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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 293, 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)

We propose precise notions of what it means to guard a domain "robustly", under a variety of models. While approximation algorithms for minimizing the number of (precise) point guards in a polygon is a notoriously challenging area of investigation, we show that imposing various degrees of robustness on the notion of visibility coverage leads to a more tractable (and realistic) problem for which we can provide approximation algorithms with constant factor guarantees.

Rathish Das, Omrit Filtser, Matthew J. Katz, and Joseph S.B. Mitchell. Robustly Guarding Polygons. In 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 293, pp. 47:1-47:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{das_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.47, author = {Das, Rathish and Filtser, Omrit and Katz, Matthew J. and Mitchell, Joseph S.B.}, title = {{Robustly Guarding Polygons}}, booktitle = {40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)}, pages = {47:1--47:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-316-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {293}, editor = {Mulzer, Wolfgang and Phillips, Jeff M.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-199928}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.47}, annote = {Keywords: geometric optimization, approximation algorithms, guarding} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 248, 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)

The B^ε-tree [Brodal and Fagerberg 2003] is a simple I/O-efficient external-memory-model data structure that supports updates orders of magnitude faster than B-tree with a query performance comparable to the B-tree: for any positive constant ε < 1 insertions and deletions take O(1/B^(1-ε) log_B N) time (rather than O(log_BN) time for the classic B-tree), queries take O(log_B N) time and range queries returning k items take O(log_B N + k/B) time. Although the B^ε-tree has an optimal update/query tradeoff, the runtimes are amortized. Another structure, the write-optimized skip list, introduced by Bender et al. [PODS 2017], has the same performance as the B^ε-tree but with runtimes that are randomized rather than amortized. In this paper, we present a variant of the B^ε-tree with deterministic worst-case running times that are identical to the original’s amortized running times.

Rathish Das, John Iacono, and Yakov Nekrich. External-Memory Dictionaries with Worst-Case Update Cost. In 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 248, pp. 21:1-21:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{das_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.21, author = {Das, Rathish and Iacono, John and Nekrich, Yakov}, title = {{External-Memory Dictionaries with Worst-Case Update Cost}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)}, pages = {21:1--21:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-258-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {248}, editor = {Bae, Sang Won and Park, Heejin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173060}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.21}, annote = {Keywords: Data Structures, External Memory, Buffer Tree} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 248, 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)

Our interest is in paths between pairs of vertices that go through at least one of a subset of the vertices known as beer vertices. Such a path is called a beer path, and the beer distance between two vertices is the length of the shortest beer path.
We show that we can represent unweighted interval graphs using 2n log n + O(n) + O(|B|log n) bits where |B| is the number of beer vertices. This data structure answers beer distance queries in O(log^ε n) time for any constant ε > 0 and shortest beer path queries in O(log^ε n + d) time, where d is the beer distance between the two nodes. We also show that proper interval graphs may be represented using 3n + o(n) bits to support beer distance queries in O(f(n)log n) time for any f(n) ∈ ω(1) and shortest beer path queries in O(d) time. All of these results also have time-space trade-offs.
Lastly we show that the information theoretic lower bound for beer proper interval graphs is very close to the space of our structure, namely log(4+2√3)n - o(n) (or about 2.9 n) bits.

Rathish Das, Meng He, Eitan Kondratovsky, J. Ian Munro, Anurag Murty Naredla, and Kaiyu Wu. Shortest Beer Path Queries in Interval Graphs. In 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 248, pp. 59:1-59:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{das_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.59, author = {Das, Rathish and He, Meng and Kondratovsky, Eitan and Munro, J. Ian and Naredla, Anurag Murty and Wu, Kaiyu}, title = {{Shortest Beer Path Queries in Interval Graphs}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)}, pages = {59:1--59:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-258-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {248}, editor = {Bae, Sang Won and Park, Heejin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.59}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173442}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.59}, annote = {Keywords: Beer Path, Interval Graph} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

Cache-adaptive algorithms are a class of algorithms that achieve optimal utilization of dynamically changing memory. These memory fluctuations are the norm in today’s multi-threaded shared-memory machines and time-sharing caches.
Bender et al. [Bender et al., 2014] proved that many cache-oblivious algorithms are optimally cache-adaptive, but that some cache-oblivious algorithms can be relatively far from optimally cache-adaptive on worst-case memory fluctuations. This worst-case gap between cache obliviousness and cache adaptivity depends on a highly-structured, adversarial memory profile. Existing cache-adaptive analysis does not predict the relative performance of cache-oblivious and cache-adaptive algorithms on non-adversarial profiles. Does the worst-case gap appear in practice, or is it an artifact of an unrealistically powerful adversary?
This paper sheds light on the question of whether cache-oblivious algorithms can effectively adapt to realistically fluctuating memory sizes; the paper focuses on matrix multiplication and sorting. The two matrix-multiplication algorithms in this paper are canonical examples of "(a, b, c)-regular" cache-oblivious algorithms, which underlie much of the existing theory on cache-adaptivity. Both algorithms have the same asymptotic I/O performance when the memory size remains fixed, but one is optimally cache-adaptive, and the other is not. In our experiments, we generate both adversarial and non-adversarial memory workloads. The performance gap between the algorithms for matrix multiplication grows with problem size (up to 3.8×) on the adversarial profiles, but the gap does not grow with problem size (stays at 2×) on non-adversarial profiles. The sorting algorithms in this paper are not "(a, b, c)-regular," but they have been well-studied in the classical external-memory model when the memory size does not fluctuate. The relative performance of a non-oblivious (cache-aware) sorting algorithm degrades with the problem size: it incurs up to 6 × the number of disk I/Os compared to an oblivious adaptive algorithm on both adversarial and non-adversarial profiles.
To summarize, in all our experiments, the cache-oblivious matrix-multiplication and sorting algorithms that we tested empirically adapt well to memory fluctuations. We conjecture that cache-obliviousness will empirically help achieve adaptivity for other problems with similar structures.

