We introduce weighted one-deterministic-counter automata (odca). These are weighted one-counter automata (oca) with the property of counter-determinacy, meaning that all paths labelled by a given word starting from the initial configuration have the same counter-effect. Weighted odcas are a strict extension of weighted visibly ocas, which are weighted ocas where the input alphabet determines the actions on the counter.

We present a novel problem called the co-VS (complement to a vector space) reachability problem for weighted odcas over fields, which seeks to determine if there exists a run from a given configuration of a weighted odca to another configuration whose weight vector lies outside a given vector space. We establish two significant properties of witnesses for co-VS reachability: they satisfy a pseudo-pumping lemma, and the lexicographically minimal witness has a special form. It follows that the co-VS reachability problem is in 𝖯.

These reachability problems help us to show that the equivalence problem of weighted odcas over fields is in 𝖯 by adapting the equivalence proof of deterministic real-time ocas [Stanislav Böhm and Stefan Göller, 2011] by Böhm et al. This is a step towards resolving the open question of the equivalence problem of weighted ocas. Finally, we demonstrate that the regularity problem, the problem of checking whether an input weighted odca over a field is equivalent to some weighted automaton, is in 𝖯. We also consider boolean odcas and show that the equivalence problem for (non-deterministic) boolean odcas is in PSPACE, whereas it is undecidable for (non-deterministic) boolean ocas.