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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

We consider the question of polynomial kernelization of a generalization of the classical Vertex Cover problem parameterized by a parameter that is provably smaller than the solution size. In particular, we focus on the c-Component Order Connectivity problem (c-COC) where given an undirected graph G and a non-negative integer t, the objective is to test whether there exists a set S of size at most t such that every component of G-S contains at most c vertices. Such a set S is called a c-coc set. It is known that c-COC admits a kernel with {O}(ct) vertices. Observe that for c = 1, this corresponds to the Vertex Cover problem.
We study the c-Component Order Connectivity problem parameterized by the size of a d-coc set (c-COC/d-COC), where c,d ∈ ℕ with c ≤ d. In particular, the input is an undirected graph G, a positive integer t and a set M of at most k vertices of G, such that the size of each connected component in G - M is at most d. The question is to find a set S of vertices of size at most t, such that the size of each connected component in G - S is at most c. In this paper, we give a kernel for c-COC/d-COC with O(k^{d-c+1}) vertices and O(k^{d-c+2}) edges. Our result exhibits that the difference in d and c, and not their absolute values, determines the exact degree of the polynomial in the kernel size.
When c = d = 1, the c-COC/d-COC problem is exactly the Vertex Cover problem parameterized by the solution size, which has a kernel with O(k) vertices and O(k²) edges, and this is asymptotically tight [Dell & Melkebeek, JACM 2014]. We also show that the dependence of d-c in the exponent of the kernel size cannot be avoided under reasonable complexity assumptions.

Sriram Bhyravarapu, Satyabrata Jana, Saket Saurabh, and Roohani Sharma. Difference Determines the Degree: Structural Kernelizations of Component Order Connectivity. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 5:1-5:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bhyravarapu_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.5, author = {Bhyravarapu, Sriram and Jana, Satyabrata and Saurabh, Saket and Sharma, Roohani}, title = {{Difference Determines the Degree: Structural Kernelizations of Component Order Connectivity}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {5:1--5:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194241}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.5}, annote = {Keywords: Kernelization, Component Order Connectivity, Vertex Cover, Structural Parameterizations} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 241, 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)

A Conflict-Free Open Neighborhood coloring, abbreviated CFON^* coloring, of a graph G = (V,E) using k colors is an assignment of colors from a set of k colors to a subset of vertices of V(G) such that every vertex sees some color exactly once in its open neighborhood. The minimum k for which G has a CFON^* coloring using k colors is called the CFON^* chromatic number of G, denoted by χ_{ON}^*(G). The analogous notion for closed neighborhood is called CFCN^* coloring and the analogous parameter is denoted by χ_{CN}^*(G). The problem of deciding whether a given graph admits a CFON^* (or CFCN^*) coloring that uses k colors is NP-complete. Below, we describe briefly the main results of this paper.
- For k ≥ 3, we show that if G is a K_{1,k}-free graph then χ_{ON}^*(G) = O(k²log Δ), where Δ denotes the maximum degree of G. Dębski and Przybyło in [J. Graph Theory, 2021] had shown that if G is a line graph, then χ_{CN}^*(G) = O(log Δ). As an open question, they had asked if their result could be extended to claw-free (K_{1,3}-free) graphs, which are a superclass of line graphs. Since it is known that the CFCN^* chromatic number of a graph is at most twice its CFON^* chromatic number, our result positively answers the open question posed by Dębski and Przybyło.
- We show that if the minimum degree of any vertex in G is Ω(Δ/{log^ε Δ}) for some ε ≥ 0, then χ_{ON}^*(G) = O(log^{1+ε}Δ). This is a generalization of the result given by Dębski and Przybyło in the same paper where they showed that if the minimum degree of any vertex in G is Ω(Δ), then χ_{ON}^*(G)= O(logΔ).
- We give a polynomial time algorithm to compute χ_{ON}^*(G) for interval graphs G. This answers in positive the open question posed by Reddy [Theoretical Comp. Science, 2018] to determine whether the CFON^* chromatic number can be computed in polynomial time on interval graphs.
- We explore biconvex graphs, a subclass of bipartite graphs and give a polynomial time algorithm to compute their CFON^* chromatic number. This is interesting as Abel et al. [SIDMA, 2018] had shown that it is NP-complete to decide whether a planar bipartite graph G has χ_{ON}^*(G) = k where k ∈ {1, 2, 3}.

Sriram Bhyravarapu, Subrahmanyam Kalyanasundaram, and Rogers Mathew. Conflict-Free Coloring on Claw-Free Graphs and Interval Graphs. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 19:1-19:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bhyravarapu_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.19, author = {Bhyravarapu, Sriram and Kalyanasundaram, Subrahmanyam and Mathew, Rogers}, title = {{Conflict-Free Coloring on Claw-Free Graphs and Interval Graphs}}, booktitle = {47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)}, pages = {19:1--19:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-256-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {241}, editor = {Szeider, Stefan and Ganian, Robert and Silva, Alexandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-168173}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.19}, annote = {Keywords: Conflict-free coloring, Interval graphs, Bipartite graphs, Claw-free graphs} }