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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 293, 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)

Let P be a set of m points in ℝ², let Σ be a set of n semi-algebraic sets of constant complexity in ℝ², let (S,+) be a semigroup, and let w: P → S be a weight function on the points of P. We describe a randomized algorithm for computing w(P∩σ) for every σ ∈ Σ in overall expected time O^*(m^{2s/(5s-4)}n^{(5s-6)/(5s-4)} + m^{2/3}n^{2/3} + m + n), where s > 0 is a constant that bounds the maximum complexity of the regions of Σ, and where the O^*(⋅) notation hides subpolynomial factors. For s ≥ 3, surprisingly, this bound is smaller than the best-known bound for answering m such queries in an on-line manner. The latter takes O^*(m^{s/(2s-1)}n^{(2s-2)/(2s-1)} + m + n) time.
Let Φ: Σ × P → {0,1} be the Boolean predicate (of constant complexity) such that Φ(σ,p) = 1 if p ∈ σ and 0 otherwise, and let Σ_Φ P = {(σ,p) ∈ Σ× P ∣ Φ(σ,p) = 1}. Our algorithm actually computes a partition ℬ_Φ of Σ_Φ P into bipartite cliques (bicliques) of size (i.e., sum of the sizes of the vertex sets of its bicliques) O^*(m^{2s/(5s-4)}n^{(5s-6)/(5s-4)} + m^{2/3}n^{2/3} + m + n). It is straightforward to compute w(P∩σ) for all σ ∈ Σ from ℬ_Φ. Similarly, if η: Σ → S is a weight function on the regions of Σ, ∑_{σ ∈ Σ: p ∈ σ} η(σ), for every point p ∈ P, can be computed from ℬ_Φ in a straightforward manner. We also mention a few other applications of computing ℬ_Φ.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Esther Ezra, and Micha Sharir. Semi-Algebraic Off-Line Range Searching and Biclique Partitions in the Plane. In 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 293, pp. 4:1-4:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.4, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Ezra, Esther and Sharir, Micha}, title = {{Semi-Algebraic Off-Line Range Searching and Biclique Partitions in the Plane}}, booktitle = {40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)}, pages = {4:1--4:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-316-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {293}, editor = {Mulzer, Wolfgang and Phillips, Jeff M.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-199497}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.4}, annote = {Keywords: Range-searching, semi-algebraic sets, pseudo-lines, duality, geometric cuttings} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 290, 27th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2024)

We are given a set 𝒵 = {(R_1,s_1), …, (R_n,s_n)}, where each R_i is a range in ℝ^d, such as rectangle or ball, and s_i ∈ [0,1] denotes its selectivity. The goal is to compute a small-size discrete data distribution 𝒟 = {(q₁,w₁),…, (q_m,w_m)}, where q_j ∈ ℝ^d and w_j ∈ [0,1] for each 1 ≤ j ≤ m, and ∑_{1≤j≤m} w_j = 1, such that 𝒟 is the most consistent with 𝒵, i.e., err_p(𝒟,𝒵) = 1/n ∑_{i = 1}ⁿ |s_i - ∑_{j=1}^m w_j⋅1(q_j ∈ R_i)|^p is minimized. In a database setting, 𝒵 corresponds to a workload of range queries over some table, together with their observed selectivities (i.e., fraction of tuples returned), and 𝒟 can be used as compact model for approximating the data distribution within the table without accessing the underlying contents.
In this paper, we obtain both upper and lower bounds for this problem. In particular, we show that the problem of finding the best data distribution from selectivity queries is NP-complete. On the positive side, we describe a Monte Carlo algorithm that constructs, in time O((n+δ^{-d}) δ^{-2} polylog n), a discrete distribution 𝒟̃ of size O(δ^{-2}), such that err_p(𝒟̃,𝒵) ≤ min_𝒟 err_p(𝒟,𝒵)+δ (for p = 1,2,∞) where the minimum is taken over all discrete distributions. We also establish conditional lower bounds, which strongly indicate the infeasibility of relative approximations as well as removal of the exponential dependency on the dimension for additive approximations. This suggests that significant improvements to our algorithm are unlikely.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Rahul Raychaudhury, Stavros Sintos, and Jun Yang. Computing Data Distribution from Query Selectivities. In 27th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 290, pp. 18:1-18:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICDT.2024.18, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Raychaudhury, Rahul and Sintos, Stavros and Yang, Jun}, title = {{Computing Data Distribution from Query Selectivities}}, booktitle = {27th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2024)}, pages = {18:1--18:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-312-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {290}, editor = {Cormode, Graham and Shekelyan, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2024.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-198007}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2024.18}, annote = {Keywords: selectivity queries, discrete distributions, Multiplicative Weights Update, eps-approximation, learnable functions, depth problem, arrangement} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 258, 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)

Let P be a set of n points in ℝ². For a parameter ε ∈ (0,1), a subset C ⊆ P is an ε-kernel of P if the projection of the convex hull of C approximates that of P within (1-ε)-factor in every direction. The set C is a weak ε-kernel of P if its directional width approximates that of P in every direction. Let 𝗄_ε(P) (resp. 𝗄^𝗐_ε(P)) denote the minimum-size of an ε-kernel (resp. weak ε-kernel) of P. We present an O(n 𝗄_ε(P)log n)-time algorithm for computing an ε-kernel of P of size 𝗄_ε(P), and an O(n²log n)-time algorithm for computing a weak ε-kernel of P of size 𝗄^𝗐_ε(P). We also present a fast algorithm for the Hausdorff variant of this problem.
In addition, we introduce the notion of ε-core, a convex polygon lying inside ch(P), prove that it is a good approximation of the optimal ε-kernel, present an efficient algorithm for computing it, and use it to compute an ε-kernel of small size.

