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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

We study the problem of multicommodity flow and multicut in treewidth-2 graphs and prove bounds on the multiflow-multicut gap. In particular, we give a primal-dual algorithm for computing multicommodity flow and multicut in treewidth-2 graphs and prove the following approximate max-flow min-cut theorem: given a treewidth-2 graph, there exists a multicommodity flow of value f with congestion 4, and a multicut of capacity c such that c ≤ 20 f. This implies a multiflow-multicut gap of 80 and improves upon the previous best known bounds for such graphs. Our algorithm runs in polynomial time when all the edges have capacity one. Our algorithm is completely combinatorial and builds upon the primal-dual algorithm of Garg, Vazirani and Yannakakis for multicut in trees and the augmenting paths framework of Ford and Fulkerson.

Tobias Friedrich, Davis Issac, Nikhil Kumar, Nadym Mallek, and Ziena Zeif. A Primal-Dual Algorithm for Multicommodity Flows and Multicuts in Treewidth-2 Graphs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 55:1-55:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{friedrich_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.55, author = {Friedrich, Tobias and Issac, Davis and Kumar, Nikhil and Mallek, Nadym and Zeif, Ziena}, title = {{A Primal-Dual Algorithm for Multicommodity Flows and Multicuts in Treewidth-2 Graphs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {55:1--55:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.55}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171774}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.55}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Multicommodity Flow, Multicut} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 212, 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)

Consider the problem where n jobs, each with a release time, a deadline and a required processing time are to be feasibly scheduled in a single- or multi-processor setting so as to minimize the total energy consumption of the schedule. A processor has two available states: a sleep state where no energy is consumed but also no processing can take place, and an active state which consumes energy at a rate of one, and in which jobs can be processed. Transitioning from the active to the sleep does not incur any further energy cost, but transitioning from the sleep to the active state requires q energy units. Jobs may be preempted and (in the multi-processor case) migrated.
The single-processor case of the problem is known to be solvable in polynomial time via an involved dynamic program, whereas the only known approximation algorithm for the multi-processor case attains an approximation factor of 3 and is based on rounding the solution to a linear programming relaxation of the problem. In this work, we present efficient and combinatorial approximation algorithms for both the single- and the multi-processor setting. Before, only an algorithm based on linear programming was known for the multi-processor case. Our algorithms build upon the concept of a skeleton, a basic (and not necessarily feasible) schedule that captures the fact that some processor(s) must be active at some time point during an interval. Finally, we further demonstrate the power of skeletons by providing a 2-approximation algorithm for the multiprocessor case, thus improving upon the recent breakthrough 3-approximation result. Our algorithm is based on a novel rounding scheme of a linear-programming relaxation of the problem which incorporates skeletons.

Antonios Antoniadis, Gunjan Kumar, and Nikhil Kumar. Skeletons and Minimum Energy Scheduling. In 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 212, pp. 51:1-51:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{antoniadis_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.51, author = {Antoniadis, Antonios and Kumar, Gunjan and Kumar, Nikhil}, title = {{Skeletons and Minimum Energy Scheduling}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)}, pages = {51:1--51:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-214-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {212}, editor = {Ahn, Hee-Kap and Sadakane, Kunihiko}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.51}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-154849}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.51}, annote = {Keywords: scheduling, energy-efficiency, approximation algorithms, dynamic programming, combinatorial algorithms} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 181, 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)

We consider the problem of multicommodity flows in planar graphs. Seymour [Seymour, 1981] showed that if the union of supply and demand graphs is planar, then the cut condition is also sufficient for routing demands. Okamura-Seymour [Okamura and Seymour, 1981] showed that if the supply graph is planar and all demands are incident on one face, then again the cut condition is sufficient for routing demands. We consider a common generalization of these settings where the end points of each demand are on the same face of the planar graph. We show that if the source sink pairs on each face of the graph are such that sources and sinks appear contiguously on the cycle bounding the face, then the flow cut gap is at most 3. We come up with a notion of approximating demands on a face by convex combination of laminar demands to prove this result.

Nikhil Kumar. Multicommodity Flows in Planar Graphs with Demands on Faces. In 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 181, pp. 41:1-41:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{kumar:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.41, author = {Kumar, Nikhil}, title = {{Multicommodity Flows in Planar Graphs with Demands on Faces}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)}, pages = {41:1--41:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-173-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {181}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Cheng, Siu-Wing and Li, Minming}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.41}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133857}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.41}, annote = {Keywords: Combinatorial Optimization, Multicommodity Flow, Network Design} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)

Given an edge weighted graph and a forest F, the 2-edge connectivity augmentation problem is to pick a minimum weighted set of edges, E', such that every connected component of E' ∪ F is 2-edge connected. Williamson et al. gave a 2-approximation algorithm (WGMV) for this problem using the primal-dual schema. We show that when edge weights are integral, the WGMV procedure can be modified to obtain a half-integral dual. The 2-edge connectivity augmentation problem has an interesting connection to routing flow in graphs where the union of supply and demand is planar. The half-integrality of the dual leads to a tight 2-approximate max-half-integral-flow min-multicut theorem.

Naveen Garg and Nikhil Kumar. Dual Half-Integrality for Uncrossable Cut Cover and Its Application to Maximum Half-Integral Flow. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 55:1-55:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{garg_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.55, author = {Garg, Naveen and Kumar, Nikhil}, title = {{Dual Half-Integrality for Uncrossable Cut Cover and Its Application to Maximum Half-Integral Flow}}, booktitle = {28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)}, pages = {55:1--55:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-162-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {173}, editor = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.55}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-129214}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.55}, annote = {Keywords: Combinatorial Optimization, Multicommodity Flow, Network Design} }

Document

APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)

Given a graph G = (V,E) with non-negative real edge lengths and an integer parameter k, the (uncapacitated) Min-Max Tree Cover problem seeks to find a set of at most k trees which together span V and each tree is a subgraph of G. The objective is to minimize the maximum length among all the trees. In this paper, we consider a capacitated generalization of the above and give the first constant factor approximation algorithm. In the capacitated version, there is a hard uniform capacity (λ) on the number of vertices a tree can cover. Our result extends to the rooted version of the problem, where we are given a set of k root vertices, R and each of the covering trees is required to include a distinct vertex in R as the root. Prior to our work, the only result known was a (2k-1)-approximation algorithm for the special case when the total number of vertices in the graph is kλ [Guttmann-Beck and Hassin, J. of Algorithms, 1997]. Our technique circumvents the difficulty of using the minimum spanning tree of the graph as a lower bound, which is standard for the uncapacitated version of the problem [Even et al.,OR Letters 2004] [Khani et al.,Algorithmica 2010]. Instead, we use Steiner trees that cover λ vertices along with an iterative refinement procedure that ensures that the output trees have low cost and the vertices are well distributed among the trees.

Syamantak Das, Lavina Jain, and Nikhil Kumar. A Constant Factor Approximation for Capacitated Min-Max Tree Cover. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 55:1-55:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{das_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.55, author = {Das, Syamantak and Jain, Lavina and Kumar, Nikhil}, title = {{A Constant Factor Approximation for Capacitated Min-Max Tree Cover}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)}, pages = {55:1--55:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-164-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {176}, editor = {Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.55}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126581}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.55}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Graph Algorithms, Min-Max Tree Cover, Vehicle Routing, Steiner Tree} }