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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

We study several questions related to diversifying search results. We give improved approximation algorithms in each of the following problems, together with some lower bounds.
1) We give a polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS) for a diversified search ranking problem [Nikhil Bansal et al., 2010] whose objective is to minimizes the discounted cumulative gain. Our PTAS runs in time n^{2^O(log(1/ε)/ε)} ⋅ m^O(1) where n denotes the number of elements in the databases and m denotes the number of constraints. Complementing this result, we show that no PTAS can run in time f(ε) ⋅ (nm)^{2^o(1/ε)} assuming Gap-ETH and therefore our running time is nearly tight. Both our upper and lower bounds answer open questions from [Nikhil Bansal et al., 2010].
2) We next consider the Max-Sum Dispersion problem, whose objective is to select k out of n elements from a database that maximizes the dispersion, which is defined as the sum of the pairwise distances under a given metric. We give a quasipolynomial-time approximation scheme (QPTAS) for the problem which runs in time n^{O_ε(log n)}. This improves upon previously known polynomial-time algorithms with approximate ratios 0.5 [Refael Hassin et al., 1997; Allan Borodin et al., 2017]. Furthermore, we observe that reductions from previous work rule out approximation schemes that run in n^õ_ε(log n) time assuming ETH.
3) Finally, we consider a generalization of Max-Sum Dispersion called Max-Sum Diversification. In addition to the sum of pairwise distance, the objective also includes another function f. For monotone submodular function f, we give a quasipolynomial-time algorithm with approximation ratio arbitrarily close to (1-1/e). This improves upon the best polynomial-time algorithm which has approximation ratio 0.5 [Allan Borodin et al., 2017]. Furthermore, the (1-1/e) factor is also tight as achieving better-than-(1-1/e) approximation is NP-hard [Uriel Feige, 1998].

Amir Abboud, Vincent Cohen-Addad, Euiwoong Lee, and Pasin Manurangsi. Improved Approximation Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Search-Diversification Problems. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 7:1-7:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{abboud_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.7, author = {Abboud, Amir and Cohen-Addad, Vincent and Lee, Euiwoong and Manurangsi, Pasin}, title = {{Improved Approximation Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Search-Diversification Problems}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {7:1--7:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163481}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.7}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Complexity, Data Mining, Diversification} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

Grothendieck’s inequality [Grothendieck, 1953] states that there is an absolute constant K > 1 such that for any n× n matrix A,
‖A‖_{∞→1} := max_{s,t ∈ {± 1}ⁿ}∑_{i,j} A[i,j]⋅s(i)⋅t(j) ≥ 1/K ⋅ max_{u_i,v_j ∈ S^{n-1}}∑_{i,j} A[i,j]⋅⟨u_i,v_j⟩.
In addition to having a tremendous impact on Banach space theory, this inequality has found applications in several unrelated fields like quantum information, regularity partitioning, communication complexity, etc. Let K_G (known as Grothendieck’s constant) denote the smallest constant K above. Grothendieck’s inequality implies that a natural semidefinite programming relaxation obtains a constant factor approximation to ‖A‖_{∞ → 1}. The exact value of K_G is yet unknown with the best lower bound (1.67…) being due to Reeds and the best upper bound (1.78…) being due to Braverman, Makarychev, Makarychev and Naor [Braverman et al., 2013]. In contrast, the little Grothendieck inequality states that under the assumption that A is PSD the constant K above can be improved to π/2 and moreover this is tight.
The inapproximability of ‖A‖_{∞ → 1} has been studied in several papers culminating in a tight UGC-based hardness result due to Raghavendra and Steurer (remarkably they achieve this without knowing the value of K_G). Briet, Regev and Saket [Briët et al., 2015] proved tight NP-hardness of approximating the little Grothendieck problem within π/2, based on a framework by Guruswami, Raghavendra, Saket and Wu [Guruswami et al., 2016] for bypassing UGC for geometric problems. This also remained the best known NP-hardness for the general Grothendieck problem due to the nature of the Guruswami et al. framework, which utilized a projection operator onto the degree-1 Fourier coefficients of long code encodings, which naturally yielded a PSD matrix A.
We show how to extend the above framework to go beyond the degree-1 Fourier coefficients, using the global structure of optimal solutions to the Grothendieck problem. As a result, we obtain a separation between the NP-hardness results for the two problems, obtaining an inapproximability result for the Grothendieck problem, of a factor π/2 + ε₀ for a fixed constant ε₀ > 0.

