22nd International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2018), OPODIS 2018, December 17-19, 2018, Hong Kong, China
OPODIS 2018
December 17-19, 2018
Hong Kong, China
International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems
OPODIS
http://www.opodis.net
https://dblp.org/db/conf/opodis
Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics
LIPIcs
https://www.dagstuhl.de/dagpub/1868-8969
https://dblp.org/db/series/lipics
1868-8969
Jiannong
Cao
Jiannong Cao
Faith
Ellen
Faith Ellen
Luis
Rodrigues
Luis Rodrigues
Bernardo
Ferreira
Bernardo Ferreira
Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik
125
2019
978-3-95977-098-9
https://www.dagstuhl.de/dagpub/978-3-95977-098-9
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization
Front Matter
Table of Contents
Preface
Conference Organization
0:i-0:xx
Front Matter
Jiannong
Cao
Jiannong Cao
Faith
Ellen
Faith Ellen
Luis
Rodrigues
Luis Rodrigues
Bernardo
Ferreira
Bernardo Ferreira
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.0
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Complexity of Multi-Valued Register Simulations: A Retrospective (Keynote)
I will provide a historical perspective on wait-free simulations of multi-bit shared registers using single-bit shared registers, starting with classical results from the last century and ending with an overview of the recent resurgence of interest in the topic. Particular emphasis will be placed on the space and step complexities of such simulations.
Distributed Systems
Theory of computation~Distributed algorithms
1:1-1:1
Keynote
Jennifer L.
Welch
Jennifer L. Welch
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, USA
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.1
Jennifer L. Welch
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Distributed Systems and Databases of the Globe Unite! The Cloud, the Edge and Blockchains (Keynote)
Significant paradigm shifts are occurring in Access patterns are widely dispersed and large scale analysis requires real-time responses. Many of the fundamental challenges have been studied and explored by both the distributed systems and the database communities for decades. However, the current changing and scalable setting often requires a rethinking of basic assumptions and premises. The rise of the cloud computing paradigm with its global reach has resulted in novel approaches to integrate traditional concepts in novel guises to solve fault-tolerance and scalability challenges. This is especially the case when users require real-time global access. Exploiting edge cloud resources becomes critical for improved performance, which requires a reevaluation of many paradigms, even for a traditional problem like caching. The need for transparency and accessibility has led to innovative ways for managing large scale replicated logs and ledgers, giving rise to blockchains and their many applications. In this talk we will be explore some of these new trends while emphasizing the novel challenges they raise from both distributed systems as well as database points of view. We will propose a unifying framework for traditional consensus and commitment protocols, and discuss novel protocols that exploit edge computing resources to enhance performance. We will highlight the advantages and discuss the limitations of blockchains. Our overall goal is to explore approaches that unite and exploit many of the significant efforts made in distributed systems and databases to address the novel and pressing needs of today's global computing infrastructure.
Consensus
Commitment
Cloud
Edge Computing
Blockchain
Theory of computation~Distributed algorithms
2:1-2:1
Keynote
Amr El
Abbadi
Amr El Abbadi
Department of Computer Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.2
Amr El Abbadi
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
How to Make Decisions (Optimally) (Keynote)
Distributed systems are constantly faced with difficult decisions to make, such as in scheduling, caching, and traffic routing, to name a few. In most of these scenarios, the optimal decision is unknown and depends heavily on context. How can a system designer know if they have deployed the best decision-making policy, or if a different policy would perform better? As a community, we have developed a few methodologies for answering this question, some of them offline (e.g., simulation, trace-driven modeling) and some of them online (e.g., A/B testing). Neither approach is satisfactory: the offline methods suffer from bias and rely heavily on domain knowledge; the online methods are costly and difficult to deploy. What system designers ideally seek is the ability to ask "what if" questions about a policy without ever deploying it, which is called counterfactual evaluation. In this talk, I will show how reinforcement learning and causal inference can be synthesized to counterfactually evaluate a distributed system. We will apply this methodology to infrastructure systems in Azure, and face fundamental challenges and opportunities along the way. This talk will serve as an introduction to reinforcement learning and the counterfactual way of thinking, which I hope will interest and inspire the OPODIS community.
I will start by introducing reinforcement learning (RL) as the right framework for modeling decisions in a distributed system. In RL, an agent learns by interacting with its environment: i.e., making decisions and receiving feedback for them. This is a stark contrast to traditional (supervised) learning, where the correct answer, or "label", is known. Since an RL agent does not know the correct answer, it must constantly explore its world by randomizing some of its decisions. Now it turns out that this randomization, if used correctly, can give us a special superpower: the ability to evaluate policies that have never been deployed. As magical as this may sound, we can use statistics to show that this evaluation is indeed correct.
Unfortunately, applying this methodology to distributed systems is far from straightforward. Systems are complex, stateful amalgamations of components that navigate large decision spaces. We will need to wear both an RL hat and a systems hat to address these challenges. On the other hand, systems also present exciting opportunities. Many systems already use randomization in their decisions, e.g., to distribute data or work over replicas, or to manage resource contention. Sometimes, a conservative decision can implicitly yield feedback for other decisions: for example, when waiting for a timeout to expire, we automatically get feedback for what would have happened if we waited for any shorter amount of time. I will show how we can harvest this randomness and implicit feedback to achieve more effective counterfactual evaluation.
We will apply all of the above ideas to two production infrastructure systems in Azure: a machine health monitor that decides when to reboot unresponsive machines, and a geo-distributed edge proxy that chooses the TCP configuration of each proxy machine. In both cases, we are able to counterfactually evaluate arbitrary policies with estimates that match the ground truth. Production environments raise interesting constraints and challenges, some of which are preventing us from scaling up our methodology. I will describe a possible path forward, and invite others in the community to contemplate these problems as well.
reinforcement learning
distributed systems
counterfactual evaluation
Computing methodologies~Reinforcement learning
Software and its engineering~Software organization and properties
3:1-3:1
Keynote
Siddhartha
Sen
Siddhartha Sen
Microsoft Research New York City, USA
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.3
Siddhartha Sen
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Sparse Matrix Multiplication and Triangle Listing in the Congested Clique Model
We show how to multiply two n x n matrices S and T over semirings in the Congested Clique model, where n nodes communicate in a fully connected synchronous network using O(log{n})-bit messages, within O(nz(S)^{1/3} nz(T)^{1/3}/n + 1) rounds of communication, where nz(S) and nz(T) denote the number of non-zero elements in S and T, respectively. By leveraging the sparsity of the input matrices, our algorithm greatly reduces communication costs compared with general multiplication algorithms [Censor-Hillel et al., PODC 2015], and thus improves upon the state-of-the-art for matrices with o(n^2) non-zero elements. Moreover, our algorithm exhibits the additional strength of surpassing previous solutions also in the case where only one of the two matrices is such. Particularly, this allows to efficiently raise a sparse matrix to a power greater than 2. As applications, we show how to speed up the computation on non-dense graphs of 4-cycle counting and all-pairs-shortest-paths.
Our algorithmic contribution is a new deterministic method of restructuring the input matrices in a sparsity-aware manner, which assigns each node with element-wise multiplication tasks that are not necessarily consecutive but guarantee a balanced element distribution, providing for communication-efficient multiplication.
Moreover, this new deterministic method for restructuring matrices may be used to restructure the adjacency matrix of input graphs, enabling faster deterministic solutions for graph related problems. As an example, we present a new sparsity aware, deterministic algorithm which solves the triangle listing problem in O(m/n^{5/3} + 1) rounds, a complexity that was previously obtained by a randomized algorithm [Pandurangan et al., SPAA 2018], and that matches the known lower bound of Omega~(n^{1/3}) when m=n^2 of [Izumi and Le Gall, PODC 2017, Pandurangan et al., SPAA 2018]. Naturally, our triangle listing algorithm also implies triangle counting within the same complexity of O(m/n^{5/3} + 1) rounds, which is (possibly more than) a cubic improvement over the previously known deterministic O(m^2/n^3)-round algorithm [Dolev et al., DISC 2012].
congested clique
matrix multiplication
triangle listing
Theory of computation~Graph algorithms analysis
Theory of computation~Distributed algorithms
4:1-4:17
Regular Paper
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research And Innovation Programe under grant agreement no. 755839. Supported in part by ISF grant 1696/14.
Some proofs are omitted from this paper and are presented in the full version, available online at [Keren Censor-Hillel et al., 2018], https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.04789.
Keren
Censor-Hillel
Keren Censor-Hillel
Department of Computer Science, Technion, Israel
Dean
Leitersdorf
Dean Leitersdorf
Department of Computer Science, Technion, Israel
Elia
Turner
Elia Turner
Department of Computer Science, Technion, Israel
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.4
Rasmus Resen Amossen and Rasmus Pagh. Faster join-projects and sparse matrix multiplications. In The 12th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT), pages 121-126, 2009.
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Grey Ballard, Aydin Buluç, James Demmel, Laura Grigori, Benjamin Lipshitz, Oded Schwartz, and Sivan Toledo. Communication optimal parallel multiplication of sparse random matrices. In Proceedings of the 25th ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, (SPAA), pages 222-231, 2013.
Grey Ballard, Alex Druinsky, Nicholas Knight, and Oded Schwartz. Hypergraph Partitioning for Sparse Matrix-Matrix Multiplication. TOPC, 3(3):18:1-18:34, 2016.
Aydin Buluç and John R. Gilbert. The Combinatorial BLAS: design, implementation, and applications. IJHPCA, 25(4):496-509, 2011.
Aydin Buluç and John R. Gilbert. Parallel Sparse Matrix-Matrix Multiplication and Indexing: Implementation and Experiments. SIAM J. Scientific Computing, 34(4), 2012.
Keren Censor-Hillel, Petteri Kaski, Janne H. Korhonen, Christoph Lenzen, Ami Paz, and Jukka Suomela. Algebraic Methods in the Congested Clique. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pages 143-152, 2015.
Keren Censor-Hillel, Dean Leitersdorf, and Elia Turner. Sparse Matrix Multiplication in the Congested Clique model, 2018. URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1802.04789.
http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1802.04789
Don Coppersmith and Shmuel Winograd. Matrix Multiplication via Arithmetic Progressions. J. Symb. Comput., 9(3):251-280, 1990.
Danny Dolev, Christoph Lenzen, and Shir Peled. "Tri, Tri Again": Finding Triangles and Small Subgraphs in a Distributed Setting - (Extended Abstract). In Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC), pages 195-209, 2012.
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Keren Censor-Hillel, Dean Leitersdorf, and Elia Turner
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Large-Scale Distributed Algorithms for Facility Location with Outliers
This paper presents fast, distributed, O(1)-approximation algorithms for metric facility location problems with outliers in the Congested Clique model, Massively Parallel Computation (MPC) model, and in the k-machine model. The paper considers Robust Facility Location and Facility Location with Penalties, two versions of the facility location problem with outliers proposed by Charikar et al. (SODA 2001). The paper also considers two alternatives for specifying the input: the input metric can be provided explicitly (as an n x n matrix distributed among the machines) or implicitly as the shortest path metric of a given edge-weighted graph. The results in the paper are:
- Implicit metric: For both problems, O(1)-approximation algorithms running in O(poly(log n)) rounds in the Congested Clique and the MPC model and O(1)-approximation algorithms running in O~(n/k) rounds in the k-machine model.
- Explicit metric: For both problems, O(1)-approximation algorithms running in O(log log log n) rounds in the Congested Clique and the MPC model and O(1)-approximation algorithms running in O~(n/k) rounds in the k-machine model.
Our main contribution is to show the existence of Mettu-Plaxton-style O(1)-approximation algorithms for both Facility Location with outlier problems. As shown in our previous work (Berns et al., ICALP 2012, Bandyapadhyay et al., ICDCN 2018) Mettu-Plaxton style algorithms are more easily amenable to being implemented efficiently in distributed and large-scale models of computation.
Distributed Algorithms
Clustering with Outliers
Metric Facility Location
Massively Parallel Computation
k-machine model
Congested Clique
Theory of computation~Facility location and clustering
Theory of computation~Distributed algorithms
Theory of computation~MapReduce algorithms
Theory of computation~Graph algorithms analysis
5:1-5:16
Regular Paper
[Tanmay Inamdar et al., 2018], http://arxiv.org/abs/1811.06494
Tanmay
Inamdar
Tanmay Inamdar
Department of Computer Science, The University of Iowa, Iowa, USA
Shreyas
Pai
Shreyas Pai
Department of Computer Science, The University of Iowa, Iowa, USA
Sriram V.
Pemmaraju
Sriram V. Pemmaraju
Department of Computer Science, The University of Iowa, Iowa, USA
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.5
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http://arxiv.org/abs/1811.06494
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Ramgopal R. Mettu and C. Greg Plaxton. The Online Median Problem. SIAM J. Comput., 32(3):816-832, March 2003. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/S0097539701383443.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/S0097539701383443
Danupon Nanongkai. Distributed approximation algorithms for weighted shortest paths. In Proceedings of the 46th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC), pages 565-573, 2014.
Gopal Pandurangan, Peter Robinson, and Michele Scquizzato. Fast Distributed Algorithms for Connectivity and MST in Large Graphs. In Proceedings of the 28th ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, SPAA '16, pages 429-438, New York, NY, USA, 2016. ACM. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2935764.2935785.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2935764.2935785
Gopal Pandurangan, Peter Robinson, and Michele Scquizzato. On the Distributed Complexity of Large-Scale Graph Computations. In Proceedings of the 30th on Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, SPAA 2018, Vienna, Austria, July 16-18, 2018, pages 405-414, 2018. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3210377.3210409.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3210377.3210409
Boaz Patt-Shamir and Marat Teplitsky. The Round Complexity of Distributed Sorting. In Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pages 249-256, 2011. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993806.1993851.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993806.1993851
Jonathan A. Silva, Elaine R. Faria, Rodrigo C. Barros, Eduardo R. Hruschka, André C. P. L. F. de Carvalho, and João Gama. Data Stream Clustering: A Survey. ACM Comput. Surv., 46(1):13:1-13:31, July 2013. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2522968.2522981.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2522968.2522981
Mikkel Thorup. Quick k-Median, k-Center, and Facility Location for Sparse Graphs. SIAM Journal on Computing, 34(2):405-432, 2005. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/S0097539701388884.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/S0097539701388884
Tanmay Inamdar, Shreyas Pai, and Sriram V. Pemmaraju
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Equilibria of Games in Networks for Local Tasks
Distributed tasks such as constructing a maximal independent set (MIS) in a network, or properly coloring the nodes or the edges of a network with reasonably few colors, are known to admit efficient distributed randomized algorithms. Those algorithms essentially proceed according to some simple generic rules, by letting each node choosing a temptative value at random, and checking whether this choice is consistent with the choices of the nodes in its vicinity. If this is the case, then the node outputs the chosen value, else it repeats the same process. Although such algorithms are, with high probability, running in a polylogarithmic number of rounds, they are not robust against actions performed by rational but selfish nodes. Indeed, such nodes may prefer specific individual outputs over others, e.g., because the formers suit better with some individual constraints. For instance, a node may prefer not being placed in a MIS as it is not willing to serve as a relay node. Similarly, a node may prefer not being assigned some radio frequencies (i.e., colors) as these frequencies would interfere with other devices running at that node. In this paper, we show that the probability distribution governing the choices of the output values in the generic algorithm can be tuned such that no nodes will rationally deviate from this distribution. More formally, and more generally, we prove that the large class of so-called LCL tasks, including MIS and coloring, admit simple "Luby's style" algorithms where the probability distribution governing the individual choices of the output values forms a Nash equilibrium. In fact, we establish the existence of a stronger form of equilibria, called symmetric trembling-hand perfect equilibria for those games.
