In the Bisection problem, we are given as input an edge-weighted graph G. The task is to find a partition of V(G) into two parts A and B such that ||A| - |B|| <= 1 and the sum of the weights of the edges with one endpoint in A and the other in B is minimized. We show that the complexity of the Bisection problem on trees, and more generally on graphs of bounded treewidth, is intimately linked to the (min, +)-Convolution problem. Here the input consists of two sequences (a[i])^{n-1}_{i = 0} and (b[i])^{n-1}_{i = 0}, the task is to compute the sequence (c[i])^{n-1}_{i = 0}, where c[k] = min_{i=0,...,k}(a[i] + b[k - i]).

In particular, we prove that if (min, +)-Convolution can be solved in O(tau(n)) time, then Bisection of graphs of treewidth t can be solved in time O(8^t t^{O(1)} log n * tau(n)), assuming a tree decomposition of width t is provided as input. Plugging in the naive O(n^2) time algorithm for (min, +)-Convolution yields a O(8^t t^{O(1)} n^2 log n) time algorithm for Bisection. This improves over the (dependence on n of the) O(2^t n^3) time algorithm of Jansen et al. [SICOMP 2005] at the cost of a worse dependence on t. "Conversely", we show that if Bisection can be solved in time O(beta(n)) on edge weighted trees, then (min, +)-Convolution can be solved in O(beta(n)) time as well. Thus, obtaining a sub-quadratic algorithm for Bisection on trees is extremely challenging, and could even be impossible. On the other hand, for unweighted graphs of treewidth t, by making use of a recent algorithm for Bounded Difference (min, +)-Convolution of Chan and Lewenstein [STOC 2015], we obtain a sub-quadratic algorithm for Bisection with running time O(8^t t^{O(1)} n^{1.864} log n).