Vijay Bhattiprolu, Euiwoong Lee, and Madhur Tulsiani. Separating the NP-Hardness of the Grothendieck Problem from the Little-Grothendieck Problem. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 22:1-22:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bhattiprolu_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.22, author = {Bhattiprolu, Vijay and Lee, Euiwoong and Tulsiani, Madhur}, title = {{Separating the NP-Hardness of the Grothendieck Problem from the Little-Grothendieck Problem}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {22:1--22:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.22}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156186}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.22}, annote = {Keywords: Grothendieck’s Inequality, Hardness of Approximation, Semidefinite Programming, Optimization} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 207, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)

The Weighted ℱ-Vertex Deletion for a class ℱ of graphs asks, weighted graph G, for a minimum weight vertex set S such that G-S ∈ ℱ. The case when ℱ is minor-closed and excludes some graph as a minor has received particular attention but a constant-factor approximation remained elusive for Weighted ℱ-Vertex Deletion. Only three cases of minor-closed ℱ are known to admit constant-factor approximations, namely Vertex Cover, Feedback Vertex Set and Diamond Hitting Set. We study the problem for the class ℱ of θ_c-minor-free graphs, under the equivalent setting of the Weighted c-Bond Cover problem, and present a constant-factor approximation algorithm using the primal-dual method. For this, we leverage a structure theorem implicit in [Joret et al., SIDMA'14] which states the following: any graph G containing a θ_c-minor-model either contains a large two-terminal protrusion, or contains a constant-size θ_c-minor-model, or a collection of pairwise disjoint constant-sized connected sets that can be contracted simultaneously to yield a dense graph. In the first case, we tame the graph by replacing the protrusion with a special-purpose weighted gadget. For the second and third case, we provide a weighting scheme which guarantees a local approximation ratio. Besides making an important step in the quest of (dis)proving a constant-factor approximation for Weighted ℱ-Vertex Deletion, our result may be useful as a template for algorithms for other minor-closed families.

Eun Jung Kim, Euiwoong Lee, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. A Constant-Factor Approximation for Weighted Bond Cover. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 7:1-7:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{kim_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.7, author = {Kim, Eun Jung and Lee, Euiwoong and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.}, title = {{A Constant-Factor Approximation for Weighted Bond Cover}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)}, pages = {7:1--7:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-207-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {207}, editor = {Wootters, Mary and Sanit\`{a}, Laura}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-147002}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.7}, annote = {Keywords: Constant-factor approximation algorithms, Primal-dual method, Bonds in graphs, Graph minors, Graph modification problems} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 181, 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)

For a family of graphs ℱ, Weighted ℱ-Deletion is the problem for which the input is a vertex weighted graph G = (V, E) and the goal is to delete S ⊆ V with minimum weight such that G⧵S ∈ ℱ. Designing a constant-factor approximation algorithm for large subclasses of perfect graphs has been an interesting research direction. Block graphs, 3-leaf power graphs, and interval graphs are known to admit constant-factor approximation algorithms, but the question is open for chordal graphs and distance-hereditary graphs.
In this paper, we add one more class to this list by presenting a constant-factor approximation algorithm when ℱ is the intersection of chordal graphs and distance-hereditary graphs. They are known as ptolemaic graphs and form a superset of both block graphs and 3-leaf power graphs above. Our proof presents new properties and algorithmic results on inter-clique digraphs as well as an approximation algorithm for a variant of Feedback Vertex Set that exploits this relationship (named Feedback Vertex Set with Precedence Constraints), each of which may be of independent interest.

Jungho Ahn, Eun Jung Kim, and Euiwoong Lee. Towards Constant-Factor Approximation for Chordal / Distance-Hereditary Vertex Deletion. In 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 181, pp. 62:1-62:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{ahn_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.62, author = {Ahn, Jungho and Kim, Eun Jung and Lee, Euiwoong}, title = {{Towards Constant-Factor Approximation for Chordal / Distance-Hereditary Vertex Deletion}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)}, pages = {62:1--62:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-173-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {181}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Cheng, Siu-Wing and Li, Minming}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.62}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134063}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.62}, annote = {Keywords: ptolemaic, approximation algorithm, linear programming, feedback vertex set} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

