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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 306, 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)

We introduce a dense counterpart of graph degeneracy, which extends the recently-proposed invariant symmetric difference. We say that a graph has sd-degeneracy (for symmetric-difference degeneracy) at most d if it admits an elimination order of its vertices where a vertex u can be removed whenever it has a d-twin, i.e., another vertex v such that at most d vertices outside {u,v} are neighbors of exactly one of u, v. The family of graph classes of bounded sd-degeneracy is a superset of that of graph classes of bounded degeneracy or of bounded flip-width, and more generally, of bounded symmetric difference. Unlike most graph parameters, sd-degeneracy is not hereditary: it may be strictly smaller on a graph than on some of its induced subgraphs. In particular, every n-vertex graph is an induced subgraph of some O(n²)-vertex graph of sd-degeneracy 1. In spite of this and the breadth of classes of bounded sd-degeneracy, we devise Õ(√n)-bit adjacency labeling schemes for them, which are optimal up to the hidden polylogarithmic factor. This is attained on some even more general classes, consisting of graphs G whose vertices bijectively map to the leaves of a tree T, where transversal edges and anti-edges added to T define the edge set of G. We call such graph representations signed tree models as they extend the so-called tree models (or twin-decompositions) developed in the context of twin-width, by adding transversal anti-edges.
While computing the degeneracy of a graph takes linear time, we show that determining its symmetric difference is para-co-NP-complete. This may seem surprising as symmetric difference can serve as a short-sighted first approximation of twin-width, whose computation is para-NP-complete. Indeed, we show that deciding if the symmetric difference of an input graph is at most 8 is co-NP-complete. We also show that deciding if the sd-degeneracy is at most 6 is NP-complete, contrasting with the symmetric difference.

Édouard Bonnet, Julien Duron, John Sylvester, and Viktor Zamaraev. Symmetric-Difference (Degeneracy) and Signed Tree Models. In 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 306, pp. 32:1-32:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.32, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Duron, Julien and Sylvester, John and Zamaraev, Viktor}, title = {{Symmetric-Difference (Degeneracy) and Signed Tree Models}}, booktitle = {49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)}, pages = {32:1--32:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-335-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {306}, editor = {Kr\'{a}lovi\v{c}, Rastislav and Ku\v{c}era, Anton{\'\i}n}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-205886}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.32}, annote = {Keywords: symmetric difference, degeneracy, adjacency labeling schemes, NP-hardness} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

A class of graphs admits an adjacency labeling scheme of size b(n), if the vertices in each of its n-vertex graphs can be assigned binary strings (called labels) of length b(n) so that the adjacency of two vertices can be determined solely from their labels.
We give bounds on the size of adjacency labels for every family of monotone (i.e., subgraph-closed) classes with a "well-behaved" growth function between 2^Ω(n log n) and 2^O(n^{2-δ}) for any δ > 0. Specifically, we show that for any function f: ℕ → ℝ satisfying log n ⩽ f(n) ⩽ n^{1-δ} for any fixed δ > 0, and some sub-multiplicativity condition, there are monotone graph classes with growth 2^O(nf(n)) that do not admit adjacency labels of size at most f(n) log n. On the other hand, any such class does admit adjacency labels of size O(f(n)log n). Surprisingly this bound is a Θ(log n) factor away from the information-theoretic bound of Ω(f(n)). Our bounds are tight upto constant factors, and the special case when f = log implies that the recently-refuted Implicit Graph Conjecture [Hatami and Hatami, FOCS 2022] also fails within monotone classes.
We further show that the Implicit Graph Conjecture holds for all monotone small classes. In other words, any monotone class with growth rate at most n! cⁿ for some constant c > 0, admits adjacency labels of information-theoretic order optimal size. In fact, we show a more general result that is of independent interest: any monotone small class of graphs has bounded degeneracy. We conjecture that the Implicit Graph Conjecture holds for all hereditary small classes.

Édouard Bonnet, Julien Duron, John Sylvester, Viktor Zamaraev, and Maksim Zhukovskii. Tight Bounds on Adjacency Labels for Monotone Graph Classes. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 31:1-31:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.31, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Duron, Julien and Sylvester, John and Zamaraev, Viktor and Zhukovskii, Maksim}, title = {{Tight Bounds on Adjacency Labels for Monotone Graph Classes}}, booktitle = {51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)}, pages = {31:1--31:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-322-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {297}, editor = {Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201741}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.31}, annote = {Keywords: Adjacency labeling, degeneracy, monotone classes, small classes, factorial classes, implicit graph conjecture} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

In this paper, we show that Treewidth is NP-complete for cubic graphs, thereby improving the result by Bodlaender and Thilikos from 1997 that Treewidth is NP-complete on graphs with maximum degree at most 9. We add a new and simpler proof of the NP-completeness of treewidth, and show that Treewidth remains NP-complete on subcubic induced subgraphs of the infinite 3-dimensional grid.

Hans L. Bodlaender, Édouard Bonnet, Lars Jaffke, Dušan Knop, Paloma T. Lima, Martin Milanič, Sebastian Ordyniak, Sukanya Pandey, and Ondřej Suchý. Treewidth Is NP-Complete on Cubic Graphs. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 7:1-7:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bodlaender_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.7, author = {Bodlaender, Hans L. and Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Jaffke, Lars and Knop, Du\v{s}an and Lima, Paloma T. and Milani\v{c}, Martin and Ordyniak, Sebastian and Pandey, Sukanya and Such\'{y}, Ond\v{r}ej}, title = {{Treewidth Is NP-Complete on Cubic Graphs}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {7:1--7:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194263}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.7}, annote = {Keywords: Treewidth, cubic graphs, degree, NP-completeness} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

We introduce a new parameter, called stretch-width, that we show sits strictly between clique-width and twin-width. Unlike the reduced parameters [BKW '22], planar graphs and polynomial subdivisions do not have bounded stretch-width. This leaves open the possibility of efficient algorithms for a broad fragment of problems within Monadic Second-Order (MSO) logic on graphs of bounded stretch-width. In this direction, we prove that graphs of bounded maximum degree and bounded stretch-width have at most logarithmic treewidth. As a consequence, in classes of bounded stretch-width, Maximum Independent Set can be solved in subexponential time 2^{Õ(n^{8/9})} on n-vertex graphs, and, if further the maximum degree is bounded, Existential Counting Modal Logic [Pilipczuk '11] can be model-checked in polynomial time. We also give a polynomial-time O(OPT²)-approximation for the stretch-width of symmetric 0,1-matrices or ordered graphs.
Somewhat unexpectedly, we prove that exponential subdivisions of bounded-degree graphs have bounded stretch-width. This allows to complement the logarithmic upper bound of treewidth with a matching lower bound. We leave as open the existence of an efficient approximation algorithm for the stretch-width of unordered graphs, if the exponential subdivisions of all graphs have bounded stretch-width, and if graphs of bounded stretch-width have logarithmic clique-width (or rank-width).

Édouard Bonnet and Julien Duron. Stretch-Width. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 8:1-8:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.8, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Duron, Julien}, title = {{Stretch-Width}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {8:1--8:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194279}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.8}, annote = {Keywords: Contraction sequences, twin-width, clique-width, algorithms, algorithmic metatheorems} }

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PACE Solver Description

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

We present RedAlert, a heuristic solver for twin-width, submitted to the Heuristic Track of the 2023 edition of the Parameterized Algorithms and Computational Experiments (PACE) challenge.

Édouard Bonnet and Julien Duron. PACE Solver Description: RedAlert - Heuristic Track. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 40:1-40:5, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.40, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Duron, Julien}, title = {{PACE Solver Description: RedAlert - Heuristic Track}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {40:1--40:5}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194591}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.40}, annote = {Keywords: twin-width, contraction sequences, heuristic, pair sampling, pair filtering} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

Dallard, Milanič, and Štorgel [arXiv '22] ask if, for every class excluding a fixed planar graph H as an induced minor, Maximum Independent Set can be solved in polynomial time, and show that this is indeed the case when H is any planar complete bipartite graph, or the 5-vertex clique minus one edge, or minus two disjoint edges. A positive answer would constitute a far-reaching generalization of the state-of-the-art, when we currently do not know if a polynomial-time algorithm exists when H is the 7-vertex path. Relaxing tractability to the existence of a quasipolynomial-time algorithm, we know substantially more. Indeed, quasipolynomial-time algorithms were recently obtained for the t-vertex cycle, C_t [Gartland et al., STOC '21], and the disjoint union of t triangles, tC₃ [Bonamy et al., SODA '23].
We give, for every integer t, a polynomial-time algorithm running in n^O(t⁵) when H is the friendship graph K₁ + tK₂ (t disjoint edges plus a vertex fully adjacent to them), and a quasipolynomial-time algorithm running in n^{O(t² log n) + f(t)}, with f a single-exponential function, when H is tC₃ ⊎ C₄ (the disjoint union of t triangles and a 4-vertex cycle). The former generalizes the algorithm readily obtained from Alekseev’s structural result on graphs excluding tK₂ as an induced subgraph [Alekseev, DAM '07], while the latter extends Bonamy et al.’s result.

