Given a graph G, an isometric path cover of a graph is a set of isometric paths that collectively contain all vertices of G. An isometric path cover 𝒞 of a graph G is also an isometric path partition if no vertex lies in two paths in 𝒞. Given a graph G, and an integer k, the objective of Isometric Path Cover (resp. Isometric Path Partition) is to decide whether G has an isometric path cover (resp. partition) of cardinality k.

In this paper, we show that Isometric Path Partition is NP-complete even on split graphs, i.e. graphs whose vertex set can be partitioned into a clique and an independent set. In contrast, we show that both Isometric Path Cover and Isometric Path Partition admit polynomial time algorithms on cographs (graphs with no induced P₄) and chain graphs (bipartite graphs with no induced 2K₂).