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When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2010.2459
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-24599
URL: https://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2010/2459/
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### Beyond Bidimensionality: Parameterized Subexponential Algorithms on Directed Graphs

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### Abstract

In this paper we make the first step beyond bidimensionality by obtaining subexponential time algorithms for problems on directed graphs.

We develop two different methods to achieve subexponential time parameterized algorithms for problems on sparse directed graphs.
We exemplify our approaches with two well studied problems. For the first problem, $k$-Leaf Out-Branching, which is to find an oriented spanning tree with at least $k$ leaves, we obtain an algorithm solving the problem in time $2^{\cO(\sqrt{k} \log k)} n+ n^{\cO(1)}$ on directed graphs whose underlying undirected graph excludes some fixed graph $H$ as a minor. For the special case when the input directed graph is planar, the running time can be improved to $2^{\cO(\sqrt{k} )}n + n^{\cO(1)}$.

The second example is a generalization of the {\sc Directed Hamiltonian Path} problem, namely $k$-Internal Out-Branching, which is to find an oriented spanning tree with at least $k$ internal vertices. We obtain an algorithm solving the problem in time $2^{\cO(\sqrt{k} \log k)} + n^{\cO(1)}$ on directed graphs whose underlying undirected graph excludes some fixed apex graph $H$ as a minor.

Finally, we observe that for any $\ve>0$, the $k$-Directed Path problem is solvable in time $\cO((1+\ve)^k n^{f(\ve)})$, where $f$ is some function of $\ve$.

Our methods are based on non-trivial combinations of obstruction theorems for undirected graphs, kernelization, problem specific combinatorial structures and a layering technique similar to the one employed by Baker to obtain PTAS for planar graphs.

### BibTeX - Entry

@InProceedings{dorn_et_al:LIPIcs:2010:2459,
author =	{Frederic Dorn and Fedor V. Fomin and Daniel Lokshtanov and Venkatesh Raman and Saket Saurabh},
title =	{{Beyond  Bidimensionality: Parameterized Subexponential Algorithms on Directed Graphs}},
booktitle =	{27th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science},
pages =	{251--262},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-939897-16-3},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2010},
volume =	{5},
editor =	{Jean-Yves Marion and Thomas Schwentick},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl--Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2010/2459},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-24599},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2010.2459},
annote =	{Keywords: Parameterized Subexponential Algorithms, Directed Graphs, Out-Branching, Internal Out-Branching}
}


 Keywords: Parameterized Subexponential Algorithms, Directed Graphs, Out-Branching, Internal Out-Branching Collection: 27th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science Issue Date: 2010 Date of publication: 09.03.2010

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