Édouard Bonnet, Julien Duron, Colin Geniet, Stéphan Thomassé, and Alexandra Wesolek. Maximum Independent Set When Excluding an Induced Minor: K₁ + tK₂ and tC₃ ⊎ C₄. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 23:1-23:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.23, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Duron, Julien and Geniet, Colin and Thomass\'{e}, St\'{e}phan and Wesolek, Alexandra}, title = {{Maximum Independent Set When Excluding an Induced Minor: K₁ + tK₂ and tC₃ ⊎ C₄}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {23:1--23:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186769}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.23}, annote = {Keywords: Maximum Independent Set, forbidden induced minors, quasipolynomial-time algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 254, 40th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2023)

For any ε > 0, we give a polynomial-time n^ε-approximation algorithm for Max Independent Set in graphs of bounded twin-width given with an O(1)-sequence. This result is derived from the following time-approximation trade-off: We establish an O(1)^{2^q-1}-approximation algorithm running in time exp(O_q(n^{2^{-q}})), for every integer q ⩾ 0. Guided by the same framework, we obtain similar approximation algorithms for Min Coloring and Max Induced Matching. In general graphs, all these problems are known to be highly inapproximable: for any ε > 0, a polynomial-time n^{1-ε}-approximation for any of them would imply that P=NP [Håstad, FOCS '96; Zuckerman, ToC '07; Chalermsook et al., SODA '13]. We generalize the algorithms for Max Independent Set and Max Induced Matching to the independent (induced) packing of any fixed connected graph H.
In contrast, we show that such approximation guarantees on graphs of bounded twin-width given with an O(1)-sequence are very unlikely for Min Independent Dominating Set, and somewhat unlikely for Longest Path and Longest Induced Path. Regarding the existence of better approximation algorithms, there is a (very) light evidence that the obtained approximation factor of n^ε for Max Independent Set may be best possible. This is the first in-depth study of the approximability of problems in graphs of bounded twin-width. Prior to this paper, essentially the only such result was a polynomial-time O(1)-approximation algorithm for Min Dominating Set [Bonnet et al., ICALP '21].

Pierre Bergé, Édouard Bonnet, Hugues Déprés, and Rémi Watrigant. Approximating Highly Inapproximable Problems on Graphs of Bounded Twin-Width. In 40th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 254, pp. 10:1-10:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{berge_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2023.10, author = {Berg\'{e}, Pierre and Bonnet, \'{E}douard and D\'{e}pr\'{e}s, Hugues and Watrigant, R\'{e}mi}, title = {{Approximating Highly Inapproximable Problems on Graphs of Bounded Twin-Width}}, booktitle = {40th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2023)}, pages = {10:1--10:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-266-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {254}, editor = {Berenbrink, Petra and Bouyer, Patricia and Dawar, Anuj and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2023.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-176629}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2023.10}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation algorithms, bounded twin-width} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 254, 40th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2023)

We continue developing the theory around the twin-width of totally ordered binary structures (or equivalently, matrices over a finite alphabet), initiated in the previous paper of the series. We first introduce the notion of parity and linear minors of a matrix, which consists of iteratively replacing consecutive rows or consecutive columns with a linear combination of them. We show that a matrix class (i.e., a set of matrices closed under taking submatrices) has bounded twin-width if and only if its linear-minor closure does not contain all matrices. We observe that the fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) algorithm for first-order model checking on structures given with an O(1)-sequence (certificate of bounded twin-width) and the fact that first-order transductions of bounded twin-width classes have bounded twin-width, both established in Twin-width I, extend to first-order logic with modular counting quantifiers. We make explicit a win-win argument obtained as a by-product of Twin-width IV, and somewhat similar to bidimensionality, that we call rank-bidimensionality. This generalizes the seminal work of Guillemot and Marx [SODA '14], which builds on the Marcus-Tardos theorem [JCTA '04]. It works on general matrices (not only on classes of bounded twin-width) and, for example, yields FPT algorithms deciding if a small matrix is a parity or a linear minor of another matrix given in input, or exactly computing the grid or mixed number of a given matrix (i.e., the maximum integer k such that the row set and the column set of the matrix can be partitioned into k intervals, with each of the k² defined cells containing a non-zero entry, or two distinct rows and two distinct columns, respectively).
Armed with the above-mentioned extension to modular counting, we show that the twin-width of the product of two conformal matrices A, B (i.e., whose dimensions are such that AB is defined) over a finite field is bounded by a function of the twin-width of A, of B, and of the size of the field. Furthermore, if A and B are n × n matrices of twin-width d over F_q, we show that AB can be computed in time O_{d,q}(n² log n).
We finally present an ad hoc algorithm to efficiently multiply two matrices of bounded twin-width, with a single-exponential dependence in the twin-width bound. More precisely, pipelined to observations and results of Pilipczuk et al. [STACS '22], we obtain the following. If the inputs are given in a compact tree-like form (witnessing twin-width at most d), called twin-decomposition of width d, then two n × n matrices A, B over F₂ can be multiplied in time 4^{d+o(d)}n, in the sense that a twin-decomposition of their product AB, with width 2^{d+o(d)}, is output within that time, and each entry of AB can be queried in time O_d(log log n). Furthermore, for every ε > 0, the query time can be brought to constant time O(1/ε) if the running time is increased to near-linear 4^{d+o(d)}n^{1+ε}. Notably, the running time is sublinear (essentially square root) in the number of (non-zero) entries.

Édouard Bonnet, Ugo Giocanti, Patrice Ossona de Mendez, and Stéphan Thomassé. Twin-Width V: Linear Minors, Modular Counting, and Matrix Multiplication. In 40th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 254, pp. 15:1-15:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2023.15, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Giocanti, Ugo and Ossona de Mendez, Patrice and Thomass\'{e}, St\'{e}phan}, title = {{Twin-Width V: Linear Minors, Modular Counting, and Matrix Multiplication}}, booktitle = {40th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2023)}, pages = {15:1--15:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-266-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {254}, editor = {Berenbrink, Petra and Bouyer, Patricia and Dawar, Anuj and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2023.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-176675}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2023.15}, annote = {Keywords: Twin-width, matrices, parity and linear minors, model theory, linear algebra, matrix multiplication, algorithms, computational complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 249, 17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022)

We introduce the notion of delineation. A graph class C is said delineated by twin-width (or simply, delineated) if for every hereditary closure D of a subclass of C, it holds that D has bounded twin-width if and only if D is monadically dependent. An effective strengthening of delineation for a class C implies that tractable FO model checking on C is perfectly understood: On hereditary closures of subclasses D of C, FO model checking on D is fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) exactly when D has bounded twin-width. Ordered graphs [BGOdMSTT, STOC '22] and permutation graphs [BKTW, JACM '22] are effectively delineated, while subcubic graphs are not. On the one hand, we prove that interval graphs, and even, rooted directed path graphs are delineated. On the other hand, we observe or show that segment graphs, directed path graphs (with arbitrarily many roots), and visibility graphs of simple polygons are not delineated.
In an effort to draw the delineation frontier between interval graphs (that are delineated) and axis-parallel two-lengthed segment graphs (that are not), we investigate the twin-width of restricted segment intersection classes. It was known that (triangle-free) pure axis-parallel unit segment graphs have unbounded twin-width [BGKTW, SODA '21]. We show that K_{t,t}-free segment graphs, and axis-parallel H_t-free unit segment graphs have bounded twin-width, where H_t is the half-graph or ladder of height t. In contrast, axis-parallel H₄-free two-lengthed segment graphs have unbounded twin-width. We leave as an open question whether unit segment graphs are delineated.
More broadly, we explore which structures (large bicliques, half-graphs, or independent sets) are responsible for making the twin-width large on the main classes of intersection and visibility graphs. Our new results, combined with the FPT algorithm for first-order model checking on graphs given with O(1)-sequences [BKTW, JACM '22], give rise to a variety of algorithmic win-win arguments. They all fall in the same framework: If p is an FO definable graph parameter that effectively functionally upperbounds twin-width on a class C, then p(G) ⩾ k can be decided in FPT time f(k) ⋅ |V(G)|^O(1). For instance, we readily derive FPT algorithms for k-Ladder on visibility graphs of 1.5D terrains, and k-Independent Set on visibility graphs of simple polygons. This showcases that the theory of twin-width can serve outside of classes of bounded twin-width.