Arghya Bhattacharya, Abiyaz Chowdhury, Helen Xu, Rathish Das, Rezaul A. Chowdhury, Rob Johnson, Rishab Nithyanand, and Michael A. Bender. When Are Cache-Oblivious Algorithms Cache Adaptive? A Case Study of Matrix Multiplication and Sorting. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 16:1-16:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bhattacharya_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.16, author = {Bhattacharya, Arghya and Chowdhury, Abiyaz and Xu, Helen and Das, Rathish and Chowdhury, Rezaul A. and Johnson, Rob and Nithyanand, Rishab and Bender, Michael A.}, title = {{When Are Cache-Oblivious Algorithms Cache Adaptive? A Case Study of Matrix Multiplication and Sorting}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {16:1--16:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-169543}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.16}, annote = {Keywords: Cache-adaptive algorithms, cache-oblivious algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 212, 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)

We present a linear space data structure for Dynamic Evaluation of k-CNF Boolean Formulas which achieves O(m^{1-1/k}) query and variable update time where m is the number of clauses in the formula and clauses are of size at most a constant k. Our algorithm is additionally able to count the total number of satisfied clauses. We then show how this data structure can be parallelized in the PRAM model to achieve O(log m) span (i.e. parallel time) and still O(m^{1-1/k}) work. This parallel algorithm works in the stronger Binary Fork model.
We then give a series of lower bounds on the problem including an average-case result showing the lower bounds hold even when the updates to the variables are chosen at random. Specifically, a reduction from k-Clique shows that dynamically counting the number of satisfied clauses takes time at least n^{(2ω-3)/6 √{2k} -1 -o(√k)}, where 2 ≤ ω < 2.38 is the matrix multiplication constant. We show the Combinatorial k-Clique Hypothesis implies a lower bound of m^{(1-k^{-1/2})(1-o(1))} which suggests our algorithm is close to optimal without involving Matrix Multiplication or new techniques. We next give an average-case reduction to k-clique showing the prior lower bounds hold even when the updates are chosen at random. We use our conditional lower bound to show any Binary Fork algorithm solving these problems requires at least Ω(log m) span, which is tight against our algorithm in this model. Finally, we give an unconditional linear space lower bound for Dynamic k-CNF Boolean Formula Evaluation.

Rathish Das, Andrea Lincoln, Jayson Lynch, and J. Ian Munro. Dynamic Boolean Formula Evaluation. In 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 212, pp. 61:1-61:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{das_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.61, author = {Das, Rathish and Lincoln, Andrea and Lynch, Jayson and Munro, J. Ian}, title = {{Dynamic Boolean Formula Evaluation}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)}, pages = {61:1--61:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-214-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {212}, editor = {Ahn, Hee-Kap and Sadakane, Kunihiko}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.61}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-154945}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.61}, annote = {Keywords: Data Structures, SAT, Dynamic Algorithms, Boolean Formulas, Fine-grained Complexity, Parallel Algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)

Motivated by indoor localization by tripwire lasers, we study the problem of cutting a polygon into small-size pieces, using the chords of the polygon. Several versions are considered, depending on the definition of the "size" of a piece. In particular, we consider the area, the diameter, and the radius of the largest inscribed circle as a measure of the size of a piece. We also consider different objectives, either minimizing the maximum size of a piece for a given number of chords, or minimizing the number of chords that achieve a given size threshold for the pieces. We give hardness results for polygons with holes and approximation algorithms for multiple variants of the problem.

Esther M. Arkin, Rathish Das, Jie Gao, Mayank Goswami, Joseph S. B. Mitchell, Valentin Polishchuk, and Csaba D. Tóth. Cutting Polygons into Small Pieces with Chords: Laser-Based Localization. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 7:1-7:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{arkin_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.7, author = {Arkin, Esther M. and Das, Rathish and Gao, Jie and Goswami, Mayank and Mitchell, Joseph S. B. and Polishchuk, Valentin and T\'{o}th, Csaba D.}, title = {{Cutting Polygons into Small Pieces with Chords: Laser-Based Localization}}, booktitle = {28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)}, pages = {7:1--7:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-162-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {173}, editor = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-128736}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.7}, annote = {Keywords: Polygon partition, Arrangements, Visibility, Localization} }

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