Pankaj K. Agarwal and Sariel Har-Peled. Computing Instance-Optimal Kernels in Two Dimensions. In 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 258, pp. 4:1-4:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.4, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Har-Peled, Sariel}, title = {{Computing Instance-Optimal Kernels in Two Dimensions}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)}, pages = {4:1--4:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-273-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {258}, editor = {Chambers, Erin W. and Gudmundsson, Joachim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178544}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.4}, annote = {Keywords: Coreset, approximation, kernel} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 258, 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)

Let ℬ be a set of n unit balls in ℝ³. We present a linear-size data structure for storing ℬ that can determine in O^*(n^{1/2}) time whether a query line intersects any ball of ℬ and report all k such balls in additional O(k) time. The data structure can be constructed in O(n log n) time. (The O^*(⋅) notation hides subpolynomial factors, e.g., of the form O(n^ε), for arbitrarily small ε > 0, and their coefficients which depend on ε.)
We also consider the dual problem: Let ℒ be a set of n lines in ℝ³. We preprocess ℒ, in O^*(n²) time, into a data structure of size O^*(n²) that can determine in O^*(1) time whether a query unit ball intersects any line of ℒ, or report all k such lines in additional O(k) time.

Pankaj K. Agarwal and Esther Ezra. Line Intersection Searching Amid Unit Balls in 3-Space. In 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 258, pp. 5:1-5:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.5, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Ezra, Esther}, title = {{Line Intersection Searching Amid Unit Balls in 3-Space}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)}, pages = {5:1--5:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-273-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {258}, editor = {Chambers, Erin W. and Gudmundsson, Joachim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178559}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.5}, annote = {Keywords: Intersection searching, cylindrical range searching, partition trees, union of cylinders} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 248, 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)

We study the problem of motion planning for a collection of n labeled unit disc robots in a polygonal environment. We assume that the robots have revolving areas around their start and final positions: that each start and each final is contained in a radius 2 disc lying in the free space, not necessarily concentric with the start or final position, which is free from other start or final positions. This assumption allows a weakly-monotone motion plan, in which robots move according to an ordering as follows: during the turn of a robot R in the ordering, it moves fully from its start to final position, while other robots do not leave their revolving areas. As R passes through a revolving area, a robot R' that is inside this area may move within the revolving area to avoid a collision. Notwithstanding the existence of a motion plan, we show that minimizing the total traveled distance in this setting, specifically even when the motion plan is restricted to be weakly-monotone, is APX-hard, ruling out any polynomial-time (1+ε)-approximation algorithm.
On the positive side, we present the first constant-factor approximation algorithm for computing a feasible weakly-monotone motion plan. The total distance traveled by the robots is within an O(1) factor of that of the optimal motion plan, which need not be weakly monotone. Our algorithm extends to an online setting in which the polygonal environment is fixed but the initial and final positions of robots are specified in an online manner. Finally, we observe that the overhead in the overall cost that we add while editing the paths to avoid robot-robot collision can vary significantly depending on the ordering we chose. Finding the best ordering in this respect is known to be NP-hard, and we provide a polynomial time O(log n log log n)-approximation algorithm for this problem.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Tzvika Geft, Dan Halperin, and Erin Taylor. Multi-Robot Motion Planning for Unit Discs with Revolving Areas. In 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 248, pp. 35:1-35:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.35, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Geft, Tzvika and Halperin, Dan and Taylor, Erin}, title = {{Multi-Robot Motion Planning for Unit Discs with Revolving Areas}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)}, pages = {35:1--35:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-258-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {248}, editor = {Bae, Sang Won and Park, Heejin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173204}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.35}, annote = {Keywords: motion planning, optimal motion planning, approximation, complexity, NP-hardness} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 248, 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)

Let S be a set of n geometric objects of constant complexity (e.g., points, line segments, disks, ellipses) in ℝ², and let ϱ: S× S → ℝ_{≥ 0} be a distance function on S. For a parameter r ≥ 0, we define the proximity graph G(r) = (S,E) where E = {(e₁,e₂) ∈ S×S ∣ e₁≠e₂, ϱ(e₁,e₂) ≤ r}. Given S, s,t ∈ S, and an integer k ≥ 1, the reverse-shortest-path (RSP) problem asks for computing the smallest value r^* ≥ 0 such that G(r^*) contains a path from s to t of length at most k.
In this paper we present a general randomized technique that solves the RSP problem efficiently for a large family of geometric objects and distance functions. Using standard, and sometimes more involved, semi-algebraic range-searching techniques, we first give an efficient algorithm for the decision problem, namely, given a value r ≥ 0, determine whether G(r) contains a path from s to t of length at most k. Next, we adapt our decision algorithm and combine it with a random-sampling method to compute r^*, by efficiently performing a binary search over an implicit set of O(n²) candidate values that contains r^*.
We illustrate the versatility of our general technique by applying it to a variety of geometric proximity graphs. For example, we obtain (i) an O^*(n^{4/3}) expected-time randomized algorithm (where O^*(⋅) hides polylog(n) factors) for the case where S is a set of pairwise-disjoint line segments in ℝ² and ϱ(e₁,e₂) = min_{x ∈ e₁, y ∈ e₂} ‖x-y‖ (where ‖⋅‖ is the Euclidean distance), and (ii) an O^*(n+m^{4/3}) expected-time randomized algorithm for the case where S is a set of m points lying on an x-monotone polygonal chain T with n vertices, and ϱ(p,q), for p,q ∈ S, is the smallest value h such that the points p' := p+(0,h) and q' := q+(0,h) are visible to each other, i.e., all points on the segment p'q' lie above or on the polygonal chain T.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Matthew J. Katz, and Micha Sharir. On Reverse Shortest Paths in Geometric Proximity Graphs. In 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 248, pp. 42:1-42:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.42, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Katz, Matthew J. and Sharir, Micha}, title = {{On Reverse Shortest Paths in Geometric Proximity Graphs}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)}, pages = {42:1--42:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-258-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {248}, editor = {Bae, Sang Won and Park, Heejin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.42}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173277}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.42}, annote = {Keywords: Geometric optimization, proximity graphs, semi-algebraic range searching, reverse shortest path} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 227, 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)

