{"@context":"https:\/\/schema.org\/","@type":"PublicationVolume","@id":"#volume579","volumeNumber":5361,"name":"Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5361","dateCreated":"2006-05-08","datePublished":"2006-05-08","isAccessibleForFree":true,"publisher":"Schloss Dagstuhl \u2013 Leibniz-Zentrum f\u00fcr Informatik","isPartOf":{"@type":"Periodical","@id":"#series119","name":"Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings","issn":"1862-4405","isAccessibleForFree":true,"publisher":"Schloss Dagstuhl \u2013 Leibniz-Zentrum f\u00fcr Informatik","hasPart":"#volume579"},"hasPart":[{"@type":"ScholarlyArticle","@id":"#article1257","name":"05361 Abstracts Collection \u2013 Algorithmic Aspects of Large and Complex Networks","abstract":"From 04.09.05 to 09.09.05, the Dagstuhl Seminar 05361 ``Algorithmic Aspects of Large and Complex Networks'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl.\r\nDuring the seminar, several participants presented their current\r\nresearch, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of\r\nthe presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of\r\nseminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section\r\ndescribes the seminar topics and goals in general.\r\nLinks to extended abstracts or full papers are provided, if available.","keywords":["Algorithms","Large and Complex Networks"],"author":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Leonardi, Stefano","givenName":"Stefano","familyName":"Leonardi"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Meyer auf der Heide, Friedhelm","givenName":"Friedhelm","familyName":"Meyer auf der Heide"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Wagner, Dorothea","givenName":"Dorothea","familyName":"Wagner"}],"position":1,"pageStart":1,"pageEnd":19,"dateCreated":"2006-05-08","datePublished":"2006-05-08","isAccessibleForFree":true,"license":"https:\/\/creativecommons.org\/licenses\/by\/4.0\/legalcode","copyrightHolder":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Leonardi, Stefano","givenName":"Stefano","familyName":"Leonardi"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Meyer auf der Heide, Friedhelm","givenName":"Friedhelm","familyName":"Meyer auf der Heide"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Wagner, Dorothea","givenName":"Dorothea","familyName":"Wagner"}],"copyrightYear":"2006","accessMode":"textual","accessModeSufficient":"textual","creativeWorkStatus":"Published","inLanguage":"en-US","sameAs":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.4230\/DagSemProc.05361.1","publisher":"Schloss Dagstuhl \u2013 Leibniz-Zentrum f\u00fcr Informatik","isPartOf":"#volume579"},{"@type":"ScholarlyArticle","@id":"#article1258","name":"A Cost Mechanism for Fair Pricing of Resource Usage","abstract":"We propose a simple and intuitive cost mechanism which assigns costs for the competitive usage of $m$ resources by $n$ selfish agents. Each agent has an individual demand; demands are drawn according to some probability distribution. The cost paid by an agent for a resource she chooses is the total demand put on the resource divided by the number of agents who chose that same resource. So, resources charge costs in an equitable, fair way, while each resource makes no profit out of the agents.\r\n\r\nWe call our model the Fair Pricing model. Its fair cost mechanism induces a non-cooperative game among the agents. To evaluate the Nash equilibria of this game, we introduce the Diffuse Price of Anarchy, as an extension of the Price of Anarchy that takes into account the probability distribution on the demands. We prove:\r\n\r\n(1) Pure Nash equilibria may not exist, unless all chosen demands are identical; in contrast, a fully mixed Nash equilibrium exists for all possible choices of the demands. Further on, the fully mixed Nash equilibrium is the unique Nash equilibrium in case there are only two agents. \r\n\r\n(2) In the worst-case choice of demands, the Price of Anarchy is $Theta (n)$;\r\nfor the special case of two agents, the Price of Anarchy is less than $2 - frac{1}{m}$. \r\n\r\n(3) Assume now that demands are drawn from a bounded, independent probability distribution, where all demands are identically distributed and each is at most a (universal for the class) constant times its expectation. Then, the Diffuse Price of Anarchy is at most that same constant, which is just $2$ when each demand is distributed symmetrically around its expectation.","keywords":["Cost Sharing","Diffuse Price of Anarchy","Fair Pricing","Resources"],"author":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Mavronicolas, Marios","givenName":"Marios","familyName":"Mavronicolas"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Panagopoulou, Panagiota","givenName":"Panagiota","familyName":"Panagopoulou"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Spirakis, Paul G.","givenName":"Paul G.","familyName":"Spirakis"}],"position":2,"pageStart":1,"pageEnd":15,"dateCreated":"2006-05-08","datePublished":"2006-05-08","isAccessibleForFree":true,"license":"https:\/\/creativecommons.org\/licenses\/by\/4.0\/legalcode","copyrightHolder":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Mavronicolas, Marios","givenName":"Marios","familyName":"Mavronicolas"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Panagopoulou, Panagiota","givenName":"Panagiota","familyName":"Panagopoulou"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Spirakis, Paul