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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We introduce a new dynamic data structure for maintaining the strongly connected components (SCCs) of a directed graph (digraph) under edge deletions, so as to answer a rich repertoire of connectivity queries. Our main technical contribution is a decremental data structure that supports sensitivity queries of the form "are u and v strongly connected in the graph G \ w?", for any triple of vertices u, v, w, while G undergoes deletions of edges. Our data structure processes a sequence of edge deletions in a digraph with $n$ vertices in O(m n log n) total time and O(n^2 log n) space, where m is the number of edges before any deletion, and answers the above queries in constant time. We can leverage our data structure to obtain decremental data structures for many more types of queries within the same time and space complexity. For instance for edge-related queries, such as testing whether two query vertices u and v are strongly connected in G \ e, for some query edge e.
As another important application of our decremental data structure, we provide the first nontrivial algorithm for maintaining the dominator tree of a flow graph under edge deletions. We present an algorithm that processes a sequence of edge deletions in a flow graph in O(m n log n) total time and O(n^2 log n) space. For reducible flow graphs we provide an O(mn)-time and O(m + n)-space algorithm. We give a conditional lower bound that provides evidence that these running times may be tight up to subpolynomial factors.

Loukas Georgiadis, Thomas Dueholm Hansen, Giuseppe F. Italiano, Sebastian Krinninger, and Nikos Parotsidis. Decremental Data Structures for Connectivity and Dominators in Directed Graphs. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 42:1-42:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{georgiadis_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.42, author = {Georgiadis, Loukas and Dueholm Hansen, Thomas and Italiano, Giuseppe F. and Krinninger, Sebastian and Parotsidis, Nikos}, title = {{Decremental Data Structures for Connectivity and Dominators in Directed Graphs}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {42:1--42:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.42}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74455}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.42}, annote = {Keywords: dynamic graph algorithms, decremental algorithms, dominator tree, strong connectivity under failures} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We study the problem of finding the cycle of minimum cost-to-time ratio in a directed graph with n nodes and m edges. This problem has a long history in combinatorial optimization and has recently seen interesting applications in the context of quantitative verification. We focus on strongly polynomial algorithms to cover the use-case where the weights are relatively large compared to the size of the graph. Our main result is an algorithm with running time ~O(m^{3/4} n^{3/2}), which gives the first improvement over Megiddo's ~O(n^3) algorithm [JACM'83] for sparse graphs (We use the notation ~O(.) to hide factors that are polylogarithmic in n.) We further demonstrate how to obtain both an algorithm with running time n^3/2^{Omega(sqrt(log n)} on general graphs and an algorithm with running time ~O(n) on constant treewidth graphs. To obtain our main result, we develop a parallel algorithm for negative cycle detection and single-source shortest paths that might be of independent interest.

Karl Bringmann, Thomas Dueholm Hansen, and Sebastian Krinninger. Improved Algorithms for Computing the Cycle of Minimum Cost-to-Time Ratio in Directed Graphs. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 124:1-124:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{bringmann_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.124, author = {Bringmann, Karl and Dueholm Hansen, Thomas and Krinninger, Sebastian}, title = {{Improved Algorithms for Computing the Cycle of Minimum Cost-to-Time Ratio in Directed Graphs}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {124:1--124:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.124}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74398}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.124}, annote = {Keywords: quantitative verification and synthesis, parametric search, shortest paths, negative cycle detection} }

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