eng
Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik
Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics
1868-8969
2019-07-04
71:1
71:16
10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.71
article
On Adaptive Algorithms for Maximum Matching
Hegerfeld, Falko
1
Kratsch, Stefan
1
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany
In the fundamental Maximum Matching problem the task is to find a maximum cardinality set of pairwise disjoint edges in a given undirected graph. The fastest algorithm for this problem, due to Micali and Vazirani, runs in time O(sqrt{n}m) and stands unbeaten since 1980. It is complemented by faster, often linear-time, algorithms for various special graph classes. Moreover, there are fast parameterized algorithms, e.g., time O(km log n) relative to tree-width k, which outperform O(sqrt{n}m) when the parameter is sufficiently small.
We show that the Micali-Vazirani algorithm, and in fact any algorithm following the phase framework of Hopcroft and Karp, is adaptive to beneficial input structure. We exhibit several graph classes for which such algorithms run in linear time O(n+m). More strongly, we show that they run in time O(sqrt{k}m) for graphs that are k vertex deletions away from any of several such classes, without explicitly computing an optimal or approximate deletion set; before, most such bounds were at least Omega(km). Thus, any phase-based matching algorithm with linear-time phases obliviously interpolates between linear time for k=O(1) and the worst case of O(sqrt{n}m) when k=Theta(n). We complement our findings by proving that the phase framework by itself still allows Omega(sqrt{n}) phases, and hence time Omega(sqrt{n}m), even on paths, cographs, and bipartite chain graphs.
https://drops.dagstuhl.de/storage/00lipics/lipics-vol132-icalp2019/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.71/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.71.pdf
Matchings
Adaptive Analysis
Parameterized Complexity