The theory of Communicating Sequential Processes going back to Hoare and Roscoe is still today a reference model for concurrency. In the fairly rich literature, several versions of operational semantics have been discussed, which should be consistent with the denotational one.

This work is based on Isabelle/HOL-CSP 2.0, a shallow embedding of the failure-divergence model of denotational semantics proposed by Hoare, Roscoe and Brookes in the eighties. In several ways, HOL-CSP is actually an extension of the original setting in the sense that it admits higher-order processes and infinite alphabets.

In this paper, we present a construction and formal equivalence proofs between operational CSP semantics and the underlying denotational failure-divergence semantics. The construction is based on a definition of the operational transition operator P ⇝e P’ basically via the After operator and the classical failure-divergence refinement.

Several choices are discussed to formally derive the operational semantics leading to subtle differences. The derived operational semantics for symbolic Labelled Transition Systems (LTSs) can be potentially used for certifications of model-checker logs as well as combined proof techniques.