-complexity. Second, we consider the question of excluding Heuristica, i.e., a world in which NP is easy on average but NP ≠ P, from Impagliazzo’s five worlds: Using symmetry of information, we prove that Heuristica is excluded if the problem of approximating time-bounded conditional Kolmogorov complexity K^t(x∣y) up to some additive error is NP-hard for t ≫ |y|. We complement this result by proving NP-hardness of approximating sublinear-time-bounded conditional Kolmogorov complexity up to a multiplicative factor of |x|^{1/(log log |x|)^O(1)} for t ≪ |y|. Our NP-hardness proof presents a new connection between sublinear-time-bounded conditional Kolmogorov complexity and a secret sharing scheme.
https://drops.dagstuhl.de/storage/00lipics/lipics-vol234-ccc2022/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.26/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.26.pdf
resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity
average-case complexity
pseudorandomness
hardness of approximation
unconditional lower bound