For two point sets A, B ⊂ ℝ^d, with |A| = |B| = n and d > 1 a constant, and for a parameter ε > 0, we present a randomized algorithm that, with probability at least 1/2, computes in O(n(ε^{-O(d³)}log log n + ε^{-O(d)}log⁴ nlog⁵log n)) time, an ε-approximate minimum-cost perfect matching under any L_p-metric. All previous algorithms take n(ε^{-1}log n)^{Ω(d)} time. We use a randomly-shifted tree, with a polynomial branching factor and O(log log n) height, to define a tree-based distance function that ε-approximates the L_p metric as well as to compute the matching hierarchically. Then, we apply the primal-dual framework on a compressed representation of the residual graph to obtain an efficient implementation of the Hungarian-search and augment operations.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Sharath Raghvendra, Pouyan Shirzadian, and Rachita Sowle. An Improved ε-Approximation Algorithm for Geometric Bipartite Matching. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 6:1-6:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.6, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Raghvendra, Sharath and Shirzadian, Pouyan and Sowle, Rachita}, title = {{An Improved \epsilon-Approximation Algorithm for Geometric Bipartite Matching}}, booktitle = {18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)}, pages = {6:1--6:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-236-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {227}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161660}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.6}, annote = {Keywords: Euclidean bipartite matching, approximation algorithms, primal dual method} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 224, 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)

Let 𝒯 be a set of n planar semi-algebraic regions in ℝ³ of constant complexity (e.g., triangles, disks), which we call plates. We wish to preprocess 𝒯 into a data structure so that for a query object γ, which is also a plate, we can quickly answer various intersection queries, such as detecting whether γ intersects any plate of 𝒯, reporting all the plates intersected by γ, or counting them. We focus on two simpler cases of this general setting: (i) the input objects are plates and the query objects are constant-degree algebraic arcs in ℝ³ (arcs, for short), or (ii) the input objects are arcs and the query objects are plates in ℝ³. These interesting special cases form the building blocks for the general case.
By combining the polynomial-partitioning technique with additional tools from real algebraic geometry, we obtain a variety of results with different storage and query-time bounds, depending on the complexity of the input and query objects. For example, if 𝒯 is a set of plates and the query objects are arcs, we obtain a data structure that uses O^*(n^{4/3}) storage (where the O^*(⋅) notation hides subpolynomial factors) and answers an intersection query in O^*(n^{2/3}) time. Alternatively, by increasing the storage to O^*(n^{3/2}), the query time can be decreased to O^*(n^{ρ}), where ρ = (2t-3)/3(t-1) < 2/3 and t ≥ 3 is the number of parameters needed to represent the query arcs.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Boris Aronov, Esther Ezra, Matthew J. Katz, and Micha Sharir. Intersection Queries for Flat Semi-Algebraic Objects in Three Dimensions and Related Problems. In 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 224, pp. 4:1-4:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.4, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Aronov, Boris and Ezra, Esther and Katz, Matthew J. and Sharir, Micha}, title = {{Intersection Queries for Flat Semi-Algebraic Objects in Three Dimensions and Related Problems}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)}, pages = {4:1--4:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-227-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {224}, editor = {Goaoc, Xavier and Kerber, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-160126}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.4}, annote = {Keywords: Intersection searching, Semi-algebraic range searching, Point-enclosure queries, Ray-shooting queries, Polynomial partitions, Cylindrical algebraic decomposition, Multi-level partition trees, Collision detection} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

Let C be a set of n axis-aligned cubes of arbitrary sizes in ℝ³. Let U be their union, and let κ be the number of vertices on ∂U; κ can vary between O(1) and O(n²). We show that U can be computed in O(n log³ n + κ) time if C is in general position. The algorithm also computes the union of a set of fat boxes (i.e., boxes with bounded aspect ratio) within the same time bound. If the cubes in C are congruent or have bounded depth, the running time improves to O(n log² n), and if both conditions hold, the running time improves to O(n log n).

Pankaj K. Agarwal and Alex Steiger. An Output-Sensitive Algorithm for Computing the Union of Cubes and Fat Boxes in 3D. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 10:1-10:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.10, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Steiger, Alex}, title = {{An Output-Sensitive Algorithm for Computing the Union of Cubes and Fat Boxes in 3D}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {10:1--10:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-140790}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.10}, annote = {Keywords: union of cubes, fat boxes, plane-sweep} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

This paper considers enumerating answers to similarity-join queries under dynamic updates: Given two sets of n points A,B in ℝ^d, a metric ϕ(⋅), and a distance threshold r > 0, report all pairs of points (a, b) ∈ A × B with ϕ(a,b) ≤ r. Our goal is to store A,B into a dynamic data structure that, whenever asked, can enumerate all result pairs with worst-case delay guarantee, i.e., the time between enumerating two consecutive pairs is bounded. Furthermore, the data structure can be efficiently updated when a point is inserted into or deleted from A or B.
We propose several efficient data structures for answering similarity-join queries in low dimension. For exact enumeration of similarity join, we present near-linear-size data structures for 𝓁₁, 𝓁_∞ metrics with log^{O(1)} n update time and delay. We show that such a data structure is not feasible for the 𝓁₂ metric for d ≥ 4. For approximate enumeration of similarity join, where the distance threshold is a soft constraint, we obtain a unified linear-size data structure for 𝓁_p metric, with log^{O(1)} n delay and update time. In high dimensions, we present an efficient data structure with worst-case delay-guarantee using locality sensitive hashing (LSH).