Édouard Bonnet, Dibyayan Chakraborty, Eun Jung Kim, Noleen Köhler, Raul Lopes, and Stéphan Thomassé. Twin-Width VIII: Delineation and Win-Wins. In 17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 249, pp. 9:1-9:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.9, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Chakraborty, Dibyayan and Kim, Eun Jung and K\"{o}hler, Noleen and Lopes, Raul and Thomass\'{e}, St\'{e}phan}, title = {{Twin-Width VIII: Delineation and Win-Wins}}, booktitle = {17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022)}, pages = {9:1--9:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-260-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {249}, editor = {Dell, Holger and Nederlof, Jesper}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173650}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.9}, annote = {Keywords: Twin-width, intersection graphs, visibility graphs, monadic dependence and stability, first-order model checking} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

We show that determining if an n-vertex graph has twin-width at most 4 is NP-complete, and requires time 2^Ω(n/log n) unless the Exponential-Time Hypothesis fails. Along the way, we give an elementary proof that n-vertex graphs subdivided at least 2 log n times have twin-width at most 4. We also show how to encode trigraphs H (2-edge colored graphs involved in the definition of twin-width) into graphs G, in the sense that every d-sequence (sequence of vertex contractions witnessing that the twin-width is at most d) of G inevitably creates H as an induced subtrigraph, whereas there exists a partial d-sequence that actually goes from G to H. We believe that these facts and their proofs can be of independent interest.

Pierre Bergé, Édouard Bonnet, and Hugues Déprés. Deciding Twin-Width at Most 4 Is NP-Complete. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 18:1-18:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{berge_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.18, author = {Berg\'{e}, Pierre and Bonnet, \'{E}douard and D\'{e}pr\'{e}s, Hugues}, title = {{Deciding Twin-Width at Most 4 Is NP-Complete}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {18:1--18:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163595}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.18}, annote = {Keywords: Twin-width, lower bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 214, 16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021)

We study the existence of polynomial kernels for parameterized problems without a polynomial kernel on general graphs, when restricted to graphs of bounded twin-width. It was previously observed in [Bonnet et al., ICALP'21] that the problem k-Independent Set allows no polynomial kernel on graph of bounded twin-width by a very simple argument, which extends to several other problems such as k-Independent Dominating Set, k-Path, k-Induced Path, k-Induced Matching. In this work, we examine the k-Dominating Set and variants of k-Vertex Cover for the existence of polynomial kernels.
As a main result, we show that k-Dominating Set does not admit a polynomial kernel on graphs of twin-width at most 4 under a standard complexity-theoretic assumption. The reduction is intricate, especially due to the effort to bring the twin-width down to 4, and it can be tweaked to work for Connected k-Dominating Set and Total k-Dominating Set with a slightly worse bound on the twin-width.
On the positive side, we obtain a simple quadratic vertex kernel for Connected k-Vertex Cover and Capacitated k-Vertex Cover on graphs of bounded twin-width. These kernels rely on that graphs of bounded twin-width have Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC) density 1, that is, for any vertex set X, the number of distinct neighborhoods in X is at most c⋅|X|, where c is a constant depending only on the twin-width. Interestingly the kernel applies to any graph class of VC density 1, and does not require a witness sequence. We also present a more intricate O(k^{1.5}) vertex kernel for Connected k-Vertex Cover.
Finally we show that deciding if a graph has twin-width at most 1 can be done in polynomial time, and observe that most graph optimization/decision problems can be solved in polynomial time on graphs of twin-width at most 1.

Édouard Bonnet, Eun Jung Kim, Amadeus Reinald, Stéphan Thomassé, and Rémi Watrigant. Twin-Width and Polynomial Kernels. In 16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 214, pp. 10:1-10:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.10, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Kim, Eun Jung and Reinald, Amadeus and Thomass\'{e}, St\'{e}phan and Watrigant, R\'{e}mi}, title = {{Twin-Width and Polynomial Kernels}}, booktitle = {16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021)}, pages = {10:1--10:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-216-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {214}, editor = {Golovach, Petr A. and Zehavi, Meirav}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-153932}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.10}, annote = {Keywords: Twin-width, kernelization, lower bounds, Dominating Set} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

We show, assuming the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis, that for every ε > 0, approximating undirected unweighted Diameter on n-vertex m-edge graphs within ratio 7/4 - ε requires m^{4/3 - o(1)} time, even when m = Õ(n). This is the first result that conditionally rules out a near-linear time 5/3-approximation for undirected Diameter.

Édouard Bonnet. 4 vs 7 Sparse Undirected Unweighted Diameter is SETH-Hard at Time n^{4/3}. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 34:1-34:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{bonnet:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.34, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard}, title = {{4 vs 7 Sparse Undirected Unweighted Diameter is SETH-Hard at Time n^\{4/3\}}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {34:1--34:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141034}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.34}, annote = {Keywords: Diameter, inapproximability, SETH lower bounds, k-Orthogonal Vectors} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

We recently introduced the notion of twin-width, a novel graph invariant, and showed that first-order model checking can be solved in time f(d,k)n for n-vertex graphs given with a witness that the twin-width is at most d, called d-contraction sequence or d-sequence, and formulas of size k [Bonnet et al., FOCS '20]. The inevitable price to pay for such a general result is that f is a tower of exponentials of height roughly k. In this paper, we show that algorithms based on twin-width need not be impractical. We present 2^{O(k)}n-time algorithms for k-Independent Set, r-Scattered Set, k-Clique, and k-Dominating Set when an O(1)-sequence of the graph is given in input. We further show how to solve the weighted version of k-Independent Set, Subgraph Isomorphism, and Induced Subgraph Isomorphism, in the slightly worse running time 2^{O(k log k)}n. Up to logarithmic factors in the exponent, all these running times are optimal, unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis fails. Like our FO model checking algorithm, these new algorithms are based on a dynamic programming scheme following the sequence of contractions forward.
We then show a second algorithmic use of the contraction sequence, by starting at its end and rewinding it. As an example of such a reverse scheme, we present a polynomial-time algorithm that properly colors the vertices of a graph with relatively few colors, thereby establishing that bounded twin-width classes are χ-bounded. This significantly extends the χ-boundedness of bounded rank-width classes, and does so with a very concise proof. It readily yields a constant approximation for Max Independent Set on K_t-free graphs of bounded twin-width, and a 2^{O(OPT)}-approximation for Min Coloring on bounded twin-width graphs. We further observe that a constant approximation for Max Independent Set on bounded twin-width graphs (but arbitrarily large clique number) would actually imply a PTAS.
The third algorithmic use of twin-width builds on the second one. Playing the contraction sequence backward, we show that bounded twin-width graphs can be edge-partitioned into a linear number of bicliques, such that both sides of the bicliques are on consecutive vertices, in a fixed vertex ordering. This property is trivially shared with graphs of bounded average degree. Given that biclique edge-partition, we show how to solve the unweighted Single-Source Shortest Paths and hence All-Pairs Shortest Paths in time O(n log n) and time O(n² log n), respectively. In sharp contrast, even Diameter does not admit a truly subquadratic algorithm on bounded twin-width graphs, unless the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis fails.
The fourth algorithmic use of twin-width builds on the so-called versatile tree of contractions [Bonnet et al., SODA '21], a branching and more robust witness of low twin-width. We present constant-approximation algorithms for Min Dominating Set and related problems, on bounded twin-width graphs, by showing that the integrality gap is constant. This is done by going down the versatile tree and stopping accordingly to a problem-dependent criterion. At the reached node, a greedy approach yields the desired approximation.

Édouard Bonnet, Colin Geniet, Eun Jung Kim, Stéphan Thomassé, and Rémi Watrigant. Twin-width III: Max Independent Set, Min Dominating Set, and Coloring. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 35:1-35:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.35, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Geniet, Colin and Kim, Eun Jung and Thomass\'{e}, St\'{e}phan and Watrigant, R\'{e}mi}, title = {{Twin-width III: Max Independent Set, Min Dominating Set, and Coloring}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {35:1--35:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141044}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.35}, annote = {Keywords: Twin-width, Max Independent Set, Min Dominating Set, Coloring, Parameterized Algorithms, Approximation Algorithms, Exact Algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

We show, assuming the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis, that for every ε > 0, approximating directed Diameter on m-arc graphs within ratio 7/4 - ε requires m^{4/3 - o(1)} time. Our construction uses non-negative edge weights but even holds for sparse digraphs, i.e., for which the number of vertices n and the number of arcs m satisfy m = O˜(n). This is the first result that conditionally rules out a near-linear time 5/3-approximation for a variant of Diameter.

