eng
Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik
Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics
1868-8969
2019-09-06
47:1
47:14
10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.47
article
Going Far From Degeneracy
Fomin, Fedor V.
1
Golovach, Petr A.
1
Lokshtanov, Daniel
2
Panolan, Fahad
3
Saurabh, Saket
4
Zehavi, Meirav
5
Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Norway
Department of Computer Science, University of California Santa Barbara, USA
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Hyderabad, India
The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, HBNI, Chennai, India
Ben-Gurion University, Beersheba, Israel
An undirected graph G is d-degenerate if every subgraph of G has a vertex of degree at most d. By the classical theorem of Erdős and Gallai from 1959, every graph of degeneracy d>1 contains a cycle of length at least d+1. The proof of Erdős and Gallai is constructive and can be turned into a polynomial time algorithm constructing a cycle of length at least d+1. But can we decide in polynomial time whether a graph contains a cycle of length at least d+2? An easy reduction from Hamiltonian Cycle provides a negative answer to this question: Deciding whether a graph has a cycle of length at least d+2 is NP-complete. Surprisingly, the complexity of the problem changes drastically when the input graph is 2-connected. In this case we prove that deciding whether G contains a cycle of length at least d+k can be done in time 2^{O(k)}|V(G)|^O(1). In other words, deciding whether a 2-connected n-vertex G contains a cycle of length at least d+log{n} can be done in polynomial time. Similar algorithmic results hold for long paths in graphs. We observe that deciding whether a graph has a path of length at least d+1 is NP-complete. However, we prove that if graph G is connected, then deciding whether G contains a path of length at least d+k can be done in time 2^{O(k)}n^O(1). We complement these results by showing that the choice of degeneracy as the "above guarantee parameterization" is optimal in the following sense: For any epsilon>0 it is NP-complete to decide whether a connected (2-connected) graph of degeneracy d has a path (cycle) of length at least (1+epsilon)d.
https://drops.dagstuhl.de/storage/00lipics/lipics-vol144-esa2019/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.47/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.47.pdf
Longest path
longest cycle
fixed-parameter tractability
above guarantee parameterization