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Xiao Hu, Stavros Sintos, and Jun Yang. Dynamic Enumeration of Similarity Joins. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 11:1-11:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.11, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Hu, Xiao and Sintos, Stavros and Yang, Jun}, title = {{Dynamic Enumeration of Similarity Joins}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {11:1--11:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-140803}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.11}, annote = {Keywords: dynamic enumeration, similarity joins, worst-case delay guarantee} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 182, 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)

We consider the problem of center-based clustering in low-dimensional Euclidean spaces under the perturbation stability assumption. An instance is α-stable if the underlying optimal clustering continues to remain optimal even when all pairwise distances are arbitrarily perturbed by a factor of at most α. Our main contribution is in presenting efficient exact algorithms for α-stable clustering instances whose running times depend near-linearly on the size of the data set when α ≥ 2 + √3. For k-center and k-means problems, our algorithms also achieve polynomial dependence on the number of clusters, k, when α ≥ 2 + √3 + ε for any constant ε > 0 in any fixed dimension. For k-median, our algorithms have polynomial dependence on k for α > 5 in any fixed dimension; and for α ≥ 2 + √3 in two dimensions. Our algorithms are simple, and only require applying techniques such as local search or dynamic programming to a suitably modified metric space, combined with careful choice of data structures.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Hsien-Chih Chang, Kamesh Munagala, Erin Taylor, and Emo Welzl. Clustering Under Perturbation Stability in Near-Linear Time. In 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 182, pp. 8:1-8:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.8, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Chang, Hsien-Chih and Munagala, Kamesh and Taylor, Erin and Welzl, Emo}, title = {{Clustering Under Perturbation Stability in Near-Linear Time}}, booktitle = {40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)}, pages = {8:1--8:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-174-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {182}, editor = {Saxena, Nitin and Simon, Sunil}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-132492}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.8}, annote = {Keywords: clustering, stability, local search, dynamic programming, coreset, polyhedral metric, trapezoid decomposition, range query} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 164, 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)

We investigate dynamic versions of geometric set cover and hitting set where points and ranges may be inserted or deleted, and we want to efficiently maintain an (approximately) optimal solution for the current problem instance. While their static versions have been extensively studied in the past, surprisingly little is known about dynamic geometric set cover and hitting set. For instance, even for the most basic case of one-dimensional interval set cover and hitting set, no nontrivial results were known. The main contribution of our paper are two frameworks that lead to efficient data structures for dynamically maintaining set covers and hitting sets in ℝ¹ and ℝ². The first framework uses bootstrapping and gives a (1+ε)-approximate data structure for dynamic interval set cover in ℝ¹ with O(n^α/ε) amortized update time for any constant α > 0; in ℝ², this method gives O(1)-approximate data structures for unit-square (and quadrant) set cover and hitting set with O(n^(1/2+α)) amortized update time. The second framework uses local modification, and leads to a (1+ε)-approximate data structure for dynamic interval hitting set in ℝ¹ with Õ(1/ε) amortized update time; in ℝ², it gives O(1)-approximate data structures for unit-square (and quadrant) set cover and hitting set in the partially dynamic settings with Õ(1) amortized update time.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Hsien-Chih Chang, Subhash Suri, Allen Xiao, and Jie Xue. Dynamic Geometric Set Cover and Hitting Set. In 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 164, pp. 2:1-2:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.2, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Chang, Hsien-Chih and Suri, Subhash and Xiao, Allen and Xue, Jie}, title = {{Dynamic Geometric Set Cover and Hitting Set}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)}, pages = {2:1--2:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-143-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {164}, editor = {Cabello, Sergio and Chen, Danny Z.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.2}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-121604}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.2}, annote = {Keywords: Geometric set cover, Geometric hitting set, Dynamic data structures} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 129, 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)

In 2015, Guth proved that if S is a collection of n g-dimensional semi-algebraic sets in R^d and if D >= 1 is an integer, then there is a d-variate polynomial P of degree at most D so that each connected component of R^d \ Z(P) intersects O(n/D^{d-g}) sets from S. Such a polynomial is called a generalized partitioning polynomial. We present a randomized algorithm that computes such polynomials efficiently - the expected running time of our algorithm is linear in |S|. Our approach exploits the technique of quantifier elimination combined with that of epsilon-samples.
We present four applications of our result. The first is a data structure for answering point-enclosure queries among a family of semi-algebraic sets in R^d in O(log n) time, with storage complexity and expected preprocessing time of O(n^{d+epsilon}). The second is a data structure for answering range search queries with semi-algebraic ranges in O(log n) time, with O(n^{t+epsilon}) storage and expected preprocessing time, where t > 0 is an integer that depends on d and the description complexity of the ranges. The third is a data structure for answering vertical ray-shooting queries among semi-algebraic sets in R^{d} in O(log^2 n) time, with O(n^{d+epsilon}) storage and expected preprocessing time. The fourth is an efficient algorithm for cutting algebraic planar curves into pseudo-segments.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Boris Aronov, Esther Ezra, and Joshua Zahl. An Efficient Algorithm for Generalized Polynomial Partitioning and Its Applications. In 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 129, pp. 5:1-5:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.5, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Aronov, Boris and Ezra, Esther and Zahl, Joshua}, title = {{An Efficient Algorithm for Generalized Polynomial Partitioning and Its Applications}}, booktitle = {35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)}, pages = {5:1--5:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-104-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {129}, editor = {Barequet, Gill and Wang, Yusu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-104096}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.5}, annote = {Keywords: Polynomial partitioning, quantifier elimination, semi-algebraic range spaces, epsilon-samples} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 129, 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)