Édouard Bonnet. Inapproximability of Diameter in Super-Linear Time: Beyond the 5/3 Ratio. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 17:1-17:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{bonnet:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.17, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard}, title = {{Inapproximability of Diameter in Super-Linear Time: Beyond the 5/3 Ratio}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {17:1--17:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136623}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.17}, annote = {Keywords: Diameter, inapproximability, SETH lower bounds, k-Orthogonal Vectors} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 180, 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)

The Cut & Count technique and the rank-based approach have lead to single-exponential FPT algorithms parameterized by treewidth, that is, running in time 2^𝒪(tw)n^𝒪(1), for Feedback Vertex Set and connected versions of the classical graph problems (such as Vertex Cover and Dominating Set). We show that Subset Feedback Vertex Set, Subset Odd Cycle Transversal, Restricted Edge-Subset Feedback Edge Set, Node Multiway Cut, and Multiway Cut are unlikely to have such running times. More precisely, we match algorithms running in time 2^𝒪(tw log tw)n^𝒪(1) with tight lower bounds under the Exponential Time Hypothesis, ruling out 2^o(tw log tw)n^𝒪(1), where n is the number of vertices and tw is the treewidth of the input graph. Our algorithms extend to the weighted case, while our lower bounds also hold for the larger parameter pathwidth and do not require weights. We also show that, in contrast to Odd Cycle Transversal, there is no 2^o(tw log tw)n^𝒪(1)-time algorithm for Even Cycle Transversal.

Benjamin Bergougnoux, Édouard Bonnet, Nick Brettell, and O-joung Kwon. Close Relatives of Feedback Vertex Set Without Single-Exponential Algorithms Parameterized by Treewidth. In 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 180, pp. 3:1-3:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bergougnoux_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.3, author = {Bergougnoux, Benjamin and Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Brettell, Nick and Kwon, O-joung}, title = {{Close Relatives of Feedback Vertex Set Without Single-Exponential Algorithms Parameterized by Treewidth}}, booktitle = {15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)}, pages = {3:1--3:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-172-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {180}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Pilipczuk, Marcin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133066}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.3}, annote = {Keywords: Subset Feedback Vertex Set, Multiway Cut, Parameterized Algorithms, Treewidth, Graph Modification, Vertex Deletion Problems} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 182, 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)

We study the complexity of Maximum Clique in intersection graphs of convex objects in the plane. On the algorithmic side, we extend the polynomial-time algorithm for unit disks [Clark '90, Raghavan and Spinrad '03] to translates of any fixed convex set. We also generalize the efficient polynomial-time approximation scheme (EPTAS) and subexponential algorithm for disks [Bonnet et al. '18, Bonamy et al. '18] to homothets of a fixed centrally symmetric convex set.
The main open question on that topic is the complexity of Maximum Clique in disk graphs. It is not known whether this problem is NP-hard. We observe that, so far, all the hardness proofs for Maximum Clique in intersection graph classes I follow the same road. They show that, for every graph G of a large-enough class C, the complement of an even subdivision of G belongs to the intersection class I. Then they conclude by invoking the hardness of Maximum Independent Set on the class C, and the fact that the even subdivision preserves that hardness. However there is a strong evidence that this approach cannot work for disk graphs [Bonnet et al. '18]. We suggest a new approach, based on a problem that we dub Max Interval Permutation Avoidance, which we prove unlikely to have a subexponential-time approximation scheme. We transfer that hardness to Maximum Clique in intersection graphs of objects which can be either half-planes (or unit disks) or axis-parallel rectangles. That problem is not amenable to the previous approach. We hope that a scaled down (merely NP-hard) variant of Max Interval Permutation Avoidance could help making progress on the disk case, for instance by showing the NP-hardness for (convex) pseudo-disks.

Édouard Bonnet, Nicolas Grelier, and Tillmann Miltzow. Maximum Clique in Disk-Like Intersection Graphs. In 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 182, pp. 17:1-17:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.17, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Grelier, Nicolas and Miltzow, Tillmann}, title = {{Maximum Clique in Disk-Like Intersection Graphs}}, booktitle = {40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)}, pages = {17:1--17:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-174-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {182}, editor = {Saxena, Nitin and Simon, Sunil}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-132587}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.17}, annote = {Keywords: Disk Graphs, Intersection Graphs, Maximum Clique, Algorithms, NP-hardness, APX-hardness} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)

We study the approximability of the Maximum Independent Set (MIS) problem in H-free graphs (that is, graphs which do not admit H as an induced subgraph). As one motivation we investigate the following conjecture: for every fixed graph H, there exists a constant δ > 0 such that MIS can be n^{1-δ}-approximated in H-free graphs, where n denotes the number of vertices of the input graph. We first prove that a constructive version of the celebrated Erdős-Hajnal conjecture implies ours. We then prove that the set of graphs H satisfying our conjecture is closed under the so-called graph substitution. This, together with the known polynomial-time algorithms for MIS in H-free graphs (e.g. P₆-free and fork-free graphs), implies that our conjecture holds for many graphs H for which the Erdős-Hajnal conjecture is still open. We then focus on improving the constant δ for some graph classes: we prove that the classical Local Search algorithm provides an OPT^{1-1/t}-approximation in K_{t, t}-free graphs (hence a √{OPT}-approximation in C₄-free graphs), and, while there is a simple √n-approximation in triangle-free graphs, it cannot be improved to n^{1/4-ε} for any ε > 0 unless NP ⊆ BPP. More generally, we show that there is a constant c such that MIS in graphs of girth γ cannot be n^{c/(γ)}-approximated. Up to a constant factor in the exponent, this matches the ratio of a known approximation algorithm by Monien and Speckenmeyer, and by Murphy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first strong (i.e., Ω(n^δ) for some δ > 0) inapproximability result for Maximum Independent Set in a proper hereditary class.

Édouard Bonnet, Stéphan Thomassé, Xuan Thang Tran, and Rémi Watrigant. An Algorithmic Weakening of the Erdős-Hajnal Conjecture. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 23:1-23:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.23, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Thomass\'{e}, St\'{e}phan and Tran, Xuan Thang and Watrigant, R\'{e}mi}, title = {{An Algorithmic Weakening of the Erd\H{o}s-Hajnal Conjecture}}, booktitle = {28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)}, pages = {23:1--23:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-162-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {173}, editor = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-128894}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.23}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation, Maximum Independent Set, H-free Graphs, Erd\H{o}s-Hajnal conjecture} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 154, 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)

Let G be an intersection graph of n geometric objects in the plane. We show that a maximum matching in G can be found in O(ρ^{3ω/2}n^{ω/2}) time with high probability, where ρ is the density of the geometric objects and ω>2 is a constant such that n × n matrices can be multiplied in O(n^ω) time.
The same result holds for any subgraph of G, as long as a geometric representation is at hand. For this, we combine algebraic methods, namely computing the rank of a matrix via Gaussian elimination, with the fact that geometric intersection graphs have small separators.
We also show that in many interesting cases, the maximum matching problem in a general geometric intersection graph can be reduced to the case of bounded density. In particular, a maximum matching in the intersection graph of any family of translates of a convex object in the plane can be found in O(n^{ω/2}) time with high probability, and a maximum matching in the intersection graph of a family of planar disks with radii in [1, Ψ] can be found in O(Ψ⁶log^11 n + Ψ^{12 ω} n^{ω/2}) time with high probability.