Local distributed computing
Locally checkable labelings
Theory of computation~Distributed algorithms
Theory of computation~Algorithmic game theory
Theory of computation~Network games
6:1-6:16
Regular Paper
Simon
Collet
Simon Collet
CNRS and University Paris Diderot, France
Funded by the European Research Council (ERC) under the H2020 research and innovation program (grant No 648032).
Pierre
Fraigniaud
Pierre Fraigniaud
CNRS and University Paris Diderot, France
Additional supports from the ANR project DESCARTES, and from the Inria project GANG.
Paolo
Penna
Paolo Penna
ETH Zurich, Switzerland
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.6
Ittai Abraham, Danny Dolev, and Joseph Y. Halpern. Distributed Protocols for Leader Election: A Game-Theoretic Perspective. In 27th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC), pages 61-75, 2013. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41527-2_5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41527-2_5
Daron Acemoglu, Munther A Dahleh, Ilan Lobel, and Asuman Ozdaglar. Bayesian learning in social networks. The Review of Economic Studies, 78(4):1201-1236, 2011.
Yehuda Afek, Yehonatan Ginzberg, Shir Landau Feibish, and Moshe Sulamy. Distributed computing building blocks for rational agents. In Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pages 406-415. ACM, 2014.
Yehuda Afek, Shaked Rafaeli, and Moshe Sulamy. Cheating by Duplication: Equilibrium Requires Global Knowledge. Technical report, arXiv, 2017. URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.04728.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1711.04728
Noga Alon, László Babai, and Alon Itai. A Fast and Simple Randomized Parallel Algorithm for the Maximal Independent Set Problem. J. Algorithms, 7(4):567-583, 1986. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0196-6774(86)90019-2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0196-6774(86)90019-2
Chen Avin, Avi Cohen, Pierre Fraigniaud, Zvi Lotker, and David Peleg. Preferential Attachment as a Unique Equilibrium. In The Web Conference (WWW), New-York, 2018. ACM.
Leonid Barenboim and Michael Elkin. Distributed Graph Coloring: Fundamentals and Recent Developments. Synthesis Lectures on Distributed Computing Theory. Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2013.
A. Calvó-Armengol and J. de Martí Beltran. Information gathering in organizations: Equilibrium, welfare and optimal network structure. Journal of the European Economic Association, 7:116-161, 2009.
A. Calvó-Armengol, J. de Martí Beltran, and Prat A. Communication and influence. Theoretical Economics, 10:649-690, 2015.
Subir K Chakrabarti. Equilibrium in Behavior Strategies in Infinite Extensive Form Games with Imperfect Information. Economic Theory, 2(4):481-494, 1992.
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Drew Fudenberg and David Levine. Subgame-Perfect Equilibria of Finite- and Infinite-Horizon Games. Journal of Economic Theory, 31(2):251-268, 1983.
Andrea Galeotti, Christian Ghiglino, and Francesco Squintani. Strategic information transmission networks. J. Economic Theory, 148(5):1751-1769, 2013.
Irving L. Glicksberg. A Further Generalization of the Kakutani Fixed Point Theorem with Application to Nash Equilibrium Points. Proceedings of the AMS, 3(1):170-174, 1952.
J. Hagenbach and F. Koessler. Strategic communication networks. Review of Economic Studies, 77(3):1072-1099, 2011.
Christopher Harris. Existence and Characterization of Perfect Equilibrium in Games of Perfect Information. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 53(3):613-628, 1985.
Matthew O. Jackson, Brian W. Rogers, and Yves Zenou. Networks: An Economic Perspective. Technical report, arXiv, 2016.
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Fabian Kuhn, Thomas Moscibroda, and Roger Wattenhofer. Radio Network Clustering from Scratch. In 12th European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA), LNCS 3221, pages 460-471. Springer, 2004.
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Thomas Moscibroda and Roger Wattenhofer. Maximal independent sets in radio networks. In 24th Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pages 148-157. ACM, 2005. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1073814.1073842.
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Reinhard Selten. Reexamination of the Perfectness Concept for Equilibrium Points in Extensive Games. International journal of game theory, 4(1):25-55, 1975.
Simon Collet, Pierre Fraigniaud, and Paolo Penna
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
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The Sparsest Additive Spanner via Multiple Weighted BFS Trees
Spanners are fundamental graph structures that sparsify graphs at the cost of small stretch. In particular, in recent years, many sequential algorithms constructing additive all-pairs spanners were designed, providing very sparse small-stretch subgraphs. Remarkably, it was then shown that the known (+6)-spanner constructions are essentially the sparsest possible, that is, larger additive stretch cannot guarantee a sparser spanner, which brought the stretch-sparsity trade-off to its limit. Distributed constructions of spanners are also abundant. However, for additive spanners, while there were algorithms constructing (+2) and (+4)-all-pairs spanners, the sparsest case of (+6)-spanners remained elusive.
We remedy this by designing a new sequential algorithm for constructing a (+6)-spanner with the essentially-optimal sparsity of O~(n^{4/3}) edges. We then show a distributed implementation of our algorithm, answering an open problem in [Keren Censor{-}Hillel et al., 2016].
A main ingredient in our distributed algorithm is an efficient construction of multiple weighted BFS trees. A weighted BFS tree is a BFS tree in a weighted graph, that consists of the lightest among all shortest paths from the root to each node. We present a distributed algorithm in the CONGEST model, that constructs multiple weighted BFS trees in |S|+D-1 rounds, where S is the set of sources and D is the diameter of the network graph.
Distributed graph algorithms
congest model
weighted BFS trees
additive spanners
Theory of computation~Distributed computing models
Theory of computation~Sparsification and spanners
Theory of computation~Shortest paths
7:1-7:16
Regular Paper
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research And Innovation Programe under grant agreement no. 755839, and also partially supported by ISF individual research grant 1696/14. Ami Paz was supported by the Fondation Sciences Mathématiques de Paris (FSMP).
The full version of this paper is available on the arXiv [Keren Censor{-}Hillel et al., 2018], https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.01997.
Keren
Censor-Hillel
Keren Censor-Hillel
Department of Computer Science, Technion, Haifa, Israel
Ami
Paz
Ami Paz
IRIF, CNRS and Paris Diderot University, Paris, France
Noam
Ravid
Noam Ravid
Department of Computer Science, Technion, Haifa, Israel
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.7
Amir Abboud and Greg Bodwin. Error Amplification for Pairwise Spanner Lower Bounds. In 27th Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, SODA, pages 841-854, 2016.
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Amir Abboud, Keren Censor-Hillel, and Seri Khoury. Near-Linear Lower Bounds for Distributed Distance Computations, Even in Sparse Networks. In 30th International Symposium on Distributed Computing, DISC, pages 29-42, 2016.
Udit Agarwal, Vijaya Ramachandran, Valerie King, and Matteo Pontecorvi. A Deterministic Distributed Algorithm for Exact Weighted All-Pairs Shortest Paths in Õ(n^3/2) Rounds. In ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC, pages 199-205, 2018.
Baruch Awerbuch. Optimal Distributed Algorithms for Minimum Weight Spanning Tree, Counting, Leader Election and Related Problems. In ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC, pages 230-240, 1987.
Surender Baswana, Telikepalli Kavitha, Kurt Mehlhorn, and Seth Pettie. Additive spanners and (alpha, beta)-spanners. ACM Trans. Algorithms, 7(1):5, 2010.
Surender Baswana and Sandeep Sen. A simple and linear time randomized algorithm for computing sparse spanners in weighted graphs. Random Struct. Algorithms, 30(4):532-563, 2007.
Keren Censor-Hillel and Michal Dory. Distributed Spanner Approximation. In ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC, pages 139-148, 2018.
Keren Censor-Hillel, Bernhard Haeupler, Jonathan A. Kelner, and Petar Maymounkov. Global computation in a poorly connected world: fast rumor spreading with no dependence on conductance. In 44th Symposium on Theory of Computing Conference, STOC, pages 961-970, 2012.
Keren Censor-Hillel, Telikepalli Kavitha, Ami Paz, and Amir Yehudayoff. Distributed Construction of Purely Additive Spanners. In 30th International Symposium on Distributed Computing, DISC, pages 129-142, 2016.
Keren Censor-Hillel, Ami Paz, and Noam Ravid. The Sparsest Additive Spanner via Multiple Weighted BFS Trees. CoRR, abs/1811.01997, 2018. URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1811.01997.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1811.01997
Shiri Chechik. Compact routing schemes with improved stretch. In ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC, pages 33-41, 2013.
Atish Das Sarma, Stephan Holzer, Liah Kor, Amos Korman, Danupon Nanongkai, Gopal Pandurangan, David Peleg, and Roger Wattenhofer. Distributed Verification and Hardness of Distributed Approximation. SIAM J. Comput., 41(5):1235-1265, 2012.
Bilel Derbel and Cyril Gavoille. Fast deterministic distributed algorithms for sparse spanners. Theor. Comput. Sci., 399(1-2):83-100, 2008.
Bilel Derbel, Cyril Gavoille, and David Peleg. Deterministic Distributed Construction of Linear Stretch Spanners in Polylogarithmic Time. In 21st International Symposium on Distributed Computing, DISC, pages 179-192, 2007.
Bilel Derbel, Cyril Gavoille, David Peleg, and Laurent Viennot. On the locality of distributed sparse spanner construction. In 27th Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC, pages 273-282, 2008.
Bilel Derbel, Cyril Gavoille, David Peleg, and Laurent Viennot. Local Computation of Nearly Additive Spanners. In International Symposium on Distributed Computing, DISC, pages 176-190, 2009.
Devdatt P. Dubhashi, Alessandro Mei, Alessandro Panconesi, Jaikumar Radhakrishnan, and Aravind Srinivasan. Fast distributed algorithms for (weakly) connected dominating sets and linear-size skeletons. J. Comput. Syst. Sci., 71(4):467-479, 2005.
Michael Elkin. Computing almost shortest paths. ACM Trans. Algorithms, 1(2):283-323, 2005.
Michael Elkin. Distributed exact shortest paths in sublinear time. In ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC, pages 757-770, 2017.
Michael Elkin and Ofer Neiman. Hopsets with Constant Hopbound, and Applications to Approximate Shortest Paths. In IEEE 57th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS, pages 128-137, 2016.
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Robert G. Gallager, Pierre A. Humblet, and Philip M. Spira. A Distributed Algorithm for Minimum-Weight Spanning Trees. ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst., 5(1):66-77, 1983.
Mohsen Ghaffari and Fabian Kuhn. Derandomizing Distributed Algorithms with Small Messages: Spanners and Dominating Set. In International Symposium on Distributed Computing, DISC, volume 121 of LIPIcs, pages 29:1-29:17, 2018.
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Ofer Grossman and Merav Parter. Improved Deterministic Distributed Construction of Spanners. In 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing, DISC, pages 24:1-24:16, 2017.
Monika Henzinger, Sebastian Krinninger, and Danupon Nanongkai. A deterministic almost-tight distributed algorithm for approximating single-source shortest paths. In ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC, pages 489-498, 2016.
Stephan Holzer. Personal communication.
Stephan Holzer, David Peleg, Liam Roditty, and Roger Wattenhofer. Distributed 3/2-Approximation of the Diameter. In 28th International Symposium on Distributed Computing, DISC, pages 562-564, 2014.
Stephan Holzer and Roger Wattenhofer. Optimal distributed all pairs shortest paths and applications. In ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC, pages 355-364, 2012.
Chien-Chung Huang, Danupon Nanongkai, and Thatchaphol Saranurak. Distributed Exact Weighted All-Pairs Shortest Paths in Õ(n^5/4) Rounds. In 58th IEEE Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS, pages 168-179, 2017.
Telikepalli Kavitha. New Pairwise Spanners. In 32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, STACS, pages 513-526, 2015.
Mathias Bæk Tejs Knudsen. Additive Spanners: A Simple Construction. In 14th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory, SWAT, pages 277-281, 2014.
Christoph Lenzen, Boaz Patt-Shamir, and David Peleg. Distributed distance computation and routing with small messages. Distributed Computing, pages 1-25, 2018.
Christoph Lenzen and David Peleg. Efficient distributed source detection with limited bandwidth. In ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC, pages 375-382, 2013.
Zvi Lotker, Boaz Patt-Shamir, and Seth Pettie. Improved Distributed Approximate Matching. J. ACM, 62(5):38:1-38:17, 2015.
Danupon Nanongkai. Distributed approximation algorithms for weighted shortest paths. In Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC, pages 565-573, 2014.
Merav Parter. Vertex fault tolerant additive spanners. Distributed Computing, 30(5):357-372, 2017.
Merav Parter and Eylon Yogev. Congested Clique Algorithms for Graph Spanners. In International Symposium on Distributed Computing, DISC, volume 121 of LIPIcs, pages 40:1-40:18, 2018.
David Peleg. Distributed Computing: A Locality-Sensitive Approach. Monographs on Discrete Mathematics and Applications. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2000.
David Peleg and Alejandro A. Schäffer. Graph spanners. Journal of Graph Theory, 13(1):99-116, 1989.
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Seth Pettie. Distributed algorithms for ultrasparse spanners and linear size skeletons. Distributed Computing, 22(3):147-166, 2010.
Mikkel Thorup and Uri Zwick. Compact routing schemes. In ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, SPAA, pages 1-10, 2001.