G.","givenName":"Paul G.","familyName":"Spirakis"}],"copyrightYear":"2006","accessMode":"textual","accessModeSufficient":"textual","creativeWorkStatus":"Published","inLanguage":"en-US","sameAs":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.4230\/DagSemProc.05361.2","publisher":"Schloss Dagstuhl \u2013 Leibniz-Zentrum f\u00fcr Informatik","isPartOf":"#volume579"},{"@type":"ScholarlyArticle","@id":"#article1259","name":"A Hybrid Model for Drawing Dynamic and Evolving Graphs","abstract":"Dynamic processes frequently occur in many applications. Visualizations of dynamically evolving data, for example as part of the data analysis, are typically restricted to a cumulative static view or an animation\/sequential view. Both methods have their benefits and are often complementary in their use. We present a hybrid model that combines the two techniques. This is accomplished by 2.5D drawings which are calculated in an incremental way. The method has been evaluated on collaboration networks.","keywords":"Visualization dynamic\/evolving graphs 2.5D","author":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Gaertler, Marco","givenName":"Marco","familyName":"Gaertler"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Wagner, Dorothea","givenName":"Dorothea","familyName":"Wagner"}],"position":3,"pageStart":1,"pageEnd":12,"dateCreated":"2006-05-08","datePublished":"2006-05-08","isAccessibleForFree":true,"license":"https:\/\/creativecommons.org\/licenses\/by\/4.0\/legalcode","copyrightHolder":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Gaertler, Marco","givenName":"Marco","familyName":"Gaertler"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Wagner, Dorothea","givenName":"Dorothea","familyName":"Wagner"}],"copyrightYear":"2006","accessMode":"textual","accessModeSufficient":"textual","creativeWorkStatus":"Published","inLanguage":"en-US","sameAs":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.4230\/DagSemProc.05361.3","publisher":"Schloss Dagstuhl \u2013 Leibniz-Zentrum f\u00fcr Informatik","isPartOf":"#volume579"},{"@type":"ScholarlyArticle","@id":"#article1260","name":"Computing earliest arrival flows with multiple sources","abstract":"Earliest arrival flows are motivated by applications related to\r\n evacuation. Given a network with capacities and transit times on\r\n the arcs, a subset of source nodes with supplies and a sink node,\r\n the task is to send the given supplies from the sources to the sink\r\n \"as quickly as possible\". The latter requirement is made more\r\n precise by the earliest arrival property which requires that the\r\n total amount of flow that has arrived at the sink is maximal for all\r\n points in time simultaneously.\r\n\r\n It is a classical result from the 1970s that, for the special case\r\n of a single source node, earliest arrival flows do exist and can be\r\n computed by essentially applying the Successive Shortest Path\r\n Algorithm for min-cost flow computations. While it has previously\r\n been observed that an earliest arrival flow still exists for\r\n multiple sources, the problem of computing one efficiently has been\r\n open. We present an exact algorithm for this problem whose running\r\n time is strongly polynomial in the input plus output size of the\r\n problem.","keywords":["Networks","flows over time","dynamic flows","earliest arrival","evacuation"],"author":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Baumann, Nadine","givenName":"Nadine","familyName":"Baumann"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Skutella, Martin","givenName":"Martin","familyName":"Skutella"}],"position":4,"pageStart":1,"pageEnd":3,"dateCreated":"2006-05-08","datePublished":"2006-05-08","isAccessibleForFree":true,"license":"https:\/\/creativecommons.org\/licenses\/by\/4.0\/legalcode","copyrightHolder":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Baumann, Nadine","givenName":"Nadine","familyName":"Baumann"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Skutella, Martin","givenName":"Martin","familyName":"Skutella"}],"copyrightYear":"2006","accessMode":"textual","accessModeSufficient":"textual","creativeWorkStatus":"Published","inLanguage":"en-US","sameAs":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.4230\/DagSemProc.05361.4","publisher":"Schloss Dagstuhl \u2013 Leibniz-Zentrum f\u00fcr Informatik","isPartOf":"#volume579"},{"@type":"ScholarlyArticle","@id":"#article1261","name":"Cost Sharing Mechanisms for Fair Pricing of Resources Usage","abstract":"We propose a simple and intuitive cost mechanism which assigns costs for the competitive usage of $m$ resources by $n$ selfish agents. Each agent has an individual demand; demands are drawn according to some probability distribution. The cost paid by an agent for a resource she chooses is the total demand put on the resource divided by the number of agents who chose that same resource. So, resources charge costs in an equitable, fair way, while each resource makes no profit out of the agents.