Édouard Bonnet, Sergio Cabello, and Wolfgang Mulzer. Maximum Matchings in Geometric Intersection Graphs. In 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 154, pp. 31:1-31:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2020.31, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Cabello, Sergio and Mulzer, Wolfgang}, title = {{Maximum Matchings in Geometric Intersection Graphs}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)}, pages = {31:1--31:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-140-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {154}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Bl\"{a}ser, Markus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-118926}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.31}, annote = {Keywords: computational geometry, geometric intersection graph, maximum matching, disk graph, unit-disk graph} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 154, 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)

The first-fit coloring is a heuristic that assigns to each vertex, arriving in a specified order σ, the smallest available color. The problem Grundy Coloring asks how many colors are needed for the most adversarial vertex ordering σ, i.e., the maximum number of colors that the first-fit coloring requires over all possible vertex orderings. Since its inception by Grundy in 1939, Grundy Coloring has been examined for its structural and algorithmic aspects. A brute-force f(k)n^{2^{k-1}}-time algorithm for Grundy Coloring on general graphs is not difficult to obtain, where k is the number of colors required by the most adversarial vertex ordering. It was asked several times whether the dependency on k in the exponent of n can be avoided or reduced, and its answer seemed elusive until now. We prove that Grundy Coloring is W[1]-hard and the brute-force algorithm is essentially optimal under the Exponential Time Hypothesis, thus settling this question by the negative.
The key ingredient in our W[1]-hardness proof is to use so-called half-graphs as a building block to transmit a color from one vertex to another. Leveraging the half-graphs, we also prove that b-Chromatic Core is W[1]-hard, whose parameterized complexity was posed as an open question by Panolan et al. [JCSS '17]. A natural follow-up question is, how the parameterized complexity changes in the absence of (large) half-graphs. We establish fixed-parameter tractability on K_{t,t}-free graphs for b-Chromatic Core and Partial Grundy Coloring, making a step toward answering this question. The key combinatorial lemma underlying the tractability result might be of independent interest.

Pierre Aboulker, Édouard Bonnet, Eun Jung Kim, and Florian Sikora. Grundy Coloring & Friends, Half-Graphs, Bicliques. In 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 154, pp. 58:1-58:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{aboulker_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2020.58, author = {Aboulker, Pierre and Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Kim, Eun Jung and Sikora, Florian}, title = {{Grundy Coloring \& Friends, Half-Graphs, Bicliques}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)}, pages = {58:1--58:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-140-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {154}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Bl\"{a}ser, Markus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-119190}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.58}, annote = {Keywords: Grundy coloring, parameterized complexity, ETH lower bounds, K\underline\{t,t\}-free graphs, half-graphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 148, 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)

A resolving set S of a graph G is a subset of its vertices such that no two vertices of G have the same distance vector to S. The Metric Dimension problem asks for a resolving set of minimum size, and in its decision form, a resolving set of size at most some specified integer. This problem is NP-complete, and remains so in very restricted classes of graphs. It is also W[2]-complete with respect to the size of the solution. Metric Dimension has proven elusive on graphs of bounded treewidth. On the algorithmic side, a polytime algorithm is known for trees, and even for outerplanar graphs, but the general case of treewidth at most two is open. On the complexity side, no parameterized hardness is known. This has led several papers on the topic to ask for the parameterized complexity of Metric Dimension with respect to treewidth.
We provide a first answer to the question. We show that Metric Dimension parameterized by the treewidth of the input graph is W[1]-hard. More refinedly we prove that, unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis fails, there is no algorithm solving Metric Dimension in time f(pw)n^{o(pw)} on n-vertex graphs of constant degree, with pw the pathwidth of the input graph, and f any computable function. This is in stark contrast with an FPT algorithm of Belmonte et al. [SIAM J. Discrete Math. '17] with respect to the combined parameter tl+Delta, where tl is the tree-length and Delta the maximum-degree of the input graph.

Édouard Bonnet and Nidhi Purohit. Metric Dimension Parameterized by Treewidth. In 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 148, pp. 5:1-5:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.5, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Purohit, Nidhi}, title = {{Metric Dimension Parameterized by Treewidth}}, booktitle = {14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)}, pages = {5:1--5:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-129-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {148}, editor = {Jansen, Bart M. P. and Telle, Jan Arne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-114668}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.5}, annote = {Keywords: Metric Dimension, Treewidth, Parameterized Hardness} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 150, 39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019)

In this work, we initiate the study of the Min-Ones d-SAT problem in the parameterized streaming model. An instance of the problem consists of a d-CNF formula F and an integer k, and the objective is to determine if F has a satisfying assignment which sets at most k variables to 1. In the parameterized streaming model, input is provided as a stream, just as in the usual streaming model. A key difference is that the bound on the read-write memory available to the algorithm is O(f(k) log n) (f: N -> N, a computable function) as opposed to the O(log n) bound of the usual streaming model. The other important difference is that the number of passes the algorithm makes over its input must be a (preferably small) function of k.
We design a (k + 1)-pass parameterized streaming algorithm that solves Min-Ones d-SAT (d >= 2) using space O((kd^(ck) + k^d)log n) (c > 0, a constant) and a (d + 1)^k-pass algorithm that uses space O(k log n). We also design a streaming kernelization for Min-Ones 2-SAT that makes (k + 2) passes and uses space O(k^6 log n) to produce a kernel with O(k^6) clauses.
To complement these positive results, we show that any k-pass algorithm for or Min-Ones d-SAT (d >= 2) requires space Omega(max{n^(1/k) / 2^k, log(n / k)}) on instances (F, k). This is achieved via a reduction from the streaming problem POT Pointer Chasing (Guha and McGregor [ICALP 2008]), which might be of independent interest. Given this, our (k + 1)-pass parameterized streaming algorithm is the best possible, inasmuch as the number of passes is concerned.
In contrast to the results of Fafianie and Kratsch [MFCS 2014] and Chitnis et al. [SODA 2015], who independently showed that there are 1-pass parameterized streaming algorithms for Vertex Cover (a restriction of Min-Ones 2-SAT), we show using lower bounds from Communication Complexity that for any d >= 1, a 1-pass streaming algorithm for Min-Ones d-SAT requires space Omega(n). This excludes the possibility of a 1-pass parameterized streaming algorithm for the problem. Additionally, we show that any p-pass algorithm for the problem requires space Omega(n/p).

Akanksha Agrawal, Arindam Biswas, Édouard Bonnet, Nick Brettell, Radu Curticapean, Dániel Marx, Tillmann Miltzow, Venkatesh Raman, and Saket Saurabh. Parameterized Streaming Algorithms for Min-Ones d-SAT. In 39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 150, pp. 8:1-8:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.8, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Biswas, Arindam and Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Brettell, Nick and Curticapean, Radu and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Miltzow, Tillmann and Raman, Venkatesh and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Parameterized Streaming Algorithms for Min-Ones d-SAT}}, booktitle = {39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019)}, pages = {8:1--8:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-131-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {150}, editor = {Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and Gastin, Paul}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-115708}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.8}, annote = {Keywords: min, ones, sat, d-sat, parameterized, kernelization, streaming, space, efficient, algorithm, parameter} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 149, 30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019)

Maximum Independent Set (MIS for short) is in general graphs the paradigmatic W[1]-hard problem. In stark contrast, polynomial-time algorithms are known when the inputs are restricted to structured graph classes such as, for instance, perfect graphs (which includes bipartite graphs, chordal graphs, co-graphs, etc.) or claw-free graphs. In this paper, we introduce some variants of co-graphs with parameterized noise, that is, graphs that can be made into disjoint unions or complete sums by the removal of a certain number of vertices and the addition/deletion of a certain number of edges per incident vertex, both controlled by the parameter. We give a series of FPT Turing-reductions on these classes and use them to make some progress on the parameterized complexity of MIS in H-free graphs. We show that for every fixed t >=slant 1, MIS is FPT in P(1,t,t,t)-free graphs, where P(1,t,t,t) is the graph obtained by substituting all the vertices of a four-vertex path but one end of the path by cliques of size t. We also provide randomized FPT algorithms in dart-free graphs and in cricket-free graphs. This settles the FPT/W[1]-hard dichotomy for five-vertex graphs H.