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Keren Censor-Hillel, Ami Paz, and Noam Ravid
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
The Amortized Analysis of a Non-blocking Chromatic Tree
A non-blocking chromatic tree is a type of balanced binary search tree where multiple processes can concurrently perform search and update operations. We prove that a certain implementation has amortized cost O(dot{c} + log n) for each operation, where dot{c} is the maximum number of concurrent operations at any point during the execution and n is the maximum number of keys in the tree during the operation. This amortized analysis presents new challenges compared to existing analyses of other non-blocking data structures.
amortized analysis
non-blocking
lock-free
balanced binary search trees
Theory of computation~Data structures design and analysis
Theory of computation~Distributed algorithms
8:1-8:17
Regular Paper
Funding was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
A full version is available at https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.06383.
Jeremy
Ko
Jeremy Ko
Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Canada
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.8
Hagit Attiya and Jennifer Welch. Distributed Computing: Fundamentals, Simulations, and Advanced Topics. Wiley-Interscience, 2nd edition, 2004.
Joan Boyar, Rolf Fagerberg, and Kim S. Larsen. Amortization Results for Chromatic Search Trees, with an Application to Priority Queues. In Proceedings of Algorithms and Data Structures, 4th International Workshop (WADS), pages 270-281, 1995. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-60220-8_69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-60220-8_69
Trevor Brown. Techniques for Constructing Efficient Lock-Free Data Structures. PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, 2017.
Trevor Brown, Faith Ellen, and Eric Ruppert. Pragmatic primitives for non-blocking data structures. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pages 13-22, 2013. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2484239.2484273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2484239.2484273
Trevor Brown, Faith Ellen, and Eric Ruppert. A general technique for non-blocking trees. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming (PPoPP), pages 329-342, 2014. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2555243.2555267.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2555243.2555267
Bapi Chatterjee, Nhan Nguyen Dang, and Philippas Tsigas. Efficient lock-free binary search trees. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pages 322-331, 2014. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2611462.2611500.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2611462.2611500
Faith Ellen, Panagiota Fatourou, Joanna Helga, and Eric Ruppert. The amortized complexity of non-blocking binary search trees. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pages 332-340, 2014. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2611462.2611486.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2611462.2611486
Faith Ellen, Panagiota Fatourou, Eric Ruppert, and Franck van Breugel. Non-blocking binary search trees. In Proceedings of the 29th Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pages 131-140, 2010. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1835698.1835736.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1835698.1835736
Mikhail Fomitchev and Eric Ruppert. Lock-free linked lists and skip lists. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pages 50-59, 2004. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1011767.1011776.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1011767.1011776
Joel Gibson and Vincent Gramoli. Why Non-blocking Operations Should be Selfish. In Proceedings of the Distributed Computing - 29th International Symposium (DISC), pages 200-214, 2015. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48653-5_14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48653-5_14
Timothy L. Harris. A Pragmatic Implementation of Non-blocking Linked-Lists. In Proceedings of the Distributed Computing, 15th International Conference (DISC), pages 300-314, 2001. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45414-4_21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45414-4_21
Otto Nurmi and Eljas Soisalon-Soininen. Chromatic Binary Search Trees. A Structure for Concurrent Rebalancing. Acta Inf., 33(6):547-557, 1996. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03036462.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03036462
Niloufar Shafiei. Non-Blocking Doubly-Linked Lists with Good Amortized Complexity. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS), pages 35:1-35:17, 2015. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2015.35.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2015.35
Jeremy Ko
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Lock-Free Search Data Structures: Throughput Modeling with Poisson Processes
This paper considers the modeling and the analysis of the performance of lock-free concurrent search data structures. Our analysis considers such lock-free data structures that are utilized through a sequence of operations which are generated with a memoryless and stationary access pattern. Our main contribution is a new way of analyzing lock-free concurrent search data structures: our execution model matches with the behavior that we observe in practice and achieves good throughput predictions.
Search data structures are formed of basic blocks, usually referred to as nodes, which can be accessed by two kinds of events, characterized by their latencies; (i) CAS events originated as a result of modifications of the search data structure (ii) Read events that occur during traversals. An operation triggers a set of events, and the running time of an operation is computed as the sum of the latencies of these events. We identify the factors that impact the latency of such events on a multi-core shared memory system. The main challenge (though not the only one) is that the latency of each event mainly depends on the state of the caches at the time when it is triggered, and the state of caches is changing due to events that are triggered by the operations of any thread in the system. Accordingly, the latency of an event is determined by the ordering of the events on the timeline.
Search data structures are usually designed to accommodate a large number of nodes, which makes the occurrence of an event on a given node rare at any given time. In this context, we model the events on each node as Poisson processes from which we can extract the frequency and probabilistic ordering of events that are used to estimate the expected latency of an operation, and in turn the throughput. We have validated our analysis on several fundamental lock-free search data structures such as linked lists, hash tables, skip lists and binary trees.
Lock-free
Search Data Structures
Performance
Modeling
Analysis
Theory of computation~Concurrency
9:1-9:16
Regular Paper
Aras
Atalar
Aras Atalar
Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296 Göteborg, Sweden
Paul
Renaud-Goud
Paul Renaud-Goud
Informatics Research Institute of Toulouse, F-31062 Toulouse, France
Philippas
Tsigas
Philippas Tsigas
Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296 Göteborg, Sweden
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.9
Dan Alistarh, Keren Censor-Hillel, and Nir Shavit. Are lock-free concurrent algorithms practically wait-free? In David B. Shmoys, editor, STOC, pages 714-723. ACM, June 2014.
Aras Atalar, Paul Renaud-Goud, and Philippas Tsigas. Analyzing the Performance of Lock-Free Data Structures: A Conflict-Based Model. In DISC, pages 341-355. Springer, 2015.
Aras Atalar, Paul Renaud-Goud, and Philippas Tsigas. How Lock-free Data Structures Perform in Dynamic Environments: Models and Analyses. In OPODIS, pages 23:1-23:17, 2016.
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http://arxiv.org/abs/1805.04794
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Maurice Herlihy. A Methodology for Implementing Highly Concurrent Objects. TOPLAS, 15(5):745-770, 1993.
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Aras Atalar, Paul Renaud-Goud, and Philippas Tsigas
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Concurrent Robin Hood Hashing
In this paper we examine the issues involved in adding concurrency to the Robin Hood hash table algorithm. We present a non-blocking obstruction-free K-CAS Robin Hood algorithm which requires only a single word compare-and-swap primitive, thus making it highly portable. The implementation maintains the attractive properties of the original Robin Hood structure, such as a low expected probe length, capability to operate effectively under a high load factor and good cache locality, all of which are essential for high performance on modern computer architectures. We compare our data-structures to various other lock-free and concurrent algorithms, as well as a simple hardware transactional variant, and show that our implementation performs better across a number of contexts.
concurrency
Robin Hood Hashing
data-structures
hash tables
non-blocking
Computing methodologies~Concurrent algorithms
10:1-10:16
Regular Paper
Funded by the Government of Ireland Postgraduate Scholarship.
https://github.com/DaKellyFella/concurrent-robin-hood-hashing
https://arxiv.org/abs/1809.04339
Robert
Kelly
Robert Kelly
Maynooth University Department of Computer Science, Maynooth, Ireland
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8266-2961
Barak A.
Pearlmutter
Barak A. Pearlmutter
Maynooth University Department of Computer Science and Hamilton Institute, Maynooth, Ireland
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0521-4553
Phil
Maguire
Phil Maguire
Maynooth University Department of Computer Science, Maynooth, Ireland
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8993-8403
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.10
D. Alistarh, W. Leiserson, A. Matveev, and N. Shavit. ThreadScan: Automatic and Scalable Memory Reclamation. In SPAA, 2015.
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M. Batty. The C11 and C++11 Concurrency Model. http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mjb220/thesis/thesis.pdf. Accessed: 2017-05-04.
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T. Brown. A Template for Implementing Fast Lock-free Trees Using HTM. In PODC, 2017.
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C. Click. Lock-Free/Wait-Free Hash Table. http://web.stanford.edu/class/ee380/Abstracts/070221_LockFreeHash.pdf. Accessed: 2017-05-04.
http://web.stanford.edu/class/ee380/Abstracts/070221_LockFreeHash.pdf
N. Cohen and E. Petrank. Efficient memory management for lock-free data structures with optimistic access. In Proceedings of the 27th ACM symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, pages 254-263. ACM, 2015.
T. Cormen, C. Stein, R. Rivest, and C. Leiserson. Introduction to Algorithms. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2nd edition, 2001.
U. Drepper. What Every Programmer Should Know About Memory, 2007.
J. Evans. JEMalloc, Retrieved 2018-08-06. Available at https://github.com/jemalloc/jemalloc.
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K. Fraser. Practical lock-freedom. Technical report, University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory, 2004.
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T. Harris. A Pragmatic Implementation of Non-blocking Linked-Lists. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing, DISC, 2001.
T. Harris, K. Fraser, and I. Pratt. A Practical Multi-word Compare-and-Swap Operation. In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Distributed Computing, DISC '02, pages 265-279, London, UK, UK, 2002. Springer-Verlag.
M. Herlihy, V. Luchangco, and M. Moir. Obstruction-Free Synchronization: Double-Ended Queues As an Example. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, ICDCS '03. IEEE Computer Society, 2003.
M. Herlihy and J. Moss. Transactional Memory: Architectural Support for Lock-free Data Structures. In Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture, ISCA '93. ACM, 1993.
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M. Herlihy, N. Shavit, and M. Tzafrir. Hopscotch Hashing. In DISC '08: Proceedings of the 22nd international symposium on Distributed Computing, pages 350-364, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008. Springer-Verlag. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-87779-0_24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-87779-0_24
M. Herlihy and J. Wing. Linearizability: A Correctness Condition for Concurrent Objects. ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst., 12(3):463-492, July 1990.
R. Kelly. Source Code For Lock-Free Robin Hood Benchmark. https://github.com/DaKellyFella/concurrent-robin-hood-hashing. Accessed: 2018-11-14.
https://github.com/DaKellyFella/concurrent-robin-hood-hashing
K. Rustan M. Leino and Peter Müller. A Basis for Verifying Multi-threaded Programs, pages 378-393. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
M. Michael. High performance dynamic lock-free hash tables and list-based sets. In Proceedings of the fourteenth annual ACM symposium on Parallel algorithms and architectures, SPAA. ACM, 2002.
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J. Nielsen and S. Karlsson. A Scalable Lock-free Hash Table with Open Addressing. SIGPLAN Not., 51(8):33:1-33:2, February 2016.
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https://www.jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=133
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C. Purcell and T. Harris. Non-blocking Hashtables with Open Addressing, pages 108-121. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
R. Rajwar and J. Goodman. Speculative lock elision: Enabling highly concurrent multithreaded execution. In Proceedings of the 34th annual ACM/IEEE international symposium on Microarchitecture, pages 294-305. IEEE Computer Society, 2001.
O. Shalev and N. Shavit. Split-Ordered Lists: Lock-Free Extensible Hash Tables. In Proceedings of the 22nd Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), 2003.
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Robert Kelly, Barak A. Pearlmutter, and Phil Maguire
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Parallel Combining: Benefits of Explicit Synchronization
A parallel batched data structure is designed to process synchronized batches of operations on the data structure using a parallel program. In this paper, we propose parallel combining, a technique that implements a concurrent data structure from a parallel batched one. The idea is that we explicitly synchronize concurrent operations into batches: one of the processes becomes a combiner which collects concurrent requests and initiates a parallel batched algorithm involving the owners (clients) of the collected requests. Intuitively, the cost of synchronizing the concurrent calls can be compensated by running the parallel batched algorithm.
We validate the intuition via two applications. First, we use parallel combining to design a concurrent data structure optimized for read-dominated workloads, taking a dynamic graph data structure as an example. Second, we use a novel parallel batched priority queue to build a concurrent one. In both cases, we obtain performance gains with respect to the state-of-the-art algorithms.
concurrent data structure
parallel batched data structure
combining
Computing methodologies~Concurrent computing methodologies
Computing methodologies~Parallel computing methodologies
Theory of computation~Distributed computing models
Theory of computation~Parallel computing models
11:1-11:16
Regular Paper
The full version of the paper is available at [Vitaly Aksenov et al., 2018], http://arxiv.org/abs/1710.07588.
Vitaly
Aksenov
Vitaly Aksenov
ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia and Inria, Paris, France
This work was financially supported by the Government of Russian Federation (Grant 08-08)
Petr
Kuznetsov
Petr Kuznetsov
LTCI, Télécom ParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Paris, France
Anatoly
Shalyto
Anatoly Shalyto
ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.11
Umut A. Acar, Vitaly Aksenov, and Sam Westrick. Brief Announcement: Parallel Dynamic Tree Contraction via Self-Adjusting Computation. In SPAA, pages 275-277. ACM, 2017.
Kunal Agrawal, Jeremy T Fineman, Kefu Lu, Brendan Sheridan, Jim Sukha, and Robert Utterback. Provably good scheduling for parallel programs that use data structures through implicit batching. In SPAA, pages 84-95. ACM, 2014.
Vitaly Aksenov, Petr Kuznetsov, and Anatoly Shalyto. Parallel Combining: Benefits of Explicit Synchronization. CoRR, abs/1710.07588, 2018. URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1710.07588.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1710.07588
Guy E Blelloch, Daniel Ferizovic, and Yihan Sun. Just join for parallel ordered sets. In SPAA, pages 253-264. ACM, 2016.
Robert D Blumofe and Charles E Leiserson. Scheduling multithreaded computations by work stealing. Journal of the ACM (JACM), 46(5):720-748, 1999.
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http://www.openmp.org
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Anastasia Braginsky, Nachshon Cohen, and Erez Petrank. CBPQ: High performance lock-free priority queue. In Euro-Par, pages 460-474. Springer, 2016.
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Armando Castañeda, Sergio Rajsbaum, and Michel Raynal. Specifying Concurrent Problems: Beyond Linearizability and up to Tasks. In DISC, pages 420-435, 2015.
Thomas H Cormen, Charles Eric Leiserson, Ronald L Rivest, and Clifford Stein. Introduction to algorithms. The MIT press, 3rd edition, 2009.
Travis Craig. Building FIFO and priorityqueuing spin locks from atomic swap. Technical report, Technical Report TR 93-02-02, University of Washington, 02 1993., 1993.
Narsingh Deo and Sushil Prasad. Parallel heap: An optimal parallel priority queue. The Journal of Supercomputing, 6(1):87-98, 1992.
Dana Drachsler-Cohen and Erez Petrank. LCD: Local Combining on Demand. In OPODIS, pages 355-371. Springer, 2014.
Panagiota Fatourou and Nikolaos D Kallimanis. A highly-efficient wait-free universal construction. In SPAA, pages 325-334. ACM, 2011.