Let A and B be two point sets in the plane of sizes r and n respectively (assume r <= n), and let k be a parameter. A matching between A and B is a family of pairs in A x B so that any point of A cup B appears in at most one pair. Given two positive integers p and q, we define the cost of matching M to be c(M) = sum_{(a, b) in M}||a-b||_p^q where ||*||_p is the L_p-norm. The geometric partial matching problem asks to find the minimum-cost size-k matching between A and B.
We present efficient algorithms for geometric partial matching problem that work for any powers of L_p-norm matching objective: An exact algorithm that runs in O((n + k^2)polylog n) time, and a (1 + epsilon)-approximation algorithm that runs in O((n + k sqrt{k})polylog n * log epsilon^{-1}) time. Both algorithms are based on the primal-dual flow augmentation scheme; the main improvements involve using dynamic data structures to achieve efficient flow augmentations. With similar techniques, we give an exact algorithm for the planar transportation problem running in O(min{n^2, rn^{3/2}}polylog n) time.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Hsien-Chih Chang, and Allen Xiao. Efficient Algorithms for Geometric Partial Matching. In 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 129, pp. 6:1-6:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.6, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Chang, Hsien-Chih and Xiao, Allen}, title = {{Efficient Algorithms for Geometric Partial Matching}}, booktitle = {35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)}, pages = {6:1--6:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-104-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {129}, editor = {Barequet, Gill and Wang, Yusu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-104109}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.6}, annote = {Keywords: partial matching, transportation, optimal transport, minimum-cost flow, bichromatic closest pair} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 129, 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)

We present efficient data structures for problems on unit discs and arcs of their boundary in the plane. (i) We give an output-sensitive algorithm for the dynamic maintenance of the union of n unit discs under insertions in O(k log^2 n) update time and O(n) space, where k is the combinatorial complexity of the structural change in the union due to the insertion of the new disc. (ii) As part of the solution of (i) we devise a fully dynamic data structure for the maintenance of lower envelopes of pseudo-lines, which we believe is of independent interest. The structure has O(log^2 n) update time and O(log n) vertical ray shooting query time. To achieve this performance, we devise a new algorithm for finding the intersection between two lower envelopes of pseudo-lines in O(log n) time, using tentative binary search; the lower envelopes are special in that at x=-infty any pseudo-line contributing to the first envelope lies below every pseudo-line contributing to the second envelope. (iii) We also present a dynamic range searching structure for a set of circular arcs of unit radius (not necessarily on the boundary of the union of the corresponding discs), where the ranges are unit discs, with O(n log n) preprocessing time, O(n^{1/2+epsilon} + l) query time and O(log^2 n) amortized update time, where l is the size of the output and for any epsilon>0. The structure requires O(n) storage space.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Ravid Cohen, Dan Halperin, and Wolfgang Mulzer. Maintaining the Union of Unit Discs Under Insertions with Near-Optimal Overhead. In 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 129, pp. 26:1-26:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.26, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Cohen, Ravid and Halperin, Dan and Mulzer, Wolfgang}, title = {{Maintaining the Union of Unit Discs Under Insertions with Near-Optimal Overhead}}, booktitle = {35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)}, pages = {26:1--26:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-104-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {129}, editor = {Barequet, Gill and Wang, Yusu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-104307}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.26}, annote = {Keywords: lower envelopes, pseudo-lines, unit discs, range search, dynamic algorithms, tentative binary search} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 123, 29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018)

Our goal is to compare two planar point sets by finding subsets of a given size such that a minimum-weight matching between them has the smallest weight. This can be done by a translation of one set that minimizes the weight of the matching. We give efficient algorithms (a) for finding approximately optimal matchings, when the cost of a matching is the L_p-norm of the tuple of the Euclidean distances between the pairs of matched points, for any p in [1,infty], and (b) for constructing small-size approximate minimization (or matching) diagrams: partitions of the translation space into regions, together with an approximate optimal matching for each region.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Haim Kaplan, Geva Kipper, Wolfgang Mulzer, Günter Rote, Micha Sharir, and Allen Xiao. Approximate Minimum-Weight Matching with Outliers Under Translation. In 29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 123, pp. 26:1-26:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.26, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Kaplan, Haim and Kipper, Geva and Mulzer, Wolfgang and Rote, G\"{u}nter and Sharir, Micha and Xiao, Allen}, title = {{Approximate Minimum-Weight Matching with Outliers Under Translation}}, booktitle = {29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018)}, pages = {26:1--26:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-094-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {123}, editor = {Hsu, Wen-Lian and Lee, Der-Tsai and Liao, Chung-Shou}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-99747}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.26}, annote = {Keywords: Minimum-weight partial matching, Pattern matching, Approximation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