Édouard Bonnet, Nicolas Bousquet, Stéphan Thomassé, and Rémi Watrigant. When Maximum Stable Set Can Be Solved in FPT Time. In 30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 149, pp. 49:1-49:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.49, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Bousquet, Nicolas and Thomass\'{e}, St\'{e}phan and Watrigant, R\'{e}mi}, title = {{When Maximum Stable Set Can Be Solved in FPT Time}}, booktitle = {30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019)}, pages = {49:1--49:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-130-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {149}, editor = {Lu, Pinyan and Zhang, Guochuan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.49}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-115458}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.49}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized Algorithms, Independent Set, H-Free Graphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 144, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)

The Traveling Salesman Problem asks to find a minimum-weight Hamiltonian cycle in an edge-weighted complete graph. Local search is a widely-employed strategy for finding good solutions to TSP. A popular neighborhood operator for local search is k-opt, which turns a Hamiltonian cycle C into a new Hamiltonian cycle C' by replacing k edges. We analyze the problem of determining whether the weight of a given cycle can be decreased by a k-opt move. Earlier work has shown that (i) assuming the Exponential Time Hypothesis, there is no algorithm that can detect whether or not a given Hamiltonian cycle C in an n-vertex input can be improved by a k-opt move in time f(k) n^o(k / log k) for any function f, while (ii) it is possible to improve on the brute-force running time of O(n^k) and save linear factors in the exponent. Modern TSP heuristics are very successful at identifying the most promising edges to be used in k-opt moves, and experiments show that very good global solutions can already be reached using only the top-O(1) most promising edges incident to each vertex. This leads to the following question: can improving k-opt moves be found efficiently in graphs of bounded degree? We answer this question in various regimes, presenting new algorithms and conditional lower bounds. We show that the aforementioned ETH lower bound also holds for graphs of maximum degree three, but that in bounded-degree graphs the best improving k-move can be found in time O(n^((23/135+epsilon_k)k)), where lim_{k -> infty} epsilon_k = 0. This improves upon the best-known bounds for general graphs. Due to its practical importance, we devote special attention to the range of k in which improving k-moves in bounded-degree graphs can be found in quasi-linear time. For k <= 7, we give quasi-linear time algorithms for general weights. For k=8 we obtain a quasi-linear time algorithm when the weights are bounded by O(polylog n). On the other hand, based on established fine-grained complexity hypotheses about the impossibility of detecting a triangle in edge-linear time, we prove that the k = 9 case does not admit quasi-linear time algorithms. Hence we fully characterize the values of k for which quasi-linear time algorithms exist for polylogarithmic weights on bounded-degree graphs.

Édouard Bonnet, Yoichi Iwata, Bart M. P. Jansen, and Łukasz Kowalik. Fine-Grained Complexity of k-OPT in Bounded-Degree Graphs for Solving TSP. In 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 144, pp. 23:1-23:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2019.23, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Iwata, Yoichi and Jansen, Bart M. P. and Kowalik, {\L}ukasz}, title = {{Fine-Grained Complexity of k-OPT in Bounded-Degree Graphs for Solving TSP}}, booktitle = {27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)}, pages = {23:1--23:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-124-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {144}, editor = {Bender, Michael A. and Svensson, Ola and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111444}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.23}, annote = {Keywords: traveling salesman problem, k-OPT, bounded degree} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 115, 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)

In this paper, we investigate the complexity of Maximum Independent Set (MIS) in the class of H-free graphs, that is, graphs excluding a fixed graph as an induced subgraph. Given that the problem remains NP-hard for most graphs H, we study its fixed-parameter tractability and make progress towards a dichotomy between FPT and W[1]-hard cases. We first show that MIS remains W[1]-hard in graphs forbidding simultaneously K_{1, 4}, any finite set of cycles of length at least 4, and any finite set of trees with at least two branching vertices. In particular, this answers an open question of Dabrowski et al. concerning C_4-free graphs. Then we extend the polynomial algorithm of Alekseev when H is a disjoint union of edges to an FPT algorithm when H is a disjoint union of cliques. We also provide a framework for solving several other cases, which is a generalization of the concept of iterative expansion accompanied by the extraction of a particular structure using Ramsey's theorem. Iterative expansion is a maximization version of the so-called iterative compression. We believe that our framework can be of independent interest for solving other similar graph problems. Finally, we present positive and negative results on the existence of polynomial (Turing) kernels for several graphs H.

Édouard Bonnet, Nicolas Bousquet, Pierre Charbit, Stéphan Thomassé, and Rémi Watrigant. Parameterized Complexity of Independent Set in H-Free Graphs. In 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 115, pp. 17:1-17:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.17, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Bousquet, Nicolas and Charbit, Pierre and Thomass\'{e}, St\'{e}phan and Watrigant, R\'{e}mi}, title = {{Parameterized Complexity of Independent Set in H-Free Graphs}}, booktitle = {13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)}, pages = {17:1--17:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-084-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {115}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Pilipczuk, Michal}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102183}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.17}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized Algorithms, Independent Set, H-Free Graphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 115, 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)

The Program Committee of the Third Parameterized Algorithms and Computational Experiments challenge (PACE 2018) reports on the third iteration of the PACE challenge. This year, all three tracks were dedicated to solve the Steiner Tree problem, in which, given an edge-weighted graph and a subset of its vertices called terminals, one has to find a minimum-weight subgraph which spans all the terminals. In Track A, the number of terminals was limited. In Track B, a tree-decomposition of the graph was provided in the input, and the treewidth was limited. Finally, Track C welcomed heuristics. Over 80 participants on 40 teams from 16 countries submitted their implementations to the competition.

Édouard Bonnet and Florian Sikora. The PACE 2018 Parameterized Algorithms and Computational Experiments Challenge: The Third Iteration. In 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 115, pp. 26:1-26:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.26, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Sikora, Florian}, title = {{The PACE 2018 Parameterized Algorithms and Computational Experiments Challenge: The Third Iteration}}, booktitle = {13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)}, pages = {26:1--26:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-084-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {115}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Pilipczuk, Michal}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102275}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.26}, annote = {Keywords: Steiner tree problem, contest, implementation challenge, FPT} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 99, 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)

A terrain is an x-monotone polygonal curve, i.e., successive vertices have increasing x-coordinates. Terrain Guarding can be seen as a special case of the famous art gallery problem where one has to place at most k guards on a terrain made of n vertices in order to fully see it. In 2010, King and Krohn showed that Terrain Guarding is NP-complete [SODA '10, SIAM J. Comput. '11] thereby solving a long-standing open question. They observe that their proof does not settle the complexity of Orthogonal Terrain Guarding where the terrain only consists of horizontal or vertical segments; those terrains are called rectilinear or orthogonal. Recently, Ashok et al. [SoCG'17] presented an FPT algorithm running in time k^{O(k)}n^{O(1)} for Dominating Set in the visibility graphs of rectilinear terrains without 180-degree vertices. They ask if Orthogonal Terrain Guarding is in P or NP-hard. In the same paper, they give a subexponential-time algorithm running in n^{O(sqrt n)} (actually even n^{O(sqrt k)}) for the general Terrain Guarding and notice that the hardness proof of King and Krohn only disproves a running time 2^{o(n^{1/4})} under the ETH. Hence, there is a significant gap between their 2^{O(n^{1/2} log n)}-algorithm and the no 2^{o(n^{1/4})} ETH-hardness implied by King and Krohn's result.
In this paper, we answer those two remaining questions. We adapt the gadgets of King and Krohn to rectilinear terrains in order to prove that even Orthogonal Terrain Guarding is NP-complete. Then, we show how their reduction from Planar 3-SAT (as well as our adaptation for rectilinear terrains) can actually be made linear (instead of quadratic).

Édouard Bonnet and Panos Giannopoulos. Orthogonal Terrain Guarding is NP-complete. In 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 99, pp. 11:1-11:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.11, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Giannopoulos, Panos}, title = {{Orthogonal Terrain Guarding is NP-complete}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)}, pages = {11:1--11:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-066-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {99}, editor = {Speckmann, Bettina and T\'{o}th, Csaba D.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-87246}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.11}, annote = {Keywords: terrain guarding, rectilinear terrain, computational complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 99, 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)

A (unit) disk graph is the intersection graph of closed (unit) disks in the plane. Almost three decades ago, an elegant polynomial-time algorithm was found for Maximum Clique on unit disk graphs [Clark, Colbourn, Johnson; Discrete Mathematics '90]. Since then, it has been an intriguing open question whether or not tractability can be extended to general disk graphs. We show the rather surprising structural result that a disjoint union of cycles is the complement of a disk graph if and only if at most one of those cycles is of odd length. From that, we derive the first QPTAS and subexponential algorithm running in time 2^{O~(n^{2/3})} for Maximum Clique on disk graphs. In stark contrast, Maximum Clique on intersection graphs of filled ellipses or filled triangles is unlikely to have such algorithms, even when the ellipses are close to unit disks. Indeed, we show that there is a constant ratio of approximation which cannot be attained even in time 2^{n^{1-epsilon}}, unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis fails.