Panagiota Fatourou and Nikolaos D Kallimanis. Revisiting the combining synchronization technique. In ACM SIGPLAN Notices, volume 47, pages 257-266. ACM, 2012.
Matteo Frigo, Charles E Leiserson, and Keith H Randall. The implementation of the Cilk-5 multithreaded language. ACM Sigplan Notices, 33(5):212-223, 1998.
Phillip B Gibbons. A more practical PRAM model. In SPAA, pages 158-168. ACM, 1989.
Gaston H Gonnet and J Ian Munro. Heaps on heaps. SIAM Journal on Computing, 15(4):964-971, 1986.
Rajiv Gupta and Charles R Hill. A scalable implementation of barrier synchronization using an adaptive combining tree. International Journal of Parallel Programming, 18(3):161-180, 1989.
Danny Hendler, Itai Incze, Nir Shavit, and Moran Tzafrir. Flat combining and the synchronization-parallelism tradeoff. In SPAA, pages 355-364, 2010.
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Maurice Herlihy and Jeannette M. Wing. Linearizability: A Correctness Condition for Concurrent Objects. ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst., 12(3):463-492, 1990.
Jacob Holm, Kristian De Lichtenberg, and Mikkel Thorup. Poly-logarithmic deterministic fully-dynamic algorithms for connectivity, minimum spanning tree, 2-edge, and biconnectivity. Journal of the ACM (JACM), 48(4):723-760, 2001.
Brandon Holt, Jacob Nelson, Brandon Myers, Preston Briggs, Luis Ceze, Simon Kahan, and Mark Oskin. Flat combining synchronized global data structures. In 7th International Conference on PGAS Programming Models, page 76, 2013.
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Jonatan Lindén and Bengt Jonsson. A skiplist-based concurrent priority queue with minimal memory contention. In International Conference On Principles Of Distributed Systems, pages 206-220. Springer, 2013.
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Yoshihiro Oyama, Kenjiro Taura, and Akinori Yonezawa. Executing parallel programs with synchronization bottlenecks efficiently. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Computing for Symbolic and Irregular Applications, volume 16, 1999.
Maria Cristina Pinotti and Geppino Pucci. Parallel priority queues. Information Processing Letters, 40(1):33-40, 1991.
Peter Sanders. Randomized priority queues for fast parallel access. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 49(1):86-97, 1998.
Nir Shavit and Itay Lotan. Skiplist-based concurrent priority queues. In IPDPS, pages 263-268. IEEE, 2000.
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Leslie G Valiant. A bridging model for parallel computation. Communications of the ACM, 33(8):103-111, 1990.
Pen-Chung Y, Nian-Feng T, et al. Distributing hot-spot addressing in large-scale multiprocessors. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 100(4):388-395, 1987.
Vitaly Aksenov, Petr Kuznetsov, and Anatoly Shalyto
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Specification and Implementation of Replicated List: The Jupiter Protocol Revisited
The replicated list object is frequently used to model the core functionality of replicated collaborative text editing systems. Since 1989, the convergence property has been a common specification of a replicated list object. Recently, Attiya et al. proposed the strong/weak list specification and conjectured that the well-known Jupiter protocol satisfies the weak list specification. The major obstacle to proving this conjecture is the mismatch between the global property on all replica states prescribed by the specification and the local view each replica maintains in Jupiter using data structures like 1D buffer or 2D state space. To address this issue, we propose CJupiter (Compact Jupiter) based on a novel data structure called n-ary ordered state space for a replicated client/server system with n clients. At a high level, CJupiter maintains only a single n-ary ordered state space which encompasses exactly all states of each replica. We prove that CJupiter and Jupiter are equivalent and that CJupiter satisfies the weak list specification, thus solving the conjecture above.
Collaborative text editing systems
Replicated list
Concurrency control
Strong/weak list specification
Operational transformation
Jupiter protocol
Computing methodologies~Distributed computing methodologies
Software and its engineering~Correctness
Human-centered computing~Collaborative and social computing systems and tools
12:1-12:16
Regular Paper
This work is supported by the National 973 Program of China (No. 2015CB352202) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61690204, 61702253).
A full version is available at [Hengfeng Wei et al., 2017], https://arxiv.org/abs/1708.04754.
Hengfeng
Wei
Hengfeng Wei
State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
Yu
Huang
Yu Huang
State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
Contact Author.
Jian
Lu
Jian Lu
State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.12
Apache Wave. URL: https://incubator.apache.org/wave/.
https://incubator.apache.org/wave/
Google Docs. URL: https://docs.google.com.
https://docs.google.com
What’s different about the new Google Docs: Making collaboration fast. URL: https://drive.googleblog.com/2010/09/whats-different-about-new-google-docs.html.
https://drive.googleblog.com/2010/09/whats-different-about-new-google-docs.html
Apache Wave (incubating) Protocol Documentation (Release 0.4), August 22, 2015.
Hagit Attiya, Sebastian Burckhardt, Alexey Gotsman, Adam Morrison, Hongseok Yang, and Marek Zawirski. Specification and complexity of collaborative text editing. In Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC '16, pages 259-268. ACM, 2016.
Hagit Attiya, Faith Ellen, and Adam Morrison. Limitations of Highly-Available Eventually-Consistent Data Stores. In Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC '15, pages 385-394. ACM, 2015.
Sebastian Burckhardt, Alexey Gotsman, Hongseok Yang, and Marek Zawirski. Replicated Data Types: Specification, Verification, Optimality. In Proceedings of the 41st ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, POPL '14, pages 271-284. ACM, 2014.
C. A. Ellis and S. J. Gibbs. Concurrency Control in Groupware Systems. In Proceedings of the 1989 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, SIGMOD '89, pages 399-407. ACM, 1989.
Abdessamad Imine, Michaël Rusinowitch, Gérald Oster, and Pascal Molli. Formal Design and Verification of Operational Transformation Algorithms for Copies Convergence. Theor. Comput. Sci., 351(2):167-183, February 2006.
Leslie Lamport. Time, Clocks, and the Ordering of Events in a Distributed System. Commun. ACM, 21(7):558-565, July 1978.
Bo Leuf and Ward Cunningham. The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Boston, MA, USA, 2001.
Rui Li, Du Li, and Chengzheng Sun. A Time Interval Based Consistency Control Algorithm for Interactive Groupware Applications. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems, ICPADS '04, pages 429-438, 2004.
David A. Nichols, Pavel Curtis, Michael Dixon, and John Lamping. High-latency, Low-bandwidth Windowing in the Jupiter Collaboration System. In Proceedings of the 8th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface and Software Technology, UIST '95, pages 111-120. ACM, 1995.
Atul Prakash and Michael J. Knister. A Framework for Undoing Actions in Collaborative Systems. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., 1(4):295-330, December 1994.
Matthias Ressel, Doris Nitsche-Ruhland, and Rul Gunzenhäuser. An Integrating, Transformation-oriented Approach to Concurrency Control and Undo in Group Editors. In Proceedings of the 1996 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW '96, pages 288-297. ACM, 1996.
Hyun-Gul Roh, Myeongjae Jeon, Jin-Soo Kim, and Joonwon Lee. Replicated Abstract Data Types: Building Blocks for Collaborative Applications. J. Parallel Distrib. Comput., 71(3):354-368, March 2011.
Marc Shapiro, Nuno Preguiça, Carlos Baquero, and Marek Zawirski. Conflict-free Replicated Data Types. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems, SSS'11, pages 386-400. Springer-Verlag, 2011.
Haifeng Shen and Chengzheng Sun. Flexible Notification for Collaborative Systems. In Proceedings of the 2002 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW '02, pages 77-86. ACM, 2002.
Chengzheng Sun. Undo As Concurrent Inverse in Group Editors. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., 9(4):309-361, December 2002.
Chengzheng Sun and Clarence Ellis. Operational Transformation in Real-time Group Editors: Issues, Algorithms, and Achievements. In Proceedings of the 1998 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW '98, pages 59-68. ACM, 1998.
Chengzheng Sun, Xiaohua Jia, Yanchun Zhang, Yun Yang, and David Chen. Achieving Convergence, Causality Preservation, and Intention Preservation in Real-time Cooperative Editing Systems. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., 5(1):63-108, March 1998.
Chengzheng Sun, Yi Xu, and Agustina Agustina. Exhaustive Search of Puzzles in Operational Transformation. In Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW '14, pages 519-529. ACM, 2014.
David Sun and Chengzheng Sun. Context-Based Operational Transformation in Distributed Collaborative Editing Systems. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., 20(10):1454-1470, October 2009.
Nicolas Vidot, Michelle Cart, Jean Ferrié, and Maher Suleiman. Copies Convergence in a Distributed Real-time Collaborative Environment. In Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW '00, pages 171-180. ACM, 2000.
Hengfeng Wei, Yu Huang, and Jian Lu. Specification and Implementation of Replicated List: The Jupiter Protocol Revisited. CoRR, abs/1708.04754, 2017.
Yi Xu, Chengzheng Sun, and Mo Li. Achieving Convergence in Operational Transformation: Conditions, Mechanisms and Systems. In Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW '14, pages 505-518. ACM, 2014.
Hengfeng Wei, Yu Huang, and Jian Lu
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Local Fast Segment Rerouting on Hypercubes
Fast rerouting is an essential mechanism in any dependable communication network, allowing to quickly, i.e., locally, recover from network failures, without invoking the control plane. However, while locality ensures a fast reaction, the absence of global information also renders the design of highly resilient fast rerouting algorithms more challenging. In this paper, we study algorithms for fast rerouting in emerging Segment Routing (SR) networks, where intermediate destinations can be added to packets by nodes along the path. Our main contribution is a maximally resilient polynomial-time fast rerouting algorithm for SR networks based on a hypercube topology. Our algorithm is attractive as it preserves the original paths (and hence waypoints traversed along the way), and does not require packets to carry failure information. We complement our results with an integer linear program formulation for general graphs and exploratory simulation results.
segment routing
local fast failover
link failures
Networks~Routing protocols
Networks~Network reliability
Theory of computation~Design and analysis of algorithms
13:1-13:17
Regular Paper
Klaus-Tycho
Foerster
Klaus-Tycho Foerster
University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4635-4480
Mahmoud
Parham
Mahmoud Parham
University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6211-077X
Contact and main author.
Stefan
Schmid
Stefan Schmid
University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7798-1711
Tao
Wen
Tao Wen
University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0772-5296
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.13
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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
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Effects of Topology Knowledge and Relay Depth on Asynchronous Appoximate Consensus
Consider a point-to-point message-passing network. We are interested in the asynchronous crash-tolerant consensus problem in incomplete networks. We study the feasibility and efficiency of approximate consensus under different restrictions on topology knowledge and the relay depth, i.e., the maximum number of hops any message can be relayed. These two constraints are common in large-scale networks, and are used to avoid memory overload and network congestion respectively. Specifically, for positive integer values k and k', we consider that each node knows all its neighbors of at most k-hop distance (k-hop topology knowledge), and the relay depth is k'. We consider both directed and undirected graphs. More concretely, we answer the following question in asynchronous systems: "What is a tight condition on the underlying communication graphs for achieving approximate consensus if each node has only a k-hop topology knowledge and relay depth k'?" To prove that the necessary conditions presented in the paper are also sufficient, we have developed algorithms that achieve consensus in graphs satisfying those conditions:
- The first class of algorithms requires k-hop topology knowledge and relay depth k. Unlike prior algorithms, these algorithms do not flood the network, and each node does not need the full topology knowledge. We show how the convergence time and the message complexity of those algorithms is affected by k, providing the respective upper bounds.
- The second set of algorithms requires only one-hop neighborhood knowledge, i.e., immediate incoming and outgoing neighbors, but needs to flood the network (i.e., relay depth is n, where n is the number of nodes). One result that may be of independent interest is a topology discovery mechanism to learn and "estimate" the topology in asynchronous directed networks with crash faults.
Asynchrony
crash
consensus
incomplete graphs
topology knowledge
Computer systems organization~Fault-tolerant network topologies
14:1-14:16
Regular Paper
A full version of the paper is available at [Dimitris Sakavalas et al., 2018], https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.04513.
Dimitris
Sakavalas
Dimitris Sakavalas
Boston College, USA
Lewis
Tseng
Lewis Tseng
Boston College, USA
Nitin H.
Vaidya
Nitin H. Vaidya
Georgetown University, USA
This research is supported in part by National Science Foundation awards 1421918. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agencies or the U.S. government.
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.14
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Dimitris Sakavalas, Lewis Tseng, and Nitin H. Vaidya
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Hybrid Fault-Tolerant Consensus in Asynchronous and Wireless Embedded Systems
Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) consensus in an asynchronous system can only tolerate up to floor[(n-1)/3] faulty processes in a group of n processes. This is quite a strict limit in certain application scenarios, for example a group consisting of only 3 processes. In order to break through this limit, we can leverage a hybrid fault model, in which a subset of the system is enhanced and cannot be arbitrarily faulty except for crashing. Based on this model, we propose a randomized binary consensus algorithm that executes in complete asynchrony, rather than in partial synchrony required by deterministic algorithms. It can tolerate up to floor[(n-1)/2] Byzantine faulty processes as long as the trusted subsystem in each process is not compromised, and terminates with a probability of one. The algorithm is resilient against a strong adversary, i. e. the adversary is able to inspect the state of the whole system, manipulate the delay of every message and process, and then adjust its faulty behaviour during execution.
From a practical point of view, the algorithm is lightweight and has little dependency on lower level protocols or communication primitives. We evaluate the algorithm and the results show that it performs promisingly in a testbed consisting of up to 10 embedded devices connected via an ad hoc wireless network.
Distributed system
consensus
fault tolerance
Software and its engineering~Software fault tolerance
15:1-15:16
Regular Paper
Wenbo
Xu
Wenbo Xu
Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany
Signe
Rüsch
Signe Rüsch
Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany
Bijun
Li
Bijun Li
Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany
Rüdiger
Kapitza
Rüdiger Kapitza
Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany
This work is part of the DFG Research Unit Controlling Concurrent Change, funding no. FOR 1800 and grant no. KA 3171/5-1.
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.15
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Michael J Fischer, Nancy A Lynch, and Michael S Paterson. Impossibility of distributed consensus with one faulty process. Journal of the ACM (JACM), 32(2):374-382, 1985.