Let T={triangle_1,...,triangle_n} be a set of of n pairwise-disjoint triangles in R^3, and let B be a convex polytope in R^3 with a constant number of faces. For each i, let C_i = triangle_i oplus r_i B denote the Minkowski sum of triangle_i with a copy of B scaled by r_i>0. We show that if the scaling factors r_1, ..., r_n are chosen randomly then the expected complexity of the union of C_1, ..., C_n is O(n^{2+epsilon), for any epsilon > 0; the constant of proportionality depends on epsilon and the complexity of B. The worst-case bound can be Theta(n^3).
We also consider a special case of this problem in which T is a set of points in R^3 and B is a unit cube in R^3, i.e., each C_i is a cube of side-length 2r_i. We show that if the scaling factors are chosen randomly then the expected complexity of the union of the cubes is O(n log^2 n), and it improves to O(n log n) if the scaling factors are chosen randomly from a "well-behaved" probability density function (pdf). We also extend the latter results to higher dimensions. For any fixed odd value of d, we show that the expected complexity of the union of the hypercubes is O(n^floor[d/2] log n) and the bound improves to O(n^floor[d/2]) if the scaling factors are chosen from a "well-behaved" pdf. The worst-case bounds are Theta(n^2) in R^3, and Theta(n^{ceil[d/2]}) in higher dimensions.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Haim Kaplan, and Micha Sharir. Union of Hypercubes and 3D Minkowski Sums with Random Sizes. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 10:1-10:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.10, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Kaplan, Haim and Sharir, Micha}, title = {{Union of Hypercubes and 3D Minkowski Sums with Random Sizes}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {10:1--10:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-90147}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.10}, annote = {Keywords: Computational geometry, Minkowski sums, Axis-parallel cubes, Union of geometric objects, Objects with random sizes} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 99, 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)

We present an efficient dynamic data structure that supports geodesic nearest neighbor queries for a set S of point sites in a static simple polygon P. Our data structure allows us to insert a new site in S, delete a site from S, and ask for the site in S closest to an arbitrary query point q in P. All distances are measured using the geodesic distance, that is, the length of the shortest path that is completely contained in P. Our data structure achieves polylogarithmic update and query times, and uses O(n log^3n log m + m) space, where n is the number of sites in S and m is the number of vertices in P. The crucial ingredient in our data structure is an implicit representation of a vertical shallow cutting of the geodesic distance functions. We show that such an implicit representation exists, and that we can compute it efficiently.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Lars Arge, and Frank Staals. Improved Dynamic Geodesic Nearest Neighbor Searching in a Simple Polygon. In 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 99, pp. 4:1-4:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.4, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Arge, Lars and Staals, Frank}, title = {{Improved Dynamic Geodesic Nearest Neighbor Searching in a Simple Polygon}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)}, pages = {4:1--4:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-066-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {99}, editor = {Speckmann, Bettina and T\'{o}th, Csaba D.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-87175}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.4}, annote = {Keywords: data structure, simple polygon, geodesic distance, nearest neighbor searching, shallow cutting} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 101, 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)

We consider the problem of computing a Euclidean shortest path in the presence of removable obstacles in the plane. In particular, we have a collection of pairwise-disjoint polygonal obstacles, each of which may be removed at some cost c_i > 0. Given a cost budget C > 0, and a pair of points s, t, which obstacles should be removed to minimize the path length from s to t in the remaining workspace? We show that this problem is NP-hard even if the obstacles are vertical line segments. Our main result is a fully-polynomial time approximation scheme (FPTAS) for the case of convex polygons. Specifically, we compute an (1 + epsilon)-approximate shortest path in time O({nh}/{epsilon^2} log n log n/epsilon) with removal cost at most (1+epsilon)C, where h is the number of obstacles, n is the total number of obstacle vertices, and epsilon in (0, 1) is a user-specified parameter. Our approximation scheme also solves a shortest path problem for a stochastic model of obstacles, where each obstacle's presence is an independent event with a known probability. Finally, we also present a data structure that can answer s-t path queries in polylogarithmic time, for any pair of points s, t in the plane.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Neeraj Kumar, Stavros Sintos, and Subhash Suri. Computing Shortest Paths in the Plane with Removable Obstacles. In 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 101, pp. 5:1-5:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.5, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Kumar, Neeraj and Sintos, Stavros and Suri, Subhash}, title = {{Computing Shortest Paths in the Plane with Removable Obstacles}}, booktitle = {16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)}, pages = {5:1--5:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-068-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {101}, editor = {Eppstein, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88312}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.5}, annote = {Keywords: Euclidean shortest paths, Removable polygonal obstacles, Stochastic shortest paths, L\underline1 shortest paths} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 93, 37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017)

Let M be a triangulated, orientable 2-manifold of genus g without boundary, and let h be a height function over M that is linear within each triangle. We present a kinetic data structure (KDS) for
maintaining the Reeb graph R of h as the heights of M's vertices vary continuously with time. Assuming the heights of two vertices of M become equal only O(1) times, the KDS processes O((k + g) n \polylog n) events; n is the number of vertices in M, and k is the number of external events which change the combinatorial structure of R. Each event is processed in O(\log^2 n) time, and the total size of our KDS is O(gn). The KDS can be extended to maintain an augmented Reeb graph as well.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Kyle Fox, and Abhinandan Nath. Maintaining Reeb Graphs of Triangulated 2-Manifolds. In 37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 93, pp. 8:1-8:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.8, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Fox, Kyle and Nath, Abhinandan}, title = {{Maintaining Reeb Graphs of Triangulated 2-Manifolds}}, booktitle = {37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017)}, pages = {8:1--8:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-055-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {93}, editor = {Lokam, Satya and Ramanujam, R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-84043}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.8}, annote = {Keywords: Reeb graphs, 2-manifolds, topological graph theory} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 87, 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)