Édouard Bonnet, Panos Giannopoulos, Eun Jung Kim, Pawel Rzazewski, and Florian Sikora. QPTAS and Subexponential Algorithm for Maximum Clique on Disk Graphs. In 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 99, pp. 12:1-12:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.12, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Giannopoulos, Panos and Kim, Eun Jung and Rzazewski, Pawel and Sikora, Florian}, title = {{QPTAS and Subexponential Algorithm for Maximum Clique on Disk Graphs}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)}, pages = {12:1--12:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-066-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {99}, editor = {Speckmann, Bettina and T\'{o}th, Csaba D.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-87259}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.12}, annote = {Keywords: disk graph, maximum clique, computational complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 89, 12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017)

It has long been known that Feedback Vertex Set can be solved in time 2^O(w log w)n^O(1) on graphs of treewidth w, but it was only recently that this running time was improved to 2^O(w)n^O(1), that is, to single-exponential parameterized by treewidth. We investigate which generalizations of Feedback Vertex Set can be solved in a similar running time. Formally, for a class of graphs P, Bounded P-Block Vertex Deletion asks, given a graph G on n vertices and positive integers k and d, whether G contains a set S of at most k vertices
such that each block of G-S has at most d vertices and is in P. Assuming that P is recognizable in polynomial time and satisfies a certain natural hereditary condition, we give a sharp characterization of when single-exponential parameterized algorithms are possible for fixed values of d:
- if P consists only of chordal graphs, then the problem can be solved in time 2^O(wd^2) n^{O}(1),
- if P contains a graph with an induced cycle of length ell>= 4, then the problem is not solvable in time 2^{o(w log w)} n^O(1)} even for fixed d=ell, unless the ETH fails.
We also study a similar problem, called Bounded P-Component Vertex Deletion, where the target graphs have connected components of small size instead of having blocks of small size, and present analogous results.

Édouard Bonnet, Nick Brettell, O-joung Kwon, and Dániel Marx. Generalized Feedback Vertex Set Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: Chordality Is the Key to Single-Exponential Parameterized Algorithms. In 12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 89, pp. 7:1-7:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.7, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Brettell, Nick and Kwon, O-joung and Marx, D\'{a}niel}, title = {{Generalized Feedback Vertex Set Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: Chordality Is the Key to Single-Exponential Parameterized Algorithms}}, booktitle = {12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017)}, pages = {7:1--7:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-051-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {89}, editor = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Nishimura, Naomi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-85653}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.7}, annote = {Keywords: fixed-parameter tractable algorithms, treewidth, feedback vertex set} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 89, 12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017)

We study the following geometric separation problem: Given a set R of red points and a set B of blue points in the plane, find a minimum-size set of lines that separate R from B. We show that, in its full generality, parameterized by the number of lines k in the solution, the problem is unlikely to be solvable significantly faster than the brute-force n^{O(k)}-time algorithm, where n is the total number of points.
Indeed, we show that an algorithm running in time f(k)n^{o(k/log k)}, for any computable function f, would disprove ETH. Our reduction crucially relies on selecting lines from a set with a large number of different slopes (i.e., this number is not a function of k).
Conjecturing that the problem variant where the lines are required to be axis-parallel is FPT in the number of lines, we show the following preliminary result.
Separating R from B with a minimum-size set of axis-parallel lines is FPT in the size of either set, and can be solved in time O^*(9^{|B|}) (assuming that B is the smallest set).

Édouard Bonnet, Panos Giannopoulos, and Michael Lampis. On the Parameterized Complexity of Red-Blue Points Separation. In 12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 89, pp. 8:1-8:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.8, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Giannopoulos, Panos and Lampis, Michael}, title = {{On the Parameterized Complexity of Red-Blue Points Separation}}, booktitle = {12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017)}, pages = {8:1--8:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-051-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {89}, editor = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Nishimura, Naomi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-85687}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.8}, annote = {Keywords: red-blue points separation, geometric problem, W\lbrack1\rbrack-hardness, FPT algorithm, ETH-based lower bound} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We study the parameterized complexity of several positional games. Our main result is that Short Generalized Hex is W[1]-complete parameterized by the number of moves. This solves an open problem from Downey and Fellows’ influential list of open problems from 1999. Previously, the problem was thought of as a natural candidate for AW[*]-completeness. Our main tool is a new fragment of first-order logic where universally quantified variables only occur in inequalities. We show that model-checking on arbitrary relational structures for a formula in this fragment is W[1]-complete when parameterized by formula size. We also consider a general framework where a positional game is represented as a hypergraph and two players alternately pick vertices. In a Maker-Maker game, the first player to have picked all the vertices of some hyperedge wins the game. In a Maker-Breaker game, the first player wins if she picks all the vertices of some hyperedge, and the second player wins otherwise. In an Enforcer-Avoider game, the first player wins if the second player picks all the vertices of some hyperedge, and the second player wins otherwise. Short Maker-Maker, Short Maker-Breaker, and Short Enforcer-Avoider are respectively AW[*]-, W[1]-, and co-W[1]-complete parameterized by the number of moves. This suggests a rough parameterized complexity categorization into positional games that are complete for the first level of the W-hierarchy when the winning condition only depends on which vertices one player has been able to pick, but AW[*]-complete when it depends on which vertices both players have picked. However, some positional games with highly structured board and winning configurations are fixed-parameter tractable. We give another example of such a game, Short k-Connect, which is fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by the number of moves.

Édouard Bonnet, Serge Gaspers, Antonin Lambilliotte, Stefan Rümmele, and Abdallah Saffidine. The Parameterized Complexity of Positional Games. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 90:1-90:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.90, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Gaspers, Serge and Lambilliotte, Antonin and R\"{u}mmele, Stefan and Saffidine, Abdallah}, title = {{The Parameterized Complexity of Positional Games}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {90:1--90:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.90}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74941}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.90}, annote = {Keywords: Hex, Maker-Maker games, Maker-Breaker games, Enforcer-Avoider games, parameterized complexity theory} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 77, 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)

On planar graphs, many classic algorithmic problems enjoy a certain "square root phenomenon" and can be solved significantly faster than what is known to be possible on general graphs: for example, Independent Set, 3-Coloring, Hamiltonian Cycle, Dominating Set can be solved in time 2^O(sqrt{n}) on an n-vertex planar graph, while no 2^o(n) algorithms exist for general graphs, assuming the Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH). The square root in the exponent seems to be best possible for planar graphs: assuming the ETH, the running time for these problems cannot be improved to 2^o(sqrt{n}). In some cases, a similar speedup can be obtained for 2-dimensional geometric problems, for example, there are 2^O(sqrt{n}log n) time algorithms for Independent Set on unit disk graphs or for TSP on 2-dimensional point sets.
In this paper, we explore whether such a speedup is possible for geometric coloring problems. On the one hand, geometric objects can behave similarly to planar graphs: 3-Coloring can be solved in time 2^O(sqrt{n}) on the intersection graph of n unit disks in the plane and, assuming the ETH, there is no such algorithm with running time 2^o(sqrt{n}). On the other hand, if the number L of colors is part of the input, then no such speedup is possible: Coloring the intersection graph of n unit disks with L colors cannot be solved in time 2^o(n), assuming the ETH. More precisely, we exhibit a smooth increase of complexity as the number L of colors increases: If we restrict the number of colors to L=Theta(n^alpha) for some 0<=alpha<=1, then the problem of coloring the intersection graph of n unit disks with L colors
* can be solved in time exp(O(n^{{1+alpha}/2}log n))=exp( O(sqrt{nL}log n)), and
* cannot be solved in time exp(o(n^{{1+alpha}/2}))=exp(o(sqrt{nL})), unless the ETH fails.
More generally, we consider the problem of coloring d-dimensional unit balls in the Euclidean space and obtain analogous results showing that the problem
* can be solved in time exp(O(n^{{d-1+alpha}/d}log n))=exp(O(n^{1-1/d}L^{1/d}log n)), and
* cannot be solved in time exp(n^{{d-1+alpha}/d-epsilon})= exp (O(n^{1-1/d-epsilon}L^{1/d})) for any epsilon>0, unless the ETH fails.

Csaba Biró, Édouard Bonnet, Dániel Marx, Tillmann Miltzow, and Pawel Rzazewski. Fine-Grained Complexity of Coloring Unit Disks and Balls. In 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 77, pp. 18:1-18:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{biro_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.18, author = {Bir\'{o}, Csaba and Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Miltzow, Tillmann and Rzazewski, Pawel}, title = {{Fine-Grained Complexity of Coloring Unit Disks and Balls}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)}, pages = {18:1--18:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-038-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {77}, editor = {Aronov, Boris and Katz, Matthew J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-71800}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.18}, annote = {Keywords: unit disk graphs, unit ball graphs, coloring, exact algorithm} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 77, 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)

Given a simple polygon P on n vertices, two points x, y in P are said to be visible to each other if the line segment between x and y is contained in P. The Point Guard Art Gallery problem asks for a minimum-size set S such that every point in P is visible from a point in S. The set S is referred to as guards. Assuming integer coordinates and a specific general position on the vertices of P, we present the first O(log OPT)-approximation algorithm for the point guard problem. This algorithm combines ideas in papers of Efrat and Har-Peled and Deshpande et al. We also point out a mistake in the latter.