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Wenbo Xu, Signe Rüsch, Bijun Li, and Rüdiger Kapitza
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Correctness of Tendermint-Core Blockchains
Tendermint-core blockchains (e.g. Cosmos) are considered today one of the most viable alternatives for the highly energy consuming proof-of-work blockchains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. Their particularity is that they aim at offering strong consistency (no forks) in an open system combining two ingredients (i) a set of validators that generate blocks via a variant of Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerant (PBFT) consensus protocol and (ii) a selection strategy that dynamically selects nodes to be validators for the next block via a proof-of-stake mechanism. The exact assumptions on the system model under which Tendermint underlying algorithms are correct and the exact properties Tendermint verifies, however, have never been formally analyzed. The contribution of this paper is as follows. First, while formalizing Tendermint algorithms we precisely characterize the system model and the exact problem solved by Tendermint, then, we prove that in eventual synchronous systems a modified version of Tendermint solves (i) under additional assumptions, a variant of one-shot consensus for the validation of one single block and (ii) a variant of the repeated consensus problem for multiple blocks. These results hold even if the set of validators is hit by Byzantine failures, provided that for each one-shot consensus instance less than one third of the validators is Byzantine.
Blockchain
Consensus
Proof-of-Stake
Fairness
Computer systems organization~Dependable and fault-tolerant systems and networks
16:1-16:16
Regular Paper
A full version is available at https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/574.pdf.
Yackolley
Amoussou-Guenou
Yackolley Amoussou-Guenou
Institut LIST, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91120, Palaiseau, France , Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Informatique de Paris 6, F-75005 Paris, France
Antonella
Del Pozzo
Antonella Del Pozzo
Institut LIST, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91120, Palaiseau, France
Maria
Potop-Butucaru
Maria Potop-Butucaru
Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Informatique de Paris 6, F-75005 Paris, France
Sara
Tucci-Piergiovanni
Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni
Institut LIST, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91120, Palaiseau, France
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.16
Marcos K Aguilera. A pleasant stroll through the land of infinitely many creatures. ACM Sigact News, 35(2):36-59, 2004.
Yackolley Amoussou-Guenou, Antonella Del Pozzo, Maria Potop-Butucaru, and Sara Tucci Piergiovanni. Correctness and Fairness of Tendermint-core Blockchains. CoRR, abs/1805.08429, 2018.
Elli Androulaki, Artem Barger, Vita Bortnikov, Christian Cachin, Konstantinos Christidis, Angelo De Caro, David Enyeart, Christopher Ferris, Gennady Laventman, Yacov Manevich, Srinivasan Muralidharan, Chet Murthy, Binh Nguyen, Manish Sethi, Gari Singh, Keith Smith, Alessandro Sorniotti, Chrysoula Stathakopoulou, Marko Vukolic, Sharon Weed Cocco, and Jason Yellick. Hyperledger Fabric: A Distributed Operating System for Permissioned Blockchains. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth EuroSys Conference, EuroSys 2018, Porto, Portugal, April 23-26, 2018, pages 30:1-30:15, 2018.
Roberto Baldoni, Marin Bertier, Michel Raynal, and Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni. Looking for a definition of dynamic distributed systems. In International Conference on Parallel Computing Technologies, pages 1-14. Springer, 2007.
Amotz Bar-Noy, Xiaotie Deng, Juan A. Garay, and Tiko Kameda. Optimal Amortized Distributed Consensus. Inf. Comput., 120(1):93-100, 1995.
E. Buchman, J. Kwon, and Z. Milosevic. The latest gossip on BFT consensus. CoRR, abs/1807.04938v1, July 2018. URL: https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.04938v1.
https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.04938v1
Ethan Buchman. Tendermint: Byzantine Fault Tolerance in the Age of Blockchains. Thesis, University of Guelph, June 2016. URL: https://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/handle/10214/9769.
https://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/handle/10214/9769
Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov. Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and Proactive Recovery. ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., 20(4):398-461, November 2002.
Tyler Crain, Vincent Gramoli, Mikel Larrea, and Michel Raynal. DBFT: Efficient Byzantine Consensus with a Weak Coordinator and its Application to Consortium Blockchains, 2017.
Daian, Rafael Pass, and Elaine Shi. Snow White: Provably Secure Proofs of Stake. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2016:919, 2016.
Christian Decker, Jochen Seidel, and Roger Wattenhofer. Bitcoin meets strong consistency. In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking, Singapore, January 4-7, 2016, pages 13:1-13:10, 2016.
Carole Delporte-Gallet, Stéphane Devismes, Hugues Fauconnier, Franck Petit, and Sam Toueg. With Finite Memory Consensus Is Easier Than Reliable Broadcast. In Principles of Distributed Systems, 12th International Conference, OPODIS 2008, Luxor, Egypt, December 15-18, 2008. Proceedings, pages 41-57, 2008.
Shlomi Dolev and Sergio Rajsbaum. Stability of long-lived consensus. J. Comput. Syst. Sci., 67(1):26-45, 2003.
Cynthia Dwork, Nancy A. Lynch, and Larry J. Stockmeyer. Consensus in the presence of partial synchrony. J. ACM, 35(2):288-323, 1988.
Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor. Pricing via Processing or Combatting Junk Mail. In Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO '92, 12th Annual International Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, California, USA, August 16-20, 1992, Proceedings, pages 139-147, 1992.
Ittay Eyal, Adem Efe Gencer, Emin Gün Sirer, and Robbert van Renesse. Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol. In 13th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, NSDI 2016, Santa Clara, CA, USA, March 16-18, 2016, 2016.
M. J. Fischer, N. A. Lynch, and M. S. Paterson. Impossibility of Distributed Consensus with One Faulty Process. Journal of the ACM, 32(2), April 1985.
Nissim Francez. Fairness. Texts and Monographs in Computer Science. Springer, 1986.
J. A. Garay, A. Kiayias, and N. Leonardos. The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications. In Proc. of the EUROCRYPT International Conference, 2015.
Yossi Gilad, Rotem Hemo, Silvio Micali, Georgios Vlachos, and Nickolai Zeldovich. Algorand: Scaling Byzantine Agreements for Cryptocurrencies. In Proceedings of the 26th Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, Shanghai, China, October 28-31, 2017, pages 51-68, 2017.
Guy Golan-Gueta, Ittai Abraham, Shelly Grossman, Dahlia Malkhi, Benny Pinkas, Michael K. Reiter, Dragos-Adrian Seredinschi, Orr Tamir, and Alin Tomescu. SBFT: a scalable decentralized trust infrastructure for blockchains. CoRR, abs/1804.01626, 2018.
Maurice Herlihy and Mark Moir. Enhancing Accountability and Trust in Distributed Ledgers. CoRR, abs/1606.07490, 2016.
Aggelos Kiayias, Alexander Russell, Bernardo David, and Roman Oliynykov. Ouroboros: A Provably Secure Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocol. In Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO 2017 - 37th Annual International Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, August 20-24, 2017, Proceedings, Part I, pages 357-388, 2017.
E. Kokoris-Kogias, P. Jovanovic, N. Gailly, I. Khoffi, L. Gasser, and B. Ford. Enhancing Bitcoin Security and Performance with Strong Consistency via Collective Signing. In Proceedings of the 25th USENIX Security Symposium, 2016.
Jae Kwon. Tendermint: Consensus without mining. Technical report, Tendermint, 2014.
Jae Kwon and Ethan Buchman. Cosmos: A Network of Distributed Ledgers. https://cosmos.network/resources/whitepaper (visited on 2018-05-22).
https://cosmos.network/resources/whitepaper
Jae Kwon and Ethan Buchman. Tendermint. https://tendermint.readthedocs.io/projects/tools/en/v0.19.3/specification.html (visited on 2018-05-22).
https://tendermint.readthedocs.io/projects/tools/en/v0.19.3/specification.html
Dahlia Malkhi. The BFT Lens: Tendermint. https://dahliamalkhi.wordpress.com/2018/04/03/tendermint-in-the-lens-of-bft/ (visited on 2018-05-22), April 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/comp-2018-0014
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Rafael Pass, Lior Seeman, and Abhi Shelat. Analysis of the Blockchain Protocol in Asynchronous Networks. In Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT 2017 - 36th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Paris, France, April 30 - May 4, 2017, Proceedings, Part II, pages 643-673, 2017.
Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. The Sleepy Model of Consensus. In Advances in Cryptology - ASIACRYPT 2017 - 23rd International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptology and Information Security, Hong Kong, China, December 3-7, 2017, Proceedings, Part II, pages 380-409, 2017.
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http://gavwood.com/Paper.pdf
Yackolley Amoussou-Guenou, and Antonella Del Pozzo, and Maria Potop-Butucaru, and Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Federated Byzantine Quorum Systems
Some of the recent blockchain proposals, such as Stellar and Ripple, use quorum-like structures typical for Byzantine consensus while allowing for open membership. This is achieved by constructing quorums in a decentralised way: each participant independently chooses whom to trust, and quorums arise from these individual decisions. Unfortunately, the theoretical foundations underlying such blockchains have not been thoroughly investigated. To close this gap, in this paper we study decentralised quorum construction by means of federated Byzantine quorum systems, used by Stellar. We rigorously prove the correctness of basic broadcast abstractions over federated quorum systems and establish their relationship to the classical Byzantine quorum systems. In particular, we prove correctness in the realistic setting where Byzantine nodes may lie about their trust choices. We show that this setting leads to a novel variant of Byzantine quorum systems where different nodes may have different understanding of what constitutes a quorum.
Blockchain
Stellar
Byzantine quorum systems
Theory of computation~Distributed computing models
17:1-17:16
Regular Paper
An extended version of the paper is available at [Álvaro García-Pérez and Alexey Gotsman, 2018], https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.03642.
Álvaro
García-Pérez
Álvaro García-Pérez
IMDEA Software Institute, Madrid, Spain
Alexey
Gotsman
Alexey Gotsman
IMDEA Software Institute, Madrid, Spain
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.17
Ittai Abraham, Gregory V. Chockler, Idit Keidar, and Dahlia Malkhi. Byzantine disk Paxos: optimal resilience with Byzantine shared memory. Distributed Computing, 18(5):387-408, 2006.
Gabriel Bracha. Asynchronous Byzantine Agreement Protocols. Information and Computation, 75(2):130-143, 1987.
Christian Cachin, Rachid Guerraoui, and Luís E. T. Rodrigues. Introduction to Reliable and Secure Distributed Programming (2nd ed.). Springer, 2011.
Christian Cachin and Marko Vukolic. Blockchain Consensus Protocols in the Wild (Keynote Talk). In International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC), pages 1:1-1:16, 2017.
Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov. Practical Byzantine fault tolerance and proactive recovery. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 20(4):398-461, 2002.
Allen Clement, Edmund L. Wong, Lorenzo Alvisi, Michael Dahlin, and Mirco Marchetti. Making Byzantine Fault Tolerant Systems Tolerate Byzantine Faults. In Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI), pages 153-168, 2009.
Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor. Pricing via Processing or Combatting Junk Mail. In International Cryptology Conference on Advances in Cryptology (CRYPTO), pages 139-147, 1993.
Álvaro García-Pérez and Alexey Gotsman. Federated Byzantine Quorum Systems (Extended Version). CoRR, 2018. URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1811.03642.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1811.03642
Ramakrishna Kotla, Lorenzo Alvisi, Mike Dahlin, Allen Clement, and Edmund Wong. Zyzzyva: Speculative Byzantine Fault Tolerance. In Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (SOSP), pages 45-58, 2007.
Dahlia Malkhi and Michael K. Reiter. Byzantine quorum systems. Distributed Computing, 11(4):203-213, 1998.
David Mazières. The Stellar Consensus Protocol: A Federated Model for Internet-level Consensus, 2016. URL: https://www.stellar.org/papers/stellar-consensus-protocol.pdf.
https://www.stellar.org/papers/stellar-consensus-protocol.pdf
Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, 2009.
David Schwartz, Noah Youngs, and Arthur Britto. The Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm, 2014. URL: https://ripple.com/files/ripple_consensus_whitepaper.pdf.
https://ripple.com/files/ripple_consensus_whitepaper.pdf
Marko Vukolic. Quorum Systems: With Applications to Storage and Consensus. Synthesis Lectures on Distributed Computing Theory. Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2012.
Álvaro García-Pérez and Alexey Gotsman
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Characterizing Asynchronous Message-Passing Models Through Rounds
Message-passing models of distributed computing vary along numerous dimensions: degree of synchrony, kind of faults, number of faults... Unfortunately, the sheer number of models and their subtle distinctions hinder our ability to design a general theory of message-passing models. One way out of this conundrum restricts communication to proceed by round. A great variety of message-passing models can then be captured in the Heard-Of model, through predicates on the messages sent in a round and received during or before this round. Then, the issue is to find the most accurate Heard-Of predicate to capture a given model. This is straightforward in synchronous models, because waiting for the upper bound on communication delay ensures that all available messages are received, while not waiting forever. On the other hand, asynchrony allows unbounded message delays. Is there nonetheless a meaningful characterization of asynchronous models by a Heard-Of predicate?
We formalize this characterization by introducing Delivered collections: the collections of all messages delivered at each round, whether late or not. Predicates on Delivered collections capture message-passing models. The question is to determine which Heard-Of predicates can be generated by a given Delivered predicate. We answer this by formalizing strategies for when to change round. Thanks to a partial order on these strategies, we also find the "best" strategy for multiple models, where "best" intuitively means it waits for as many messages as possible while not waiting forever. Finally, a strategy for changing round that never blocks a process forever implements a Heard-Of predicate. This allows us to translate the order on strategies into an order on Heard-Of predicates. The characterizing predicate for a model is then the greatest element for that order, if it exists.
Message-passing
Asynchronous Rounds
Dominant Strategies
Failures
Theory of computation~Distributed computing models
18:1-18:17
Regular Paper
This work was supported by project PARDI ANR-16-CE25-0006.
A full version of the paper is available at [Shimi et al., 2018], https://arxiv.org/abs/1805.01657.
