We study the advantages of quantum communication models over classical communication models that are equipped with a limited number of qubits of entanglement. In this direction, we give explicit partial functions on n bits for which reducing the entanglement increases the classical communication complexity exponentially. Our separations are as follows. For every k ≥ ~1:

Q‖^* versus R2^*: We show that quantum simultaneous protocols with Θ̃(k⁵log³n) qubits of entanglement can exponentially outperform two-way randomized protocols with O(k) qubits of entanglement. This resolves an open problem from [Dmitry Gavinsky, 2008] and improves the state-of-the-art separations between quantum simultaneous protocols with entanglement and two-way randomized protocols without entanglement [Gavinsky, 2019; Girish et al., 2022].

R‖^* versus Q‖^*: We show that classical simultaneous protocols with Θ̃(k log n) qubits of entanglement can exponentially outperform quantum simultaneous protocols with O(k) qubits of entanglement, resolving an open question from [Gavinsky et al., 2006; Gavinsky, 2019]. The best result prior to our work was a relational separation against protocols without entanglement [Gavinsky et al., 2006].

R‖^* versus R1^*: We show that classical simultaneous protocols with Θ̃(k log n) qubits of entanglement can exponentially outperform randomized one-way protocols with O(k) qubits of entanglement. Prior to our work, only a relational separation was known [Dmitry Gavinsky, 2008].