\r\n\r\nWe call our model the Fair Pricing model. Its fair cost mechanism induces a non-cooperative game among the agents. To evaluate the Nash equilibria of this game, we introduce the Diffuse Price of Anarchy, as an extension of the Price of Anarchy that takes into account the probability distribution on the demands. We prove:\r\n\r\n(1) Pure Nash equilibria may not exist, unless all chosen demands are identical. In contrast, we have been able to prove that pure Nash equilibria do exist for two closely related cost sharing models, namely the Average Cost Pricing and the Serial Cost Sharing models.\r\n\r\n(2) A fully mixed Nash equilibrium exists for all possible choices of the demands. Further on, the fully mixed Nash equilibrium is the unique Nash equilibrium in case there are only two agents. \r\n\r\n(3) In the worst-case choice of demands, the Price of Anarchy is $Theta (n)$; for the special case of two agents, the Price of Anarchy is less than $2 - frac{1}{m}$.\r\n\r\n(4) Assume now that demands are drawn from a bounded, independent probability distribution, where all demands are identically distributed and each is at most a (universal for the class) constant times its expectation. Then, the Diffuse Price of Anarchy is at most that same constant, which is just 2 when each demand is distributed symmetrically around its expectation.","keywords":["Cost Sharing","Diffuse Price of Anarchy","Fair Pricing","Resources"],"author":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Mavronicolas, Marios","givenName":"Marios","familyName":"Mavronicolas"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Panagopoulou, Panagiota","givenName":"Panagiota","familyName":"Panagopoulou"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Spirakis, Paul G.","givenName":"Paul G.","familyName":"Spirakis"}],"position":5,"pageStart":1,"pageEnd":18,"dateCreated":"2006-05-08","datePublished":"2006-05-08","isAccessibleForFree":true,"license":"https:\/\/creativecommons.org\/licenses\/by\/4.0\/legalcode","copyrightHolder":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Mavronicolas, Marios","givenName":"Marios","familyName":"Mavronicolas"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Panagopoulou, Panagiota","givenName":"Panagiota","familyName":"Panagopoulou"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Spirakis, Paul G.","givenName":"Paul G.","familyName":"Spirakis"}],"copyrightYear":"2006","accessMode":"textual","accessModeSufficient":"textual","creativeWorkStatus":"Published","inLanguage":"en-US","sameAs":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.4230\/DagSemProc.05361.5","publisher":"Schloss Dagstuhl \u2013 Leibniz-Zentrum f\u00fcr Informatik","isPartOf":"#volume579"},{"@type":"ScholarlyArticle","@id":"#article1262","name":"Deterministic boundary recongnition and topology extraction for large sensor networks","abstract":"We present a new framework for the crucial challenge of\r\n self-organization of a large sensor network. The basic scenario can\r\n be described as follows: Given a large swarm of immobile sensor\r\n nodes that have been scattered in a polygonal region, such as a\r\n street network. Nodes have no knowledge of size or shape of the\r\n environment or the position of other nodes. Moreover, they have no\r\n way of measuring coordinates, geometric distances to other nodes, or\r\n their direction. Their only way of interacting with other nodes is\r\n to send or to receive messages from any node that is within\r\n communication range. The objective is to develop algorithms and\r\n protocols that allow self-organization of the swarm into large-scale\r\n structures that reflect the structure of the street network, setting\r\n the stage for global routing, tracking and guiding algorithms.\r\n\r\n Our algorithms work in two stages: boundary recognition and topology\r\n extraction. All steps are strictly deterministic, yield fast\r\n distributed algorithms, and make no assumption on the distribution\r\n of nodes in the environment, other than sufficient density.","keywords":["Distributed algorithms","sensor networks","boundary recognition","topology extraction"],"author":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Fekete, S\u00e1ndor","givenName":"S\u00e1ndor","familyName":"Fekete"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Kr\u00f6ller, Alexander","givenName":"Alexander","familyName":"Kr\u00f6ller"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Pfisterer, Dennis","givenName":"Dennis","familyName":"Pfisterer"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Fischer, Stefan","givenName":"Stefan","familyName":"Fischer"}],"position":6,"pageStart":1,"pageEnd":0,"dateCreated":"2006-05-08","datePublished":"2006-05-08","isAccessibleForFree":true,"license":"https:\/\/creativecommons.org\/licenses\/by\/4.0\/legalcode","copyrightHolder":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Fekete, S\u00e1ndor","givenName":"S\u00e1ndor","familyName":"Fekete"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Kr\u00f6ller, Alexander","givenName":"Alexander","familyName":"Kr\u00f6ller"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Pfisterer, Dennis","givenName":"Dennis","familyName":"Pfisterer"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Fischer, Stefan","givenName":"Stefan","familyName":"Fischer"}],"copyrightYear":"2006","accessMode":"textual","accessModeSufficient":"textual","creativeWorkStatus":"Published","inLanguage":"en-US","sameAs":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.4230\/DagSemProc.05361.6","publisher":"Schloss