Adam
Shimi
Adam Shimi
IRIT - Université de Toulouse, 2 rue Camichel, F-31000 Toulouse, France, http://www.irit.fr
Aurélie
Hurault
Aurélie Hurault
IRIT - Université de Toulouse, 2 rue Camichel, F-31000 Toulouse, France, http://www.irit.fr
Philippe
Quéinnec
Philippe Quéinnec
IRIT - Université de Toulouse, 2 rue Camichel, F-31000 Toulouse, France, http://www.irit.fr
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.18
Eshrat Arjomandi, Michael J. Fischer, and Nancy A. Lynch. A Difference in Efficiency Between Synchronous and Asynchronous Systems. In Thirteenth Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC '81, pages 128-132, 1981. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/800076.802466.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/800076.802466
Elizabeth Borowsky and Eli Gafni. Generalized FLP Impossibility Result for T-resilient Asynchronous Computations. In Twenty-fifth Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC '93, pages 91-100. ACM, 1993. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/167088.167119.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/167088.167119
Tushar Deepak Chandra, Vassos Hadzilacos, and Sam Toueg. The Weakest Failure Detector for Solving Consensus. J. ACM, 43(4):685-722, July 1996. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/234533.234549.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/234533.234549
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00446-009-0084-6
Cezara Drăgoi, Thomas A. Henzinger, and Damien Zufferey. PSync: A Partially Synchronous Language for Fault-tolerant Distributed Algorithms. In 43rd Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, pages 400-415, 2016. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2837614.2837650.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2837614.2837650
Michael J. Fischer and Nancy A. Lynch. A lower bound for the time to assure interactive consistency. Information Processing Letters, 14(4):183-186, 1982. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-0190(82)90033-3.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-0190(82)90033-3
Pierre Fraigniaud, Amos Korman, and David Peleg. Towards a Complexity Theory for Local Distributed Computing. J. ACM, 60(5):35:1-35:26, October 2013. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499228.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499228
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/277697.277724
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/331524.331529
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Fabian Kuhn and Rotem Oshman. Dynamic Networks: Models and Algorithms. SIGACT News, 42(1):82-96, March 2011. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1959045.1959064.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1959045.1959064
Ognjen Marić, Christoph Sprenger, and David Basin. Cutoff Bounds for Consensus Algorithms. In Rupak Majumdar and Viktor Kunčak, editors, Computer Aided Verification, pages 217-237. Springer International Publishing, 2017.
Michael Saks and Fotios Zaharoglou. Wait-Free k-Set Agreement is Impossible: The Topology of Public Knowledge. SIAM J. Comput., 29(5):1449-1483, March 2000. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/S0097539796307698.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/S0097539796307698
Adam Shimi, Aurélie Hurault, and Philippe Quéinnec. Characterizing Asynchronous Message-Passing Models Through Rounds. CoRR, 2018. URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1805.01657.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1805.01657
Adam Shimi, Aurélie Hurault, and Philippe Quéinnec
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
You Only Live Multiple Times: A Blackbox Solution for Reusing Crash-Stop Algorithms In Realistic Crash-Recovery Settings
Distributed agreement-based algorithms are often specified in a crash-stop asynchronous model augmented by Chandra and Toueg's unreliable failure detectors. In such models, correct nodes stay up forever, incorrect nodes eventually crash and remain down forever, and failure detectors behave correctly forever eventually, However, in reality, nodes as well as communication links both crash and recover without deterministic guarantees to remain in some state forever.
In this paper, we capture this realistic temporary and probabilitic behaviour in a simple new system model. Moreover, we identify a large algorithm class for which we devise a property-preserving transformation. Using this transformation, many algorithms written for the asynchronous crash-stop model run correctly and unchanged in real systems.
Crash recovery
consensus
asynchrony
Theory of computation~Distributed algorithms
19:1-19:17
Regular Paper
A full version is available at https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.05007.
David
Kozhaya
David Kozhaya
ABB Corporate Research, Switzerland
Ognjen
Maric
Ognjen Maric
Digital Asset, Switzerland
Yvonne-Anne
Pignolet
Yvonne-Anne Pignolet
ABB Corporate Research, Switzerland
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.19
Marcos Kawazoe Aguilera, Wei Chen, and Sam Toueg. Failure detection and consensus in the crash-recovery model. Distributed computing, 13(2):99-125, 2000.
Dan Alistarh, James Aspnes, Valerie King, and Jared Saia. Communication-Efficient Randomized Consensus. In Distributed Computing, pages 61-75, 2014.
Dan Alistarh, Seth Gilbert, Rachid Guerraoui, and Corentin Travers. How to solve consensus in the smallest window of synchrony. In DISC. Springer, 2008.
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David Kozhaya, Ognjen Maric, and Yvonne-Anne Pignolet
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
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Causal Broadcast: How to Forget?
Causal broadcast constitutes a fundamental communication primitive of many distributed protocols and applications. However, state-of-the-art implementations fail to forget obsolete control information about already delivered messages. They do not scale in large and dynamic systems. In this paper, we propose a novel implementation of causal broadcast. We prove that all and only obsolete control information is safely removed, at cost of a few lightweight control messages. The local space complexity of this protocol does not monotonically increase and depends at each moment on the number of messages still in transit and the degree of the communication graph. Moreover, messages only carry a scalar clock. Our implementation constitutes a sustainable communication primitive for causal broadcast in large and dynamic systems.
Causal broadcast
complexity trade-off
large and dynamic systems
Computer systems organization~Peer-to-peer architectures
20:1-20:16
Regular Paper
This work was funded by the French ANR projects O'Browser (ANR-16-CE25-0005-01), and Descartes (ANR-16-CE40-0023).
Brice
Nédelec
Brice Nédelec
LS2N, University of Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3, France
Pascal
Molli
Pascal Molli
LS2N, University of Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3, France
Achour
Mostéfaoui
Achour Mostéfaoui
LS2N, University of Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3, France
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.20
Saleh E. Abdullahi and Graem A. Ringwood. Garbage Collecting the Internet: A Survey of Distributed Garbage Collection. ACM Comput. Surv., 30(3):330-373, September 1998.
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Brice Nédelec, Pascal Molli, and Achour Mostéfaoui
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
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Output-Oblivious Stochastic Chemical Reaction Networks
We classify the functions f:N^2 -> N which are stably computable by output-oblivious Stochastic Chemical Reaction Networks (CRNs), i.e., systems of reactions in which output species are never reactants. While it is known that precisely the semilinear functions are stably computable by CRNs, such CRNs sometimes rely on initially producing too many output species, and then consuming the excess in order to reach a correct stable state. These CRNs may be difficult to integrate into larger systems: if the output of a CRN C becomes the input to a downstream CRN C', then C' could inadvertently consume too many outputs before C stabilizes. If, on the other hand, C is output-oblivious then C' may consume C's output as soon as it is available. In this work we prove that a semilinear function f:N^2 -> N is stably computable by an output-oblivious CRN with a leader if and only if it is both increasing and either grid-affine (intuitively, its domains are congruence classes), or the minimum of a finite set of fissure functions (intuitively, functions behaving like the min function).
Chemical Reaction Networks
Stable Function Computation
Output-Oblivious
Output-Monotonic
Theory of computation~Computability
Theory of computation~Formal languages and automata theory
21:1-21:16
Regular Paper
A full version of the paper is available at https://arxiv.org/abs/1812.04401.
Ben
Chugg
Ben Chugg
The University of British Columbia, Canada
Supported by an NSERC Undergraduate Student Research Award.
Hooman
Hashemi
Hooman Hashemi
The University of British Columbia, Canada
Anne
Condon
Anne Condon
The University of British Columbia, Canada
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1458-1259
Supported by an NSERC Discovery Grant.
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.21
Dan Alistarh, Rati Gelashvili, and Milan Vojnović. Fast and exact majority in population protocols. In Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pages 47-56. ACM, 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1146381.1146425
Dana Angluin, James Aspnes, David Eisenstat, and Eric Ruppert. The computational power of population protocols. Distributed Computing, 20(4):279-304, 2007.
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Ben Chugg, Hooman Hashemi, and Anne Condon
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
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The Synergy of Finite State Machines
What can be computed by a network of n randomized finite state machines communicating under the stone age model (Emek & Wattenhofer, PODC 2013)? The inherent linear upper bound on the total space of the network implies that its global computational power is not larger than that of a randomized linear space Turing machine, but is this tight? We answer this question affirmatively for bounded degree networks by introducing a stone age algorithm (operating under the most restrictive form of the model) that given a designated I/O node, constructs a tour in the network that enables the simulation of the Turing machine's tape. To construct the tour with high probability, we first show how to 2-hop color the network concurrently with building a spanning tree.
finite state machines
stone-age model
beeping communication scheme
distributed network computability
Theory of computation~Distributed algorithms
22:1-22:16
Regular Paper
A full version [Yehuda Afek et al., 2018] that contains all missing proofs along with some additional material can be obtained from http://yemek.net.technion.ac.il/files/tsfsm.pdf.
Yehuda
Afek
Yehuda Afek
Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
The work of Y. Afek was partially supported by a grant from the Blavatnik Cyber Security Council and the Blavatnik Computer Science Research Fund.
Yuval
Emek
Yuval Emek
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
The work of Y. Emek was supported in part by an Israeli Science Foundation grant number 1016/17.
Noa
Kolikant
Noa Kolikant
Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.22
Y. Afek, N. Alon, O. Barad, E. Hornstein, N. Barkai, and Z. Bar-Joseph. A biological solution to a fundamental distributed computing problem. Science, 331(6014):183-185, 2011.
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Yehuda Afek, Noga Alon, Ziv Bar-Joseph, Alejandro Cornejo, Bernhard Haeupler, and Fabian Kuhn. Beeping a Maximal Independent Set. CoRR, abs/1206.0150, 2012. URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.0150,
http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.0150
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SFCS.1987.7
Yehuda Afek, Yuval Emek, and Noa Kolikant. Selecting a Leader in a Network of Finite State Machines. In DISC, 2018. The full version can be obtained from URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1805.05660.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1805.05660
Yehuda Afek, Yuval Emek, and Noa Kolikant. The Synergy of Finite State Machines (Full Version). http://yemek.net.technion.ac.il/files/tsfsm.pdf, 2018.
http://yemek.net.technion.ac.il/files/tsfsm.pdf
D. Angluin, J. Aspnes, Z. Diamadi, M.J. Fischer, and R. Peralta. Computation in networks of passively mobile finite-state sensors. Distributed Computing, pages 235-253, 2006.
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Y. Benenson, T. Paz-Elizur, R. Adar, E. Keinan, Z. Livneh, and E. Shapiro. Programmable and autonomous computing machine made of biomolecules. Nature, 414(6862):430-434, 2001.
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Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Clifford Stein. Introduction to Algorithms, Third Edition. The MIT Press, 3rd edition, 2009.
Alejandro Cornejo and Fabian Kuhn. Deploying Wireless Networks with Beeps. In DISC, pages 148-162, 2010.
Z. Derakhshandeh, R. Gmyr, A. Porter, A.W. Richa, C. Scheideler, and T. Strothmann. On the runtime of universal coating for programmable matter. In DNA, pages 148-164, 2016.
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Z. Derakhshandeh, R. Gmyr, A.W. Richa, C. Scheideler, and T. Strothmann. Universal shape formation for programmable matter. In SPAA, pages 289-299, 2016.
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Y. Emek and R. Wattenhofer. Stone age distributed computing. In PODC, pages 137-146, 2013. The full version can be obtained from URL: http://yemek.net.technion.ac.il/files/stone-age.pdf.
http://yemek.net.technion.ac.il/files/stone-age.pdf
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O. Feinerman and A. Korman. Memory lower bounds for randomized collaborative search and implications for biology. In DISC, pages 61-75, 2012.
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Yehuda Afek, Yuval Emek, and Noa Kolikant
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Task Computability in Unreliable Anonymous Networks
We consider the anonymous broadcast model: a set of n anonymous processes communicate via send-to-all primitives. We assume that underlying communication channels are asynchronous but reliable, and that the processes are subject to crash failures. We show first that in this model, even a single faulty process precludes implementations of atomic objects with non-commuting operations, even as simple as read-write registers or add-only sets. We, however, show that a sequentially consistent read-write memory and add-only sets can be implemented t-resiliently for t<n/2, i.e., provided that a majority of the processes do not fail. We use this implementation to establish an equivalence between the t-resilient read-write anonymous shared-memory model and the t-resilient anonymous broadcast model in terms of colorless task solvability. As a result, we obtain the first task computability characterization for unreliable anonymous message-passing systems.
Distributed tasks
anonymous broadcast
fault-tolerance
Theory of computation~Distributed computing models
Theory of computation~Computability
23:1-23:13
Regular Paper
Petr
Kuznetsov
Petr Kuznetsov
LTCI, Télécom ParisTec, Université Paris-Saclay, France
Nayuta
Yanagisawa
Nayuta Yanagisawa
DeNA Co., Ltd., Japan
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.23
Yehuda Afek, Hagit Attiya, Danny Dolev, Eli Gafni, Michael Merritt, and Nir Shavit. Atomic Snapshots of Shared Memory. JACM, 40(4):873-890, 1993.
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James Aspnes, Faith Ellen Fich, and Eric Ruppert. Relationships between broadcast and shared memory in reliable anonymous distributed systems. Distributed Computing, 18(3):209-219, 2006.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/200836.200869
François Bonnet and Michel Raynal. The Price of Anonymity: Optimal Consensus Despite Asynchrony, Crash, and Anonymity. ACM Trans. Auton. Adapt. Syst., 6(4):23:1-23:28, October 2011. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2019591.2019592.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2019591.2019592
Zohir Bouzid, Michel Raynal, and Pierre Sutra. Anonymous obstruction-free (n, k)-set agreement with n-k+1 atomic read/write registers. Distributed Computing, 31(2):99-117, 2018.
Zohir Bouzid, Pierre Sutra, and Corentin Travers. Anonymous Agreement: The Janus Algorithm. In Principles of Distributed Systems - 15th International Conference, OPODIS 2011, Toulouse, France, December 13-16, 2011. Proceedings, pages 175-190, 2011.
Claire Capdevielle, Colette Johnen, Petr Kuznetsov, and Alessia Milani. On the uncontended complexity of anonymous agreement. Distributed Computing, 30(6):459-468, 2017.
S. Chaudhuri. More Choices Allow More Faults: Set Consensus Problems in Totally Asynchronous Systems. Information and Computation, 105(1):132-158, 1993.
Tom Chothia and Konstantinos Chatzikokolakis. A Survey of Anonymous Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing. In Proceedings of Satellite Workshop of the International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Systems (EUS), pages 744-755, 2005.
Carole Delporte-Gallet and Hugues Fauconnier. Two Consensus Algorithms with Atomic Registers and Failure Detector Ω. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking (ICDCN), volume 5408 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), pages 251-262, 2009.
Carole Delporte-Gallet, Hugues Fauconnier, Petr Kuznetsov, and Eric Ruppert. On the Space Complexity of Set Agreement? In Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC 2015, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain, July 21 - 23, 2015, pages 271-280, 2015.
Carole Delporte-Gallet, Hugues Fauconnier, Sergio Rajsbaum, and Nayuta Yanagisawa. A Characterization of t-Resilient Solvable Colorless Tasks in Anonymous Shared-Memory Model. In SIROCCO2018 (to appear), 2018. Technical report: URL: https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.04393.
https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.04393
Carole Delporte-Gallet, Hugues Fauconnier, Sergio Rajsbaum, and Nayuta Yanagisawa. An anonymous wait-free weak-set object implementation. In NETYS2018 (to appear), 2018.