We consider the Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) problem where the input set consists of n k-flats in the Euclidean Rd, for any fixed parameters k<d, and where, for each query point q, we want to return an input flat whose distance from q is at most (1 + epsilon) times the shortest such distance, where epsilon > 0 is another prespecified parameter. We present an algorithm that achieves this task with n^{k+1}(log(n)/epsilon)^O(1) storage and preprocessing (where the constant of proportionality in the big-O notation depends on d), and can answer a query in O(polylog(n)) time (where the power of the logarithm depends on d and k). In particular, we need only near-quadratic storage to answer ANN queries amidst a set of n lines in any fixed-dimensional Euclidean space. As a by-product, our approach also yields an algorithm, with similar performance bounds, for answering exact nearest neighbor queries amidst k-flats with respect to any polyhedral distance function. Our results are more general, in that they also
provide a tradeoff between storage and query time.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Natan Rubin, and Micha Sharir. Approximate Nearest Neighbor Search Amid Higher-Dimensional Flats. In 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 87, pp. 4:1-4:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2017.4, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Rubin, Natan and Sharir, Micha}, title = {{Approximate Nearest Neighbor Search Amid Higher-Dimensional Flats}}, booktitle = {25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)}, pages = {4:1--4:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-049-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {87}, editor = {Pruhs, Kirk and Sohler, Christian}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-78182}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.4}, annote = {Keywords: Approximate nearest neighbor search, k-flats, Polyhedral distance functions, Linear programming queries} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 75, 16th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2017)

A regret minimizing set Q is a small size representation of a much larger database P so that user queries executed on Q return answers whose scores are not much worse than those on the full dataset. In particular, a k-regret minimizing set has the property that the regret ratio between the score of the top-1 item in Q and the score of the top-k item in P is minimized, where the score of an item is the inner product of the item's attributes with a user's weight (preference) vector. The problem is challenging because we want to find a single representative set Q whose regret ratio is small with respect to all possible user weight vectors.
We show that k-regret minimization is NP-Complete for all dimensions d>=3, settling an open problem from Chester et al. [VLDB 2014]. Our main algorithmic contributions are two approximation algorithms, both with provable guarantees, one based on coresets and another based on hitting sets. We perform extensive experimental evaluation of our algorithms, using both real-world and synthetic data, and compare their performance against the solution proposed in [VLDB 14]. The results show that our algorithms are significantly faster and scalable to much larger sets than the greedy algorithm of Chester et al. for comparable quality answers.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Nirman Kumar, Stavros Sintos, and Subhash Suri. Efficient Algorithms for k-Regret Minimizing Sets. In 16th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 75, pp. 7:1-7:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2017.7, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Kumar, Nirman and Sintos, Stavros and Suri, Subhash}, title = {{Efficient Algorithms for k-Regret Minimizing Sets}}, booktitle = {16th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2017)}, pages = {7:1--7:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-036-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {75}, editor = {Iliopoulos, Costas S. and Pissis, Solon P. and Puglisi, Simon J. and Raman, Rajeev}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2017.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-76321}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2017.7}, annote = {Keywords: regret minimizing sets, skyline, top-k query, coreset, hitting set} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 77, 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)

Let R, B be a set of n points in R^d, for constant d, where the points of R have integer supplies, points of B have integer demands, and the sum of supply is equal to the sum of demand. Let d(.,.) be a suitable distance function such as the L_p distance. The transportation problem asks to find a map tau : R x B --> N such that sum_{b in B}tau(r,b) = supply(r), sum_{r in R}tau(r,b) = demand(b), and sum_{r in R, b in B} tau(r,b) d(r,b) is minimized. We present three new results for the transportation problem when d(.,.) is any L_p metric:
* For any constant epsilon > 0, an O(n^{1+epsilon}) expected time randomized algorithm that returns a transportation map with expected cost O(log^2(1/epsilon)) times the optimal cost.
* For any epsilon > 0, a (1+epsilon)-approximation in O(n^{3/2}epsilon^{-d}polylog(U)polylog(n)) time, where U is the maximum supply or demand of any point.
* An exact strongly polynomial O(n^2 polylog n) time algorithm, for d = 2.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Kyle Fox, Debmalya Panigrahi, Kasturi R. Varadarajan, and Allen Xiao. Faster Algorithms for the Geometric Transportation Problem. In 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 77, pp. 7:1-7:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.7, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Fox, Kyle and Panigrahi, Debmalya and Varadarajan, Kasturi R. and Xiao, Allen}, title = {{Faster Algorithms for the Geometric Transportation Problem}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)}, pages = {7:1--7:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-038-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {77}, editor = {Aronov, Boris and Katz, Matthew J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-72344}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.7}, annote = {Keywords: transportation map, earth mover's distance, shape matching, approximation algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 64, 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)

Motivated by the increasing popularity of electric vehicles (EV) and a lack of charging stations in the road network, we study the shortest path hitting set (SPHS) problem. Roughly speaking, given an input graph G, the goal is to compute a small-size subset H of vertices of G such that by placing charging stations at vertices in H, every shortest path in G becomes EV-feasible, i.e., an EV can travel between any two vertices of G through the shortest path with a full charge. In this paper, we propose a bi-criteria approximation algorithm with running time near-linear in the size of G that has a logarithmic approximation on |H| and may require the EV to slightly deviate from the shortest path. We also present a data structure for computing an EV-feasible path between two query vertices of G.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Jiangwei Pan, and Will Victor. An Efficient Algorithm for Placing Electric Vehicle Charging Stations. In 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 64, pp. 7:1-7:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.7, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Pan, Jiangwei and Victor, Will}, title = {{An Efficient Algorithm for Placing Electric Vehicle Charging Stations}}, booktitle = {27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)}, pages = {7:1--7:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-026-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {64}, editor = {Hong, Seok-Hee}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-67782}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.7}, annote = {Keywords: Shortest path hitting set, Charging station placement, Electric vehicle} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 51, 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)