We prove that for every constant c and epsilon = (log n)^{-c}, there is no polynomial time algorithm that when given an instance of 3-LIN with n variables where an (1 - epsilon)-fraction of the clauses are satisfiable, finds an assignment that satisfies atleast (1/2 + epsilon)-fraction of clauses unless NP subseteq BPP. The previous best hardness using a polynomial time reduction achieves epsilon = (log log n)^{-c}, which is obtained by the Label Cover hardness of Moshkovitz and Raz [J. ACM, 57(5), 2010] followed by the reduction from Label Cover to 3-LIN of Håstad [J. ACM, 48(4):798 - 859, 2001].
Our main idea is to prove a hardness result for Label Cover similar to Moshkovitz and Raz where each projection has a linear structure. This linear structure of Label Cover allows us to use Hadamard codes instead of long codes, making the reduction more efficient. For the hardness of Linear Label Cover, we follow the work of Dinur and Harsha [SIAM J. Comput., 42(6):2452 - 2486, 2013] that simplified the construction of Moshkovitz and Raz, and observe that running their reduction from a hardness of the problem LIN (of unbounded arity) instead of the more standard problem of solving quadratic equations ensures the linearity of the resultant Label Cover.

Prahladh Harsha, Subhash Khot, Euiwoong Lee, and Devanathan Thiruvenkatachari. Improved 3LIN Hardness via Linear Label Cover. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 9:1-9:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{harsha_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.9, author = {Harsha, Prahladh and Khot, Subhash and Lee, Euiwoong and Thiruvenkatachari, Devanathan}, title = {{Improved 3LIN Hardness via Linear Label Cover}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {9:1--9:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112245}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.9}, annote = {Keywords: probabilistically checkable proofs, PCP, composition, 3LIN, low soundness error} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We investigate the fine-grained complexity of approximating the classical k-Median/k-Means clustering problems in general metric spaces. We show how to improve the approximation factors to (1+2/e+epsilon) and (1+8/e+epsilon) respectively, using algorithms that run in fixed-parameter time. Moreover, we show that we cannot do better in FPT time, modulo recent complexity-theoretic conjectures.

Vincent Cohen-Addad, Anupam Gupta, Amit Kumar, Euiwoong Lee, and Jason Li. Tight FPT Approximations for k-Median and k-Means. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 42:1-42:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{cohenaddad_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.42, author = {Cohen-Addad, Vincent and Gupta, Anupam and Kumar, Amit and Lee, Euiwoong and Li, Jason}, title = {{Tight FPT Approximations for k-Median and k-Means}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {42:1--42:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.42}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106182}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.42}, annote = {Keywords: approximation algorithms, fixed-parameter tractability, k-median, k-means, clustering, core-sets} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 112, 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)

Online contention resolution schemes (OCRSs) were proposed by Feldman, Svensson, and Zenklusen [Moran Feldman et al., 2016] as a generic technique to round a fractional solution in the matroid polytope in an online fashion. It has found applications in several stochastic combinatorial problems where there is a commitment constraint: on seeing the value of a stochastic element, the algorithm has to immediately and irrevocably decide whether to select it while always maintaining an independent set in the matroid. Although OCRSs immediately lead to prophet inequalities, these prophet inequalities are not optimal. Can we instead use prophet inequalities to design optimal OCRSs?
We design the first optimal 1/2-OCRS for matroids by reducing the problem to designing a matroid prophet inequality where we compare to the stronger benchmark of an ex-ante relaxation. We also introduce and design optimal (1-1/e)-random order CRSs for matroids, which are similar to OCRSs but the arrival order is chosen uniformly at random.

Euiwoong Lee and Sahil Singla. Optimal Online Contention Resolution Schemes via Ex-Ante Prophet Inequalities. In 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 112, pp. 57:1-57:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{lee_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2018.57, author = {Lee, Euiwoong and Singla, Sahil}, title = {{Optimal Online Contention Resolution Schemes via Ex-Ante Prophet Inequalities}}, booktitle = {26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)}, pages = {57:1--57:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-081-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {112}, editor = {Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.57}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-95208}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.57}, annote = {Keywords: Prophets, Contention Resolution, Stochastic Optimization, Matroids} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 93, 37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017)

Given a set of vertices V with |V| = n, a weight vector w in (R^+ \cup {0})^{\binom{V}{2}}, and a probability vector x In [0, 1]^{\binom{V}{2}} in the matching polytope, we study the quantity (\E_{G}[ \nu_w(G)])/(sum_(u, v) in \binom{V}{2} w_{u, v} x_{u, v}) where G is a random graph where each edge e with weight w_e appears with probability x_e independently, and let \nu_w(G) denotes the weight of the maximum matching of G. This quantity is closely related to correlation gap and contention resolution schemes, which are important tools in the design of approximation algorithms, algorithmic game theory, and stochastic optimization.
We provide lower bounds for the above quantity for general and bipartite graphs, and for weighted and unweighted settings. The best known upper bound is 0.54 by Karp and Sipser, and the best lower bound is 0.4. We show that it is at least 0.47 for unweighted bipartite graphs, at least 0.45 for weighted bipartite graphs, and at least 0.43 for weighted general graphs. To achieve our results, we construct local distribution schemes on the dual which may be of independent interest.