Michael J. Fischer, Nancy A. Lynch, and Michael S. Paterson. Impossibility of Distributed Consensus with One Faulty Process. J. ACM, 32(2):374-382, April 1985.
Rachid Guerraoui and Eric Ruppert. Anonymous and fault-tolerant shared-memory computing. Distributed Computing, 20(3):165-177, 2007.
Maurice Herlihy. Wait-free synchronization. ACM TOPLAS, 13(1):123-149, 1991.
Maurice Herlihy, Dmitry Kozlov, and Sergio Rajsbaum. Distributed computing through combinatorial topology. Morgan Kaufmann, 2013.
Maurice Herlihy and Sergio Rajsbaum. A classification of wait-free loop agreement tasks. Theoretical Computer Science, 291(1):55-77, 2003.
Nayuta Yanagisawa. Wait-Free Solvability of Colorless Tasks in Anonymous Shared-Memory Model. Theory of Computing Systems, pages pp 1-18, November 2017. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00224-017-9819-0.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00224-017-9819-0
Petr Kuznetsov and Nayuta Yanagisawa
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Optimal Rendezvous L-Algorithms for Asynchronous Mobile Robots with External-Lights
We study the Rendezvous problem for two autonomous mobile robots in asynchronous settings with persistent memory called light. It is well known that Rendezvous is impossible in a basic model when robots have no lights, even if the system is semi-synchronous. On the other hand, Rendezvous is possible if robots have lights of various types with a constant number of colors. If robots can observe not only their own lights but also other robots' lights, their lights are called full-light. If robots can only observe the state of other robots' lights, the lights are called external-light. This paper focuses on robots with external-lights in asynchronous settings and a particular class of algorithms called L-algorithms, where an L-algorithm computes a destination based only on the current colors of observable lights. When considering L-algorithms, Rendezvous can be solved by robots with full-lights and three colors in general asynchronous settings (called ASYNC) and the number of colors is optimal under these assumptions. In contrast, there exist no L-algorithms in ASYNC with external-lights regardless of the number of colors.
In this paper, extending the impossibility result, we show that there exist no L-algorithms in so-called LC-1-Bounded ASYNC with external-lights regardless of the number of colors, where LC-1-Bounded ASYNC is a proper subset of ASYNC and other robots can execute at most one Look operation between the Look operation of a robot and its subsequent Compute operation. We also show that LC-1-Bounded ASYNC is the minimal subclass in which no L-algorithms with external-lights exist. That is, Rendezvous can be solved by L-algorithms using external-lights with a finite number of colors in LC-0-Bounded ASYNC (equivalently LC-atomic ASYNC). Furthermore, we show that the algorithms are optimal in the number of colors they use.
Autonomous mobile robots
Rendezvous
Lights
L-algorithms
Theory of computation~Distributed algorithms
Computing methodologies~Self-organization
24:1-24:16
Regular Paper
Takashi
Okumura
Takashi Okumura
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, Tokyo, 184-8485, Japan
Koichi
Wada
Koichi Wada
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, Tokyo, 184-8485, Japan, http://ai.k.hosei.ac.jp/staff/wada
Xavier
Défago
Xavier Défago
School of Computing, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2377-205X
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.24
N. Agmon and D. Peleg. Fault-tolerant gathering algorithms for autonomous mobile robots. SIAM J. Comput., 36(1):56-82, 2006.
Z. Bouzid, S. Das, and S. Tixeuil. Gathering of mobile robots tolerating multiple crash Faults. In 33rd ICDCS, pages 334-346, 2013.
M. Cieliebak, P. Flocchini, G. Prencipe, and N. Santoro. Distributed computing by mobile robots: Gathering. sicomp, 41(4):829-879, 2012.
S. Das, P. Flocchini, G. Prencipe, N. Santoro, and M. Yamashita. Autonomous mobile robots with lights. Theoretical Computer Science, 609:171-184, 2016.
X. Défago, M. Gradinariu Potop-Butucaru, J. Clément, S. Messika, and P. Raipin Parvédy. Fault and Byzantine tolerant self-stabilizing mobile robots gathering - Feasibility study. CoRR abs/1602.05546, arXiv, 2016.
B. Degener, B. Kempkes, T. Langner, F. Meyer auf der Heide, P. Pietrzyk, and R. Wattenhofer. A tight run-time bound for synchronous gathering of autonomous robots with limited visibility. In 23rd ACM SPAA, pages 139-148, 2011.
Y. Dieudonné and F. Petit. Self-stabilizing gathering with strong multiplicity detection. tcs, 428(13):47-57, 2012.
P. Flocchini, G. Prencipe, and N. Santoro. Distributed Computing by Oblivious Mobile Robots. Morgan &Claypool, 2012.
P. Flocchini, G. Prencipe, N. Santoroand, and P. Widmayer. Gathering of asynchronous robots with limited visibility. tcs, 337(1-3):147-169, 2005.
P. Flocchini, N. Santoro, G. Viglietta, and M. Yamashita. Rendezvous with Constant Memory. tcs, 621:57-72, 2016.
A. Hériban, X. Défago, and S. Tixeuil. Optimally gathering two robots. In 19th ICDCN:3, pages 1-10, 2018.
T. Izumi, Z. Bouzid, S. Tixeuil, and K. Wada. Brief Announcement: The BG-simulation for Byzantine mobile robots. In 25th DISC, pages 330-331, 2011.
T. Izumi, Y. Katayama, N. Inuzuka, and K. Wada. Gathering Autonomous Mobile Robots with Dynamic Compasses: An Optimal Result. In 21st DISC, pages 298-312, 2007.
T. Izumi, S. Souissi, Y. Katayama, N. Inuzuka, X. Défago, K. Wada, and M. Yamashita. The gathering problem for two oblivious robots with unreliable compasses. sicomp, 41(1):26-46, 2012.
S. Kamei, A. Lamani, F. Ooshita, and S. Tixeuil. Asynchronous mobile robot gathering from symmetric configurations without global multiplicity detection. In 18th SIROCCO, pages 150-161, 2011.
J. Lin, A.S. Morse, and B.D.O. Anderson. The multi-agent rendezvous problem. parts 1 and 2. sicomp, 46(6):2096-2147, 2007.
T. Okumura, K. Wada, and Y. Katayama. Brief Announcement: Optimal asynchronous Rendezvous for mobile robots with lights. In 19th SSS, pages 484-488, 2017.
G. Prencipe. Impossibility of gathering by a set of autonomous mobile robots. tcs, 384(2-3):222-231, 2007.
S. Souissi, X. Défago, and M. Yamashita. Using eventually consistent compasses to gather memory-less mobile robots with limited visibility. ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, 4(1):1-27, 2009.
I. Suzuki and M. Yamashita. Distributed anonymous mobile robots: Formation of geometric patterns. sicomp, 28:1347-1363, 1999.
G. Viglietta. Rendezvous of two robots with visible bits. In ALGOSENSORS 2013, pages 291-306, 2014.
Takashi Okumura, Koichi Wada, and Xavier Défago
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Linear Rendezvous with Asymmetric Clocks
Two anonymous robots placed at different positions on an infinite line need to rendezvous. Each robot possesses a clock which it uses to time its movement. However, the robot's individual parameters in the form of their walking speed and time unit may or may not be the same for both robots. We study the feasibility of rendezvous in different scenarios, in which some subsets of these parameters are not the same. As the robots are anonymous, they execute the same algorithm and when both parameters are identical the rendezvous is infeasible. We propose a universal algorithm, such that the robots are assured of meeting in finite time, in any case when at least one of the parameters is not equal for both robots.
anonymous
asymmetric clock
infinite line
rendezvous
mobile robot
speed
competitive ratio
Theory of computation~Design and analysis of algorithms
Theory of computation~Distributed algorithms
25:1-25:16
Regular Paper
Jurek
Czyzowicz
Jurek Czyzowicz
Département d'informatique, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Gatineau, Canada
Research supported in part by NSERC Discovery grant
Ryan
Killick
Ryan Killick
School of Computer Science, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada
Research supported by the Ontario Graduate Scholarship. Eligible for best student paper award.
Evangelos
Kranakis
Evangelos Kranakis
School of Computer Science, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada
Research supported in part by NSERC Discovery grant
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.25
S. Alpern and S. Gal. The theory of search games and rendezvous, volume 55. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.
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L. Barrière, P. Flocchini, P. Fraigniaud, and N. Santoro. Rendezvous and Election of Mobile Agents: Impact of Sense of Direction. Theory Comput. Syst., 40(2):143-162, 2007.
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J. Czyzowicz, E. Kranakis, D. Krizanc, L. Narayanan, and J. Opatrny. Search on a Line with Faulty Robots. In Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC, pages 405-414, 2016.
J. Czyzowicz, E. Kranakis, D. Krizanc, L. Narayanan, J. Opatrny, and S. Shende. Linear search with terrain-dependent speeds. In International Conference on Algorithms and Complexity, pages 430-441. Springer, 2017.
G. De Marco, L. Gargano, E. Kranakis, D Krizanc, A. Pelc, and U. Vaccaro. Asynchronous deterministic rendezvous in graphs. Theoretical Computer Science, 355(3):315-326, 2006.
E. D. Demaine, S. P. Fekete, and S. Gal. Online searching with turn cost. Theoretical Computer Science, 361(2):342-355, 2006.
A. Dessmark, P. Fraigniaud, D. R. Kowalski, and A. Pelc. Deterministic Rendezvous in Graphs. Algorithmica, 46(1):69-96, 2006.
Y. Dieudonné, A. Pelc, and V. Villain. How to Meet Asynchronously at Polynomial Cost. SIAM J. Comput., 44(3):844-867, 2015.
O. Feinerman, A. Korman, S. Kutten, and Y. Rodeh. Fast rendezvous on a cycle by agents with different speeds. Theoretical Computer Science, 688:77-85, 2017.
A. Hoorfar and M. Hassani. Inequalities on the Lambert W function and hyperpower function. JIPAM. Journal of Inequalities in Pure &Applied Mathematics [electronic only], 9, January 2008.
T. Izumi, S. Souissi, Y. Katayama, N. Inuzuka, X. Défago, K. Wada, and M. Yamashita. The Gathering Problem for Two Oblivious Robots with Unreliable Compasses. SIAM J. Comput., 41(1):26-46, 2012.
M.-Y. Kao, J. H. Reif, and S. R. Tate. Searching in an unknown environment: An optimal randomized algorithm for the cow-path problem. Information and Computation, 131(1):63-79, 1996.
E. Kranakis, N. Santoro, C. Sawchuk, and D. Krizanc. Mobile agent rendezvous in a ring. In Distributed Computing Systems, 2003. Proceedings. 23rd International Conference on, pages 592-599. IEEE, 2003.
A. Pelc. Deterministic rendezvous in networks: A comprehensive survey. Networks, 59(3):331-347, 2012.
G. Stachowiak. Asynchronous Deterministic Rendezvous on the Line. In SOFSEM 2009: Theory and Practice of Computer Science, pages 497-508. Springer, 2009.
X. Yu and M. Yung. Agent rendezvous: A dynamic symmetry-breaking problem. In International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming, pages 610-621. Springer, 1996.
Jurek Czyzowicz, Ryan Killick, and Evangelos Kranakis
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Approximate Neighbor Counting in Radio Networks
For many distributed algorithms, neighborhood size is an important parameter. In radio networks, however, obtaining this information can be difficult due to ad hoc deployments and communication that occurs on a collision-prone shared channel. This paper conducts a comprehensive survey of the approximate neighbor counting problem, which requires nodes to obtain a constant factor approximation of the size of their network neighborhood. We produce new lower and upper bounds for three main variations of this problem in the radio network model: (a) the network is single-hop and every node must obtain an estimate of its neighborhood size; (b) the network is multi-hop and only a designated node must obtain an estimate of its neighborhood size; and (c) the network is multi-hop and every node must obtain an estimate of its neighborhood size. In studying these problem variations, we consider solutions with and without collision detection, and with both constant and high success probability. Some of our results are extensions of existing strategies, while others require technical innovations. We argue this collection of results provides insight into the nature of this well-motivated problem (including how it differs from related symmetry breaking tasks in radio networks), and provides a useful toolbox for algorithm designers tackling higher level problems that might benefit from neighborhood size estimates.
Radio networks
neighborhood size estimation
approximate counting
Theory of computation~Distributed algorithms
26:1-26:16
Regular Paper
A full version of the paper is available at [Calvin Newport and Chaodong Zheng, 2018], https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.03278.
Calvin
Newport
Calvin Newport
Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., United States
Supported by NSF award 7773087.
Chaodong
Zheng
Chaodong Zheng
State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
Supported by National Key R&D Program of China 2018YFB1003200, and NSFC 61702255.
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.26
Reuven Bar-Yehuda, Oded Goldreich, and Alon Itai. On the Time-complexity of Broadcast in Radio Networks: An Exponential Gap Between Determinism and Randomization. In Proceedings of the 6th Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC '87, pages 98-108. ACM, 1987.
Jacir Luiz Bordim, JiangTao Cui, Tatsuya Hayashi, Koji Nakano, and Stephan Olariu. Energy-Efficient Initialization Protocols for Ad-hoc Radio Networks. In International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation, ISAAC '99, pages 215-224. Springer, 1999.
Philipp Brandes, Marcin Kardas, Marek Klonowski, Dominik Pajak, and Roger Wattenhofer. Fast Size Approximation of a Radio Network in Beeping Model. Theoretical Computer Science, In Press, 2017. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcs.2017.05.022.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcs.2017.05.022
Ioannis Caragiannis, Clemente Galdi, and Christos Kaklamanis. Basic Computations in Wireless Networks. In International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation, ISAAC '05, pages 533-542. Springer, 2005.
Binbin Chen, Ziling Zhou, and Haifeng Yu. Understanding RFID Counting Protocols. In Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, MobiCom '13, pages 291-302. ACM, 2013.
Israel Cidon and Moshe Sidi. Conflict Multiplicity Estimation and Batch Resolution Algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 34(1):101-110, 1988.
Alejandro Cornejo and Fabian Kuhn. Deploying Wireless Networks with Beeps. In International Symposium on Distributed Computing, DISC '10, pages 148-162. Springer, 2010.
Mohsen Ghaffari, Nancy Lynch, and Srikanth Sastry. Leader Election Using Loneliness Detection. Distributed Computing, 25(6):427-450, 2012.
Seth Gilbert, Valerie King, Seth Pettie, Ely Porat, Jared Saia, and Maxwell Young. (Near) Optimal Resource-competitive Broadcast with Jamming. In Proceedings of the 26th ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, SPAA '14, pages 257-266. ACM, 2014.
