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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

We consider the question of polynomial kernelization of a generalization of the classical Vertex Cover problem parameterized by a parameter that is provably smaller than the solution size. In particular, we focus on the c-Component Order Connectivity problem (c-COC) where given an undirected graph G and a non-negative integer t, the objective is to test whether there exists a set S of size at most t such that every component of G-S contains at most c vertices. Such a set S is called a c-coc set. It is known that c-COC admits a kernel with {O}(ct) vertices. Observe that for c = 1, this corresponds to the Vertex Cover problem.
We study the c-Component Order Connectivity problem parameterized by the size of a d-coc set (c-COC/d-COC), where c,d ∈ ℕ with c ≤ d. In particular, the input is an undirected graph G, a positive integer t and a set M of at most k vertices of G, such that the size of each connected component in G - M is at most d. The question is to find a set S of vertices of size at most t, such that the size of each connected component in G - S is at most c. In this paper, we give a kernel for c-COC/d-COC with O(k^{d-c+1}) vertices and O(k^{d-c+2}) edges. Our result exhibits that the difference in d and c, and not their absolute values, determines the exact degree of the polynomial in the kernel size.
When c = d = 1, the c-COC/d-COC problem is exactly the Vertex Cover problem parameterized by the solution size, which has a kernel with O(k) vertices and O(k²) edges, and this is asymptotically tight [Dell & Melkebeek, JACM 2014]. We also show that the dependence of d-c in the exponent of the kernel size cannot be avoided under reasonable complexity assumptions.

Sriram Bhyravarapu, Satyabrata Jana, Saket Saurabh, and Roohani Sharma. Difference Determines the Degree: Structural Kernelizations of Component Order Connectivity. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 5:1-5:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bhyravarapu_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.5, author = {Bhyravarapu, Sriram and Jana, Satyabrata and Saurabh, Saket and Sharma, Roohani}, title = {{Difference Determines the Degree: Structural Kernelizations of Component Order Connectivity}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {5:1--5:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194241}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.5}, annote = {Keywords: Kernelization, Component Order Connectivity, Vertex Cover, Structural Parameterizations} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)

Feedback Vertex Set (FVS) is one of the most studied vertex deletion problems in the field of graph algorithms. In the decision version of the problem, given a graph G and an integer k, the question is whether there exists a set S of at most k vertices in G such that G-S is acyclic. It is one of the first few problems which were shown to be NP-complete, and has been extensively studied from the viewpoint of approximation and parameterized algorithms. The best-known polynomial time approximation algorithm for FVS is a 2-factor approximation, while the best known deterministic and randomized FPT algorithms run in time 𝒪^*(3.460^k) and 𝒪^*(2.7^k) respectively.
In this paper, we contribute to the newly established area of parameterized approximation, by studying FVS in this paradigm. In particular, we combine the approaches of parameterized and approximation algorithms for the study of FVS, and achieve an approximation guarantee with a factor better than 2 in randomized FPT running time, that improves over the best known parameterized algorithm for FVS. We give three simple randomized (1+ε) approximation algorithms for FVS, running in times 𝒪^*(2^{εk}⋅ 2.7^{(1-ε)k}), 𝒪^*(({(4/(1+ε))^{(1+ε)}}⋅{(ε/3)^ε})^k), and 𝒪^*(4^{(1-ε)k}) respectively for every ε ∈ (0,1). Combining these three algorithms, we obtain a factor (1+ε) approximation algorithm for FVS, which has better running time than the best-known (randomized) FPT algorithm for every ε ∈ (0, 1). This is the first attempt to look at a parameterized approximation of FVS to the best of our knowledge. Our algorithms are very simple, and they rely on some well-known reduction rules used for arriving at FPT algorithms for FVS.

Satyabrata Jana, Daniel Lokshtanov, Soumen Mandal, Ashutosh Rai, and Saket Saurabh. Parameterized Approximation Scheme for Feedback Vertex Set. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 56:1-56:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{jana_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.56, author = {Jana, Satyabrata and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Mandal, Soumen and Rai, Ashutosh and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Parameterized Approximation Scheme for Feedback Vertex Set}}, booktitle = {48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)}, pages = {56:1--56:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-292-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {272}, editor = {Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.56}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-185902}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.56}, annote = {Keywords: Feedback Vertex Set, Parameterized Approximation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 249, 17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022)

For an undirected graph G, a pair of vertex disjoint subsets (A, B) is a pair of perfectly matched sets if each vertex in A (resp. B) has exactly one neighbor in B (resp. A). In the above, the size of the pair is |A| (= |B|). Given a graph G and a positive integer k, the Perfectly Matched Sets problem asks whether there exists a pair of perfectly matched sets of size at least k in G. This problem is known to be NP-hard on planar graphs and W[1]-hard on general graphs, when parameterized by k. However, little is known about the parameterized complexity of the problem in restricted graph classes. In this work, we study the problem parameterized by k, and design FPT algorithms for: i) apex-minor-free graphs running in time 2^O(√k)⋅ n^O(1), and ii) K_{b,b}-free graphs. We obtain a linear kernel for planar graphs and k^𝒪(d)-sized kernel for d-degenerate graphs. It is known that the problem is W[1]-hard on chordal graphs, in fact on split graphs, parameterized by k. We complement this hardness result by designing a polynomial-time algorithm for interval graphs.

Akanksha Agrawal, Sutanay Bhattacharjee, Satyabrata Jana, and Abhishek Sahu. Parameterized Complexity of Perfectly Matched Sets. In 17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 249, pp. 2:1-2:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.2, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Bhattacharjee, Sutanay and Jana, Satyabrata and Sahu, Abhishek}, title = {{Parameterized Complexity of Perfectly Matched Sets}}, booktitle = {17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022)}, pages = {2:1--2:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-260-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {249}, editor = {Dell, Holger and Nederlof, Jesper}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.2}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173580}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.2}, annote = {Keywords: Perfectly Matched Sets, Parameterized Complexity, Apex-minor-free graphs, d-degenerate graphs, Planar graphs, Interval Graphs} }