Édouard Bonnet and Tillmann Miltzow. An Approximation Algorithm for the Art Gallery Problem. In 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 77, pp. 20:1-20:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.20, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Miltzow, Tillmann}, title = {{An Approximation Algorithm for the Art Gallery Problem}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)}, pages = {20:1--20:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-038-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {77}, editor = {Aronov, Boris and Katz, Matthew J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-72150}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.20}, annote = {Keywords: computational geometry, art gallery, approximation algorithm} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 66, 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)

In the Token Swapping problem we are given a graph with a token placed on each vertex. Each token has exactly one destination vertex, and we try to move all the tokens to their destinations, using the minimum number of swaps, i.e., operations of exchanging the tokens on two adjacent vertices. As the main result of this paper, we show that Token Swapping is W[1]-hard parameterized by the length k of a shortest sequence of swaps. In fact, we prove that, for any computable function f, it cannot be solved in time f(k)*n^(o(k / log k)) where n is the number of vertices of the input graph, unless the ETH fails. This lower bound almost matches the trivial n^O(k)-time algorithm.
We also consider two generalizations of the Token Swapping, namely Colored Token Swapping (where the tokens have colors and tokens of the same color are indistinguishable), and Subset Token Swapping (where each token has a set of possible destinations). To complement the hardness result, we prove that even the most general variant, Subset Token Swapping, is FPT in nowhere-dense graph classes.
Finally, we consider the complexities of all three problems in very restricted classes of graphs: graphs of bounded treewidth and diameter, stars, cliques, and paths, trying to identify the borderlines between polynomial and NP-hard cases.

Édouard Bonnet, Tillmann Miltzow, and Pawel Rzazewski. Complexity of Token Swapping and its Variants. In 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 66, pp. 16:1-16:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2017.16, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Miltzow, Tillmann and Rzazewski, Pawel}, title = {{Complexity of Token Swapping and its Variants}}, booktitle = {34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)}, pages = {16:1--16:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-028-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {66}, editor = {Vollmer, Heribert and Vall\'{e}e, Brigitte}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-70185}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.16}, annote = {Keywords: token swapping, parameterized complexity, NP-hardness, W\lbrack1\rbrack-hardness} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 57, 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)

The minimum unsatisfiability version of a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) asks for an assignment where the number of unsatisfied constraints is minimum possible, or equivalently, asks for a minimum-size set of constraints whose deletion makes the instance satisfiable. For a finite set Gamma of constraints, we denote by CSP(Gamma) the restriction of the problem where each constraint is from Gamma. The polynomial-time solvability and the polynomial-time approximability of CSP(Gamma) were fully characterized by [Khanna et al. SICOMP 2000]. Here we study the fixed-parameter (FP-) approximability of the problem: given an instance and an integer k, one has to find a solution of size at most g(k) in time f(k)n^{O(1)} if a solution of size at most k exists. We especially focus on the case of constant-factor FP-approximability. Our main result classifies each finite constraint language Gamma into one of three classes: (1) CSP(Gamma) has a constant-factor FP-approximation; (2) CSP(Gamma) has a (constant-factor) FP-approximation if and only if Nearest Codeword has a (constant-factor) FP-approximation; (3) CSP(Gamma) has no FP-approximation, unless FPT=W[P]. We show that problems in the second class do not have constant-factor FP-approximations if both the Exponential-Time Hypothesis (ETH) and the Linear PCP Conjecture (LPC) hold. We also show that such an approximation would imply the existence of an FP-approximation for the k-Densest Subgraph problem with ratio 1-epsilon for any epsilon>0.

Édouard Bonnet, László Egri, and Dániel Marx. Fixed-Parameter Approximability of Boolean MinCSPs. In 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 57, pp. 18:1-18:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2016.18, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Egri, L\'{a}szl\'{o} and Marx, D\'{a}niel}, title = {{Fixed-Parameter Approximability of Boolean MinCSPs}}, booktitle = {24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)}, pages = {18:1--18:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-015-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {57}, editor = {Sankowski, Piotr and Zaroliagis, Christos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63694}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.18}, annote = {Keywords: constraint satisfaction problems, approximability, fixed-parameter tractability} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 57, 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)

Given a simple polygon P on n vertices, two points x,y in P are said to be visible to each other if the line segment between x and y is contained in P. The Point Guard Art Gallery problem asks for a minimum set S such that every point in P is visible from a point in S.
The Vertex Guard Art Gallery problem asks for such a set S subset of the vertices of P. A point in the set S is referred to as a guard. For both variants, we rule out a f(k)*n^{o(k/log k)} algorithm, for any computable function f, where k := |S| is the number of guards, unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis fails. These lower bounds almost match the n^{O(k)} algorithms that exist for both problems.

Édouard Bonnet and Tillmann Miltzow. Parameterized Hardness of Art Gallery Problems. In 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 57, pp. 19:1-19:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2016.19, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Miltzow, Tillmann}, title = {{Parameterized Hardness of Art Gallery Problems}}, booktitle = {24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)}, pages = {19:1--19:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-015-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {57}, editor = {Sankowski, Piotr and Zaroliagis, Christos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63700}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.19}, annote = {Keywords: art gallery problem, computational geometry, parameterized complexity, ETH-based lower bound, geometric set cover/hitting set} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 47, 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)

In this paper we focus on problems which do not admit a constant-factor approximation in polynomial time and explore how quickly their approximability improves as the allowed running time is gradually increased from polynomial to (sub-)exponential.
We tackle a number of problems: For MIN INDEPENDENT DOMINATING SET, MAX INDUCED PATH, FOREST and TREE, for any r(n), a simple, known scheme gives an approximation ratio of r in time roughly r^{n/r}. We show that, for most values of r, if this running time could be significantly improved the ETH would fail. For MAX MINIMAL VERTEX COVER we give a non-trivial sqrt{r}-approximation in time 2^{n/{r}}. We match this with a similarly tight result. We also give a log(r)-approximation for MIN ATSP in time 2^{n/r} and an r-approximation for MAX GRUNDY COLORING in time r^{n/r}.
Furthermore, we show that MIN SET COVER exhibits a curious behavior in this super-polynomial setting: for any delta>0 it admits an m^delta-approximation, where m is the number of sets, in just quasi-polynomial time. We observe that if such ratios could be achieved in polynomial time, the ETH or the Projection Games Conjecture would fail.

Édouard Bonnet, Michael Lampis, and Vangelis Th. Paschos. Time-Approximation Trade-offs for Inapproximable Problems. In 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 47, pp. 22:1-22:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2016.22, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Lampis, Michael and Paschos, Vangelis Th.}, title = {{Time-Approximation Trade-offs for Inapproximable Problems}}, booktitle = {33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)}, pages = {22:1--22:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-001-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {47}, editor = {Ollinger, Nicolas and Vollmer, Heribert}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.22}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-57236}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.22}, annote = {Keywords: Algorithm, Complexity, Polynomial and Subexponential Approximation, Reduction, Inapproximability} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 43, 10th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2015)

The Graph Motif problem was introduced in 2006 in the context of biological networks. It consists of deciding whether or not a multiset of colors occurs in a connected subgraph of a vertex-colored graph. Graph Motif has been analyzed from the standpoint of parameterized complexity. The main parameters which came into consideration were the size of the multiset and the number of colors. Though, in the many applications of Graph Motif, the input graph originates from real-life and has structure. Motivated by this prosaic observation, we systematically study its complexity relatively to graph structural parameters. For a wide range of parameters, we give new or improved FPT algorithms, or show that the problem remains intractable. Interestingly, we establish that Graph Motif is W[1]-hard (while in W[P]) for parameter max leaf number, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first problem to behave this way.

Édouard Bonnet and Florian Sikora. The Graph Motif Problem Parameterized by the Structure of the Input Graph. In 10th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 43, pp. 319-330, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2015.319, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Sikora, Florian}, title = {{The Graph Motif Problem Parameterized by the Structure of the Input Graph}}, booktitle = {10th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2015)}, pages = {319--330}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-92-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {43}, editor = {Husfeldt, Thore and Kanj, Iyad}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2015.319}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-55937}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2015.319}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, Structural Parameters, Graph Motif, Computational Biology} }

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