Abstract
In this work we derandomize two central results in graph algorithms, replacement paths and distance sensitivity oracles (DSOs) matching in both cases the running time of the randomized algorithms.
For the replacement paths problem, let G = (V,E) be a directed unweighted graph with n vertices and m edges and let P be a shortest path from s to t in G. The replacement paths problem is to find for every edge e in P the shortest path from s to t avoiding e. Roditty and Zwick [ICALP 2005] obtained a randomized algorithm with running time of O~(m sqrt{n}). Here we provide the first deterministic algorithm for this problem, with the same O~(m sqrt{n}) time. Due to matching conditional lower bounds of Williams et al. [FOCS 2010], our deterministic combinatorial algorithm for the replacement paths problem is optimal up to polylogarithmic factors (unless the long standing bound of O~(mn) for the combinatorial boolean matrix multiplication can be improved). This also implies a deterministic algorithm for the second simple shortest path problem in O~(m sqrt{n}) time, and a deterministic algorithm for the ksimple shortest paths problem in O~(k m sqrt{n}) time (for any integer constant k > 0).
For the problem of distance sensitivity oracles, let G = (V,E) be a directed graph with realedge weights. An fSensitivity Distance Oracle (fDSO) gets as input the graph G=(V,E) and a parameter f, preprocesses it into a datastructure, such that given a query (s,t,F) with s,t in V and F subseteq E cup V, F <=f being a set of at most f edges or vertices (failures), the query algorithm efficiently computes the distance from s to t in the graph G \ F (i.e., the distance from s to t in the graph G after removing from it the failing edges and vertices F).
For weighted graphs with real edge weights, Weimann and Yuster [FOCS 2010] presented several randomized fDSOs. In particular, they presented a combinatorial fDSO with O~(mn^{4alpha}) preprocessing time and subquadratic O~(n^{22(1alpha)/f}) query time, giving a tradeoff between preprocessing and query time for every value of 0 < alpha < 1. We derandomize this result and present a combinatorial deterministic fDSO with the same asymptotic preprocessing and query time.
BibTeX  Entry
@InProceedings{alon_et_al:LIPIcs:2019:10588,
author = {Noga Alon and Shiri Chechik and Sarel Cohen},
title = {{Deterministic Combinatorial Replacement Paths and Distance Sensitivity Oracles}},
booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)},
pages = {12:112:14},
series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN = {9783959771092},
ISSN = {18688969},
year = {2019},
volume = {132},
editor = {Christel Baier and Ioannis Chatzigiannakis and Paola Flocchini and Stefano Leonardi},
publisher = {Schloss DagstuhlLeibnizZentrum fuer Informatik},
address = {Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL = {http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2019/10588},
URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030drops105882},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.12},
annote = {Keywords: replacement paths, distance sensitivity oracles, derandomization}
}
Keywords: 

replacement paths, distance sensitivity oracles, derandomization 
Collection: 

46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019) 
Issue Date: 

2019 
Date of publication: 

04.07.2019 