Seth Gilbert, Fabian Kuhn, and Chaodong Zheng. Communication Primitives in Cognitive Radio Networks. In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC '17, pages 23-32. ACM, 2017.
Albert G. Greenberg, Philippe Flajolet, and Richard E. Ladner. Estimating the Multiplicities of Conflicts to Speed Their Resolution in Multiple Access Channels. Journal of the ACM, 34(2):289-325, 1987.
Tomasz Jurdziński, Mirosław Kutyłowski, and Jan Zatopiański. Energy-Efficient Size Approximation of Radio Networks with No Collision Detection. In International Computing and Combinatorics Conference, COCOON '02, pages 279-289. Springer, 2002.
Tomasz Jurdzinski and Grzegorz Stachowiak. Probabilistic Algorithms for the Wake-Up Problem in Single-Hop Radio Networks. Theory of Computing Systems, 38(3):347-367, 2005.
Jedrzej Kabarowski, Mirosław Kutyłowski, and Wojciech Rutkowski. Adversary Immune Size Approximation of Single-Hop Radio Networks. In International Conference on Theory and Applications of Models of Computation, pages 148-158. Springer, 2006.
Marek Klonowski and Kamil Wolny. Immune Size Approximation Algorithms in Ad Hoc Radio Network. In European Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks, pages 33-48. Springer, 2012.
Michael Luby. A Simple Parallel Algorithm for the Maximal Independent Set Problem. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC '85, pages 1-10. ACM, 1985.
Michael Mitzenmacher and Eli Upfal. Probability and Computing: Randomized Algorithms and Probabilistic Analysis. Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Koji Nakan and Stephan Olari. Uniform Leader Election Protocols for Radio Networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 13(5):516-526, 2002.
Calvin Newport. Radio Network Lower Bounds Made Easy. In Proceedings of the 28th International Symposium on Distributed Computing, DISC '14, pages 258-272. Springer, 2014.
Calvin Newport and Chaodong Zheng. Approximate Neighbor Counting in Radio Networks, 2018. URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1811.03278.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1811.03278
Muhammad Shahzad and Alex X. Liu. Every Bit Counts: Fast and Scalable RFID Estimation. In Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, MobiCom '12, pages 365-376. ACM, 2012.
Dan E. Willard. Log-logarithmic Selection Resolution Protocols in a Multiple Access Channel. SIAM Journal on Computing, 15(2):468-477, 1986.
Yuanqing Zheng and Mo Li. ZOE: Fast cardinality estimation for large-scale RFID systems. In Proceedings of the 32nd IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, INFOCOM '13, pages 908-916. IEEE, 2013.
Yuanqing Zheng, Mo Li, and Chen Qian. PET: Probabilistic Estimating Tree for Large-Scale RFID Estimation. In Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, ICDCS '11, pages 37-46. IEEE, 2011.
Calvin Newport and Chaodong Zheng
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
On Simple Back-Off in Unreliable Radio Networks
In this paper, we study local and global broadcast in the dual graph model, which describes communication in a radio network with both reliable and unreliable links. Existing work proved that efficient solutions to these problems are impossible in the dual graph model under standard assumptions. In real networks, however, simple back-off strategies tend to perform well for solving these basic communication tasks. We address this apparent paradox by introducing a new set of constraints to the dual graph model that better generalize the slow/fast fading behavior common in real networks. We prove that in the context of these new constraints, simple back-off strategies now provide efficient solutions to local and global broadcast in the dual graph model. We also precisely characterize how this efficiency degrades as the new constraints are reduced down to non-existent, and prove new lower bounds that establish this degradation as near optimal for a large class of natural algorithms. We conclude with an analysis of a more general model where we propose an enhanced back-off algorithm. These results provide theoretical foundations for the practical observation that simple back-off algorithms tend to work well even amid the complicated link dynamics of real radio networks.
radio networks
broadcast
unreliable links
distributed algorithm
robustness
Theory of computation~Distributed algorithms
Networks~Ad hoc networks
27:1-27:17
Regular Paper
The full version is available at https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.02216.
Seth
Gilbert
Seth Gilbert
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Nancy
Lynch
Nancy Lynch
MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA
Calvin
Newport
Calvin Newport
Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA
Dominik
Pajak
Dominik Pajak
MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.27
N. Alon, A. Bar-Noy, N. Linial, and D. Peleg. A Lower Bound for Radio Broadcast. Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 43(2):290-298, 1991.
Reuven Bar-Yehuda, Oded Goldreich, and Alon Itai. On the Time-Complexity of Broadcast in Multi-hop Radio Networks: An Exponential Gap Between Determinism and Randomization. J. Comput. Syst. Sci., 45(1):104-126, 1992. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0000(92)90042-H.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0000(92)90042-H
Keren Censor-Hillel, Seth Gilbert, Fabian Kuhn, Nancy Lynch, and Calvin Newport. Structuring Unreliable Radio Networks. Distributed Computing, 27(1):1-19, 2014.
Andrea E. F. Clementi, Angelo Monti, and Riccardo Silvestri. Round Robin is optimal for fault-tolerant broadcasting on wireless networks. J. Parallel Distrib. Comput., 64(1):89-96, 2004. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpdc.2003.09.002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpdc.2003.09.002
Mohsen Ghaffari. Bounds on Contention Management in Radio Networks. Master’s thesis, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, February 2013.
Mohsen Ghaffari, Bernhard Haeupler, Nancy Lynch, and Calvin Newport. Bounds on Contention Management in Radio Networks. In Marcos K. Aguilera, editor, Distributed Computing: 26th International Symposium (DISC 2012), Salvador, Brazil, October, 2012, volume 7611 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 223-237. Springer, 2012.
Mohsen Ghaffari, Erez Kantor, Nancy Lynch, and Calvin Newport. Multi-Message Broadcast with Abstract MAC Layers and Unreliable Links. In Proceedings of the 33nd Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC'14), pages 56-65, Paris, France, July 2014.
Mohsen Ghaffari, Nancy Lynch, and Calvin Newport. The Cost of Radio Network Broadcast for Different Models of Unreliable Links. In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pages 345-354, Montreal, Canada, July 2013.
Mohsen Ghaffari and Calvin Newport. A Leader Election in Unreliable Radio Networks. In Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP), 2016.
Seth Gilbert, Nancy A. Lynch, Calvin Newport, and Dominik Pajak. Brief Announcement: On Simple Back-Off in Unreliable Radio Networks. In 32nd International Symposium on Distributed Computing, DISC 2018, New Orleans, LA, USA, October 15-19, 2018, pages 48:1-48:3, 2018. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2018.48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2018.48
Fabian Kuhn, Nancy Lynch, and Calvin Newport. Brief Announcement: Hardness of Broadcasting in Wireless Networks with Unreliable Communication. In Proceedings of the 28th Annual ACM Symposium on the Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC 2009), Calgary, Alberta, Canada, August 2009.
Fabian Kuhn, Nancy Lynch, Calvin Newport, Rotem Oshman, and Andrea Richa. Broadcasting in Unreliable Radio Networks. In Proceedings of the 29th ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pages 336-345, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2010.
E. Kushilevitz and Y. Mansour. An Ω(D log(N/D)) Lower Bound for Broadcast in Radio Networks. SIAM Journal on Computing, 27(3):702-712, 1998.
Nancy Lynch and Calvin Newport. A (Truly) Local Broadcast Layer for Unreliable Radio Networks. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), 2015.
Calvin Newport. Lower Bounds for Radio Networks Made Easy. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC), 2014.
Mike Willis. Propagation Tutorial: Fading. http://www.mike-willis.com/Tutorial/PF15.htm. May 5, 2007.
http://www.mike-willis.com/Tutorial/PF15.htm
Seth Gilbert, Nancy Lynch, Calvin Newport, and Dominik Pajak
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Concurrent Specifications Beyond Linearizability
With the advent of parallel architectures, distributed programs are used intensively and the question of how to formally specify the behaviors expected from such programs becomes crucial. A very general way to specify concurrent objects is to simply give the set of all the execution traces that we consider correct for the object. In many cases, one is only interested in studying a subclass of these concurrent specifications, and more convenient tools such as linearizability can be used to describe them.
In this paper, what we call a concurrent specification will be a set of execution traces that moreover satisfies a number of axioms. As we argue, these are actually the only concurrent specifications of interest: we prove that, in a reasonable computational model, every program satisfies all of our axioms. Restricting to this class of concurrent specifications allows us to formally relate our concurrent specifications with the ones obtained by linearizability, as well as its more recent variants (set- and interval-linearizability).
concurrent specification
concurrent object
linearizability
Theory of computation~Concurrency
28:1-28:16
Regular Paper
Éric
Goubault
Éric Goubault
École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France
Jérémy
Ledent
Jérémy Ledent
École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France
Samuel
Mimram
Samuel Mimram
École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.28
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http://arxiv.org/abs/1802.04954
Éric Goubault, Jérémy Ledent, and Samuel Mimram
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Parameterized Synthesis of Self-Stabilizing Protocols in Symmetric Rings
Self-stabilization in distributed systems is a technique to guarantee convergence to a set of legitimate states without external intervention when a transient fault or bad initialization occurs. Recently, there has been a surge of efforts in designing techniques for automated synthesis of self-stabilizing algorithms that are correct by construction. Most of these techniques, however, are not parameterized, meaning that they can only synthesize a solution for a fixed and predetermined number of processes. In this paper, we report a breakthrough in parameterized synthesis of self-stabilizing algorithms in symmetric rings. First, we develop tight cutoffs that guarantee (1) closure in legitimate states, and (2) deadlock-freedom outside the legitimates states. We also develop a sufficient condition for convergence in silent self-stabilizing systems. Since some of our cutoffs grow with the size of local state space of processes, we also present an automated technique that significantly increases the scalability of synthesis in symmetric networks. Our technique is based on SMT-solving and incorporates a loop of synthesis and verification guided by counterexamples. We have fully implemented our technique and successfully synthesized solutions to maximal matching, three coloring, and maximal independent set problems.
Parameterized synthesis
Self-stabilization
Formal methods
Theory of computation~Logic and verification
Computer systems organization~Dependable and fault-tolerant systems and networks
29:1-29:17
Regular Paper
Nahal
Mirzaie
Nahal Mirzaie
University of Tehran, North Kargar St., Tehran, Iran
Fathiyeh
Faghih
Fathiyeh Faghih
University of Tehran, North Kargar St., Tehran, Iran
Swen
Jacobs
Swen Jacobs
CISPA Helmholtz Center i.G., Saarbrücken, Germany
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9051-4050
This research was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) under the project ASDPS (JA 2357/2-1).
Borzoo
Bonakdarpour
Borzoo Bonakdarpour
Iowa State University, 207 Atanasoff Hall, Ames, IA 50011, USA
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1800-5419
This research has been partially supported by the NSF SaTC-1813388 and a grant from Iowa State University.
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.29
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Nahal Mirzaie, Fathiyeh Faghih, Swen Jacobs, and Borzoo Bonakdarpour
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
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Loosely-Stabilizing Leader Election with Polylogarithmic Convergence Time
A loosely-stabilizing leader election protocol with polylogarithmic convergence time in the population protocol model is presented in this paper. In the population protocol model, which is a common abstract model of mobile sensor networks, it is known to be impossible to design a self-stabilizing leader election protocol. Thus, in our prior work, we introduced the concept of loose-stabilization, which is weaker than self-stabilization but has similar advantage as self-stabilization in practice. Following this work, several loosely-stabilizing leader election protocols are presented. The loosely-stabilizing leader election guarantees that, starting from an arbitrary configuration, the system reaches a safe configuration with a single leader within a relatively short time, and keeps the unique leader for an sufficiently long time thereafter. The convergence times of all the existing loosely-stabilizing protocols, i.e., the expected time to reach a safe configuration, are polynomial in n where n is the number of nodes (while the holding times to keep the unique leader are exponential in n). In this paper, a loosely-stabilizing protocol with polylogarithmic convergence time is presented. Its holding time is not exponential, but arbitrarily large polynomial in n.
Loose-stabilization
Population protocols
and Leader election
Theory of computation~Self-organization
30:1-30:16
Regular Paper
Yuichi
Sudo
Yuichi Sudo
Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, Japan
Fukuhito
Ooshita
Fukuhito Ooshita
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Japan
Hirotsugu
Kakugawa
Hirotsugu Kakugawa
Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, Japan
Toshimitsu
Masuzawa
Toshimitsu Masuzawa
Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, Japan
Ajoy K.
Datta
Ajoy K. Datta
Department of Computer Science, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA
Lawrence L.
Larmore
Lawrence L. Larmore
Department of Computer Science, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.30
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11945529_28
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Y. Sudo, F. Ooshita, H. Kakugawa, and T. Masuzawa. Loosely-Stabilizing Leader Election on Arbitrary Graphs in Population Protocols. In International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems, pages 339-354, 2014.
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Yuichi Sudo, Fukuhito Ooshita, Hirotsugu Kakugawa, Toshimitsu Masuzawa, Ajoy K. Datta, and Lawrence L. Larmore
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode
Self-Stabilizing Token Distribution with Constant-Space for Trees
Self-stabilizing and silent distributed algorithms for token distribution in rooted tree networks are given. Initially, each process of a graph holds at most l tokens. Our goal is to distribute the tokens in the whole network so that every process holds exactly k tokens. In the initial configuration, the total number of tokens in the network may not be equal to nk where n is the number of processes in the network. The root process is given the ability to create a new token or remove a token from the network. We aim to minimize the convergence time, the number of token moves, and the space complexity. A self-stabilizing token distribution algorithm that converges within O(n l) asynchronous rounds and needs Theta(nh epsilon) redundant (or unnecessary) token moves is given, where epsilon = min(k,l-k) and h is the height of the tree network. Two novel ideas to reduce the number of redundant token moves are presented. One reduces the number of redundant token moves to O(nh) without any additional costs while the other reduces the number of redundant token moves to O(n), but increases the convergence time to O(nh l). All algorithms given have constant memory at each process and each link register.
token distribution
self-stabilization
constant-space algorithm
Theory of computation~Self-organization
31:1-31:16
Regular Paper
The brief announcement version of this paper is published in [Sudo and Datta, 2018].
Yuichi
Sudo
Yuichi Sudo
Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, Japan
Ajoy K.
Datta
Ajoy K. Datta
Department of Computer Science, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA
Lawrence L.
Larmore
Lawrence L. Larmore
Department of Computer Science, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA
Toshimitsu
Masuzawa
Toshimitsu Masuzawa
Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, Japan
10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.31
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Yuichi Sudo, Ajoy K. Datta, Lawrence L. Larmore, and Toshimitsu Masuzawa
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license
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