License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0)
When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.341
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-53112
Go to the corresponding LIPIcs Volume Portal

Håstad, Johan ; Huang, Sangxia ; Manokaran, Rajsekar ; O’Donnell, Ryan ; Wright, John

Improved NP-Inapproximability for 2-Variable Linear Equations

21.pdf (0.6 MB)


An instance of the 2-Lin(2) problem is a system of equations of the form "x_i + x_j = b (mod 2)". Given such a system in which it's possible to satisfy all but an epsilon fraction of the equations, we show it is NP-hard to satisfy all but a C*epsilon fraction of the equations, for any C < 11/8 = 1.375 (and any 0 < epsilon <= 1/8). The previous best result, standing for over 15 years, had 5/4 in place of 11/8. Our result provides the best known NP-hardness even for the Unique Games problem, and it also holds for the special case of Max-Cut. The precise factor 11/8 is unlikely to be best possible; we also give a conjecture concerning analysis of Boolean functions which, if true, would yield a larger hardness factor of 3/2.

Our proof is by a modified gadget reduction from a pairwise-independent predicate. We also show an inherent limitation to this type of gadget reduction. In particular, any such reduction can never establish a hardness factor C greater than 2.54. Previously, no such limitation on gadget reductions was known.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Johan Håstad and Sangxia Huang and Rajsekar Manokaran and Ryan O’Donnell and John Wright},
  title =	{{Improved NP-Inapproximability for 2-Variable Linear Equations}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)},
  pages =	{341--360},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-89-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2015},
  volume =	{40},
  editor =	{Naveen Garg and Klaus Jansen and Anup Rao and Jos{\'e} D. P. Rolim},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl--Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-53112},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.341},
  annote =	{Keywords: approximability, unique games, linear equation, gadget, linear programming}

Keywords: approximability, unique games, linear equation, gadget, linear programming
Collection: Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)
Issue Date: 2015
Date of publication: 13.08.2015

DROPS-Home | Fulltext Search | Imprint | Privacy Published by LZI