eng
Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik
Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics
1868-8969
2024-09-23
101:1
101:15
10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2024.101
article
Time-Efficient Quantum Entropy Estimator via Samplizer
Wang, Qisheng
1
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5107-8279
Zhang, Zhicheng
2
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7436-0426
Graduate School of Mathematics, Nagoya University, Japan
Centre for Quantum Software and Information, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, Australia
Entropy is a measure of the randomness of a system. Estimating the entropy of a quantum state is a basic problem in quantum information. In this paper, we introduce a time-efficient quantum approach to estimating the von Neumann entropy S(ρ) and Rényi entropy S_α(ρ) of an N-dimensional quantum state ρ, given access to independent samples of ρ. Specifically, we provide the following quantum estimators.
- A quantum estimator for S(ρ) with time complexity Õ(N²), improving the prior best time complexity Õ(N⁶) by Acharya, Issa, Shende, and Wagner (2020) and Bavarian, Mehraba, and Wright (2016).
- A quantum estimator for S_α(ρ) with time complexity Õ(N^{4/α-2}) for 0 < α < 1 and Õ(N^{4-2/α}) for α > 1, improving the prior best time complexity Õ(N^{6/α}) for 0 < α < 1 and Õ(N⁶) for α > 1 by Acharya, Issa, Shende, and Wagner (2020), though at a cost of a slightly larger sample complexity.
Moreover, these estimators are naturally extensible to the low-rank case. We also provide a sample lower bound Ω(max{N/ε, N^{1/α-1}/ε^{1/α}}) for estimating S_α(ρ).
Technically, our method is quite different from the previous ones that are based on weak Schur sampling and Young diagrams. At the heart of our construction, is a novel tool called samplizer, which can "samplize" a quantum query algorithm to a quantum algorithm with similar behavior using only samples of quantum states; this suggests a unified framework for estimating quantum entropies. Specifically, when a quantum oracle U block-encodes a mixed quantum state ρ, any quantum query algorithm using Q queries to U can be samplized to a δ-close (in the diamond norm) quantum algorithm using Θ~(Q²/δ) samples of ρ. Moreover, this samplization is proven to be optimal, up to a polylogarithmic factor.
https://drops.dagstuhl.de/storage/00lipics/lipics-vol308-esa2024/LIPIcs.ESA.2024.101/LIPIcs.ESA.2024.101.pdf
Quantum computing
entropy estimation
von Neumann entropy
Rényi entropy
sample complexity