We present the first subquadratic algorithms for computing similarity between a pair of point sequences in R^d, for any fixed d > 1, using dynamic time warping (DTW) and edit distance, assuming that the point sequences are drawn from certain natural families of curves. In particular, our algorithms compute (1 + eps)-approximations of DTW and ED in near-linear time for point sequences drawn from k-packed or k-bounded curves, and subquadratic time for backbone sequences. Roughly speaking, a curve is k-packed if the length of its intersection with any ball of radius r is at most kr, and it is k-bounded if the sub-curve between two curve points does not go too far from the two points compared to the distance between the two points. In backbone sequences, consecutive points are spaced at approximately equal distances apart, and no two points lie very close together. Recent results suggest that a subquadratic algorithm for DTW or ED is unlikely for an arbitrary pair of point sequences even for d = 1.
The commonly used dynamic programming algorithms for these distance measures reduce the problem to computing a minimum-weight path in a grid graph. Our algorithms work by constructing a small set of rectangular regions that cover the grid vertices. The weights of vertices inside each rectangle are roughly the same, and we develop efficient procedures to compute the approximate minimum-weight paths through these rectangles.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Kyle Fox, Jiangwei Pan, and Rex Ying. Approximating Dynamic Time Warping and Edit Distance for a Pair of Point Sequences. In 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 51, pp. 6:1-6:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.6, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Fox, Kyle and Pan, Jiangwei and Ying, Rex}, title = {{Approximating Dynamic Time Warping and Edit Distance for a Pair of Point Sequences}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)}, pages = {6:1--6:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-009-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {51}, editor = {Fekete, S\'{a}ndor and Lubiw, Anna}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58989}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.6}, annote = {Keywords: Dynamic time warping, Edit distance, Near-linear-time algorithm, Dynamic programming, Well-separated pair decomposition} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 34, 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)

We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present a kinetic data structure (KDS) for maintaining T efficiently. It maintains certificates that fail, i.e., an event occurs, only when the heights of two adjacent vertices become equal or two saddle vertices appear on the same contour. Assuming that the heights of two vertices of Sigma become equal only O(1) times and these instances can be computed in O(1) time, the KDS processes O(kappa + n) events, where n is the number of vertices in Sigma and kappa is the number of events at which the combinatorial structure of T changes, and processes each event in O(log n) time. The KDS can be extended to maintain an augmented contour tree and a join/split tree.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Thomas Mølhave, Morten Revsbæk, Issam Safa, Yusu Wang, and Jungwoo Yang. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains. In 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 34, pp. 796-811, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.796, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and M{\o}lhave, Thomas and Revsb{\ae}k, Morten and Safa, Issam and Wang, Yusu and Yang, Jungwoo}, title = {{Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)}, pages = {796--811}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-83-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {34}, editor = {Arge, Lars and Pach, J\'{a}nos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.796}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-51406}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.796}, annote = {Keywords: Contour tree, dynamic terrain, kinetic data structure} }

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**Published in:** Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 1, Issue 3 (2011)

This report documents the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar
11111 ``Computational Geometry''. The Seminar gathered fifty-three
senior and younger researchers from various countries in the unique
atmosphere offered by Schloss Dagstuhl. Abstracts of talks are
collected in this report as well as a list of open problems.

Pankaj Kumar Agarwal, Kurt Mehlhorn, and Monique Teillaud. Computational Geometry (Dagstuhl Seminar 11111). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp. 19-41, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2011)

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@Article{agarwal_et_al:DagRep.1.3.19, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar and Mehlhorn, Kurt and Teillaud, Monique}, title = {{Computational Geometry (Dagstuhl Seminar 11111)}}, pages = {19--41}, journal = {Dagstuhl Reports}, ISSN = {2192-5283}, year = {2011}, volume = {1}, number = {3}, editor = {Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar and Mehlhorn, Kurt and Teillaud, Monique}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.1.3.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-31997}, doi = {10.4230/DagRep.1.3.19}, annote = {Keywords: Algorithms, geometry, combinatorics, topology, theory, applications, implementation} }

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**Published in:** Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 9111, Computational Geometry (2009)

From March 8 to March 13, 2009, the Dagstuhl Seminar 09111 ``Computational Geometry '' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl~--~Leibniz Center for Informatics.
During the seminar, several participants presented their current
research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of
the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of
seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section
describes the seminar topics and goals in general.
Links to extended abstracts or full papers are provided, if available.

Pankaj Kumar Agarwal, Helmut Alt, and Monique Teillaud. 09111 Abstracts Collection – Computational Geometry. In Computational Geometry. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 9111, pp. 1-18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2009)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:DagSemProc.09111.1, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar and Alt, Helmut and Teillaud, Monique}, title = {{09111 Abstracts Collection – Computational Geometry}}, booktitle = {Computational Geometry}, pages = {1--18}, series = {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)}, ISSN = {1862-4405}, year = {2009}, volume = {9111}, editor = {Pankaj Kumar Agarwal and Helmut Alt and Monique Teillaud}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.09111.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-20346}, doi = {10.4230/DagSemProc.09111.1}, annote = {Keywords: } }

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