Dagstuhl \u2013 Leibniz-Zentrum f\u00fcr Informatik","isPartOf":"#volume579"},{"@type":"ScholarlyArticle","@id":"#article1263","name":"Force-Directed Approaches to Sensor Network Localization","abstract":"In many sensor network applications it is necessary to compute low-error localization of the sensor nodes. Although embedding a GPS unit on each node would solve the problem for many outdoor applications, the cost of this solution for large networks is prohibitively high.\r\nWe consider static and mobile network localization approaches that make use of the local neighborhood information, in the form of relative distances and angles to nearby nodes, gathered through simpler and less costly devices (RF, ultrasound based range sensors, or\r\nantenna arrays). Our algorithms do not make any assumptions about the existence of anchor nodes capable of locating themselves, nor about the knowledge of an initial localization to start with. Instead, we rely on a multi-scale force-directed approach, utilizing range and angle data through dead reckoning. We show that our localization algorithms are robust and scale well with network size.","keywords":["Sensor network localization","multi-scale force-directed approach","dead reckoning"],"author":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Kobourov, Stephen G.","givenName":"Stephen G.","familyName":"Kobourov"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Efrat, Alon","givenName":"Alon","familyName":"Efrat"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Forrester, David","givenName":"David","familyName":"Forrester"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Iyer, Anand","givenName":"Anand","familyName":"Iyer"}],"position":7,"pageStart":1,"pageEnd":11,"dateCreated":"2006-05-08","datePublished":"2006-05-08","isAccessibleForFree":true,"license":"https:\/\/creativecommons.org\/licenses\/by\/4.0\/legalcode","copyrightHolder":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Kobourov, Stephen G.","givenName":"Stephen G.","familyName":"Kobourov"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Efrat, Alon","givenName":"Alon","familyName":"Efrat"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Forrester, David","givenName":"David","familyName":"Forrester"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Iyer, Anand","givenName":"Anand","familyName":"Iyer"}],"copyrightYear":"2006","accessMode":"textual","accessModeSufficient":"textual","creativeWorkStatus":"Published","inLanguage":"en-US","sameAs":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.4230\/DagSemProc.05361.7","publisher":"Schloss Dagstuhl \u2013 Leibniz-Zentrum f\u00fcr Informatik","isPartOf":"#volume579"},{"@type":"ScholarlyArticle","@id":"#article1264","name":"Friends for Free: Self-Organizing Artificial Social Networks for Trust and Cooperation","abstract":"By harvesting friendship networks from e-mail contacts or instant message \"buddy lists\" Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications can improve performance in low trust environments such as the Internet. However, natural social networks are not always suitable, reliable or available. We propose an algorithm (SLACER) that allows peer nodes to create and manage their own friendship networks. We evaluate performance using a canonical test application, requiring cooperation between peers for socially optimal outcomes. The Artificial Social Networks (ASN) produced are connected, cooperative and robust - possessing many of the disable properties of human friendship networks such as trust between friends (directly linked peers) and short paths linking everyone via a chain of friends. In addition to new application possibilities, SLACER could supply ASN to P2P applications that currently depend on human social networks thus transforming them into fully autonomous, self-managing systems.","keywords":["Evolution of cooperation","Evolving Networks","P2P","Prisoner's Dilemma","Tags"],"author":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Hales, David","givenName":"David","familyName":"Hales"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Arteconi, Stefano","givenName":"Stefano","familyName":"Arteconi"}],"position":8,"pageStart":1,"pageEnd":20,"dateCreated":"2006-05-08","datePublished":"2006-05-08","isAccessibleForFree":true,"license":"https:\/\/creativecommons.org\/licenses\/by\/4.0\/legalcode","copyrightHolder":[{"@type":"Person","name":"Hales, David","givenName":"David","familyName":"Hales"},{"@type":"Person","name":"Arteconi, Stefano","givenName":"Stefano","familyName":"Arteconi"}],"copyrightYear":"2006","accessMode":"textual","accessModeSufficient":"textual","creativeWorkStatus":"Published","inLanguage":"en-US","sameAs":"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.4230\/DagSemProc.05361.8","publisher":"Schloss Dagstuhl \u2013 Leibniz-Zentrum f\u00fcr Informatik","isPartOf":"#volume579"}]}