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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 170, 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)

We analyze affine reachability problems in dimensions 1 and 2. We show that the reachability problem for 1-register machines over the integers with affine updates is PSPACE-hard, hence PSPACE-complete, strengthening a result by Finkel et al. that required polynomial updates. Building on recent results on two-dimensional integer matrices, we prove NP-completeness of the mortality problem for 2-dimensional integer matrices with determinants +1 and 0. Motivated by tight connections with 1-dimensional affine reachability problems without control states, we also study the complexity of a number of reachability problems in finitely generated semigroups of 2-dimensional upper-triangular integer matrices.

Stefan Jaax and Stefan Kiefer. On Affine Reachability Problems. In 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 170, pp. 48:1-48:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{jaax_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.48, author = {Jaax, Stefan and Kiefer, Stefan}, title = {{On Affine Reachability Problems}}, booktitle = {45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)}, pages = {48:1--48:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-159-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {170}, editor = {Esparza, Javier and Kr\'{a}l', Daniel}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.48}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-127148}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.48}, annote = {Keywords: Counter Machines, Matrix Semigroups, Reachability} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 154, 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)

In [Dana Angluin et al., 2006], Angluin et al. proved that population protocols compute exactly the predicates definable in Presburger arithmetic (PA), the first-order theory of addition. As part of this result, they presented a procedure that translates any formula φ of quantifier-free PA with remainder predicates (which has the same expressive power as full PA) into a population protocol with 2^?(poly(|φ|)) states that computes φ. More precisely, the number of states of the protocol is exponential in both the bit length of the largest coefficient in the formula, and the number of nodes of its syntax tree.
In this paper, we prove that every formula φ of quantifier-free PA with remainder predicates is computable by a leaderless population protocol with ?(poly(|φ|)) states. Our proof is based on several new constructions, which may be of independent interest. Given a formula φ of quantifier-free PA with remainder predicates, a first construction produces a succinct protocol (with ?(|φ|³) leaders) that computes φ; this completes the work initiated in [Michael Blondin et al., 2018], where we constructed such protocols for a fragment of PA. For large enough inputs, we can get rid of these leaders. If the input is not large enough, then it is small, and we design another construction producing a succinct protocol with one leader that computes φ. Our last construction gets rid of this leader for small inputs.

Michael Blondin, Javier Esparza, Blaise Genest, Martin Helfrich, and Stefan Jaax. Succinct Population Protocols for Presburger Arithmetic. In 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 154, pp. 40:1-40:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{blondin_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2020.40, author = {Blondin, Michael and Esparza, Javier and Genest, Blaise and Helfrich, Martin and Jaax, Stefan}, title = {{Succinct Population Protocols for Presburger Arithmetic}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)}, pages = {40:1--40:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-140-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {154}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Bl\"{a}ser, Markus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-119018}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.40}, annote = {Keywords: Population protocols, Presburger arithmetic, state complexity} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 140, 30th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2019)

Population protocols are a formal model of computation by identical, anonymous mobile agents interacting in pairs. Their computational power is rather limited: Angluin et al. have shown that they can only compute the predicates over N^k expressible in Presburger arithmetic. For this reason, several extensions of the model have been proposed, including the addition of devices called cover-time services, absence detectors, and clocks. All these extensions increase the expressive power to the class of predicates over N^k lying in the complexity class NL when the input is given in unary. However, these devices are difficult to implement, since they require that an agent atomically receives messages from all other agents in a population of unknown size; moreover, the agent must know that they have all been received. Inspired by the work of the verification community on Emerson and Namjoshi’s broadcast protocols, we show that NL-power is also achieved by extending population protocols with reliable broadcasts, a simpler, standard communication primitive.

Michael Blondin, Javier Esparza, and Stefan Jaax. Expressive Power of Broadcast Consensus Protocols. In 30th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 140, pp. 31:1-31:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{blondin_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2019.31, author = {Blondin, Michael and Esparza, Javier and Jaax, Stefan}, title = {{Expressive Power of Broadcast Consensus Protocols}}, booktitle = {30th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2019)}, pages = {31:1--31:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-121-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {140}, editor = {Fokkink, Wan and van Glabbeek, Rob}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2019.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-109330}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2019.31}, annote = {Keywords: population protocols, complexity theory, counter machines, distributed computing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 96, 35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018)

Population protocols are a well established model of distributed computation by mobile finite-state agents with very limited storage. A classical result establishes that population protocols compute exactly predicates definable in Presburger arithmetic. We initiate the study of the minimal amount of memory required to compute a given predicate as a function of its size. We present results on the predicates x >= n for n \in N, and more generally on the predicates corresponding to systems of linear inequalities. We show that they can be computed by protocols with O(log n) states (or, more generally, logarithmic in the coefficients of the predicate), and that, surprisingly, some families of predicates can be computed by protocols with O(log log n) states. We give essentially matching lower bounds for the class of 1-aware protocols.

Michael Blondin, Javier Esparza, and Stefan Jaax. Large Flocks of Small Birds: on the Minimal Size of Population Protocols. In 35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 96, pp. 16:1-16:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{blondin_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2018.16, author = {Blondin, Michael and Esparza, Javier and Jaax, Stefan}, title = {{Large Flocks of Small Birds: on the Minimal Size of Population Protocols}}, booktitle = {35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018)}, pages = {16:1--16:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-062-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {96}, editor = {Niedermeier, Rolf and Vall\'{e}e, Brigitte}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2018.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-85116}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2018.16}, annote = {Keywords: Population protocols, Presburger arithmetic} }

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