Guru Guruganesh and Euiwoong Lee. Understanding the Correlation Gap For Matchings. In 37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 93, pp. 32:1-32:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{guruganesh_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.32, author = {Guruganesh, Guru and Lee, Euiwoong}, title = {{Understanding the Correlation Gap For Matchings}}, booktitle = {37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017)}, pages = {32:1--32:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-055-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {93}, editor = {Lokam, Satya and Ramanujam, R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-84003}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.32}, annote = {Keywords: Mathings, Randomized Algorithms, Correlation Gap} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 81, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)

The computational complexity of multicut-like problems may vary significantly depending on whether the terminals are fixed or not. In this work we present a comprehensive study of this phenomenon in two types of cut problems in directed graphs: double cut and bicut.
1. Fixed-terminal edge-weighted double cut is known to be solvable efficiently. We show that fixed-terminal node-weighted double cut cannot be approximated to a factor smaller than 2 under the Unique Games Conjecture (UGC), and we also give a 2-approximation algorithm. For the global version of the problem, we prove an inapproximability bound of 3/2 under UGC.
2. Fixed-terminal edge-weighted bicut is known to have an approximability factor of 2 that is tight under UGC. We show that the global edge-weighted bicut is approximable to
a factor strictly better than 2, and that the global node-weighted bicut cannot be approximated to a factor smaller than 3/2 under UGC.
3. In relation to these investigations, we also prove two results on undirected graphs which are of independent interest. First, we show NP-completeness and a tight inapproximability bound of 4/3 for the node-weighted 3-cut problem under UGC. Second, we show that for constant k, there exists an efficient algorithm to solve the minimum {s,t}-separating k-cut problem.
Our techniques for the algorithms are combinatorial, based on LPs and based on the enumeration of approximate min-cuts. Our hardness results are based on combinatorial reductions and integrality gap instances.

Kristóf Bérczi, Karthekeyan Chandrasekaran, Tamás Király, Euiwoong Lee, and Chao Xu. Global and Fixed-Terminal Cuts in Digraphs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 81, pp. 2:1-2:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{berczi_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.2, author = {B\'{e}rczi, Krist\'{o}f and Chandrasekaran, Karthekeyan and Kir\'{a}ly, Tam\'{a}s and Lee, Euiwoong and Xu, Chao}, title = {{Global and Fixed-Terminal Cuts in Digraphs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)}, pages = {2:1--2:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-044-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {81}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Williamson, David P. and Vempala, Santosh S.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.2}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75511}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.2}, annote = {Keywords: Directed Graphs, Arborescence, Graph Cuts, Hardness of Approximation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 81, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)

For an n-variate order-d tensor A, define A_{max} := sup_{||x||_2 = 1} <A,x^(otimes d)>, to be the maximum value taken by the tensor on the unit sphere. It is known that for a random tensor with i.i.d. +1/-1 entries, A_{max} <= sqrt(n.d.log(d)) w.h.p. We study the problem of efficiently certifying upper bounds on A_{max} via the natural relaxation from the Sum of Squares (SoS) hierarchy. Our results include:
* When A is a random order-q tensor, we prove that q levels of SoS certifies an upper bound B on A_{max} that satisfies B <= A_{max} * (n/q^(1-o(1)))^(q/4-1/2) w.h.p. Our upper bound improves a result of Montanari and Richard (NIPS 2014) when q is large.
* We show the above bound is the best possible up to lower order terms, namely the optimum of the level-q SoS relaxation is at least
A_{max} * (n/q^(1+o(1)))^(q/4-1/2).
* When A is a random order-d tensor, we prove that q levels of SoS certifies an upper bound B on A_{max} that satisfies B <= A_{max} * (n*polylog/q)^(d/4 - 1/2) w.h.p. For growing q, this improves upon the bound certified by constant levels of SoS. This answers in part, a question posed by Hopkins, Shi, and Steurer (COLT 2015), who tightly characterized constant levels of SoS.

Vijay Bhattiprolu, Venkatesan Guruswami, and Euiwoong Lee. Sum-of-Squares Certificates for Maxima of Random Tensors on the Sphere. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 81, pp. 31:1-31:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{bhattiprolu_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.31, author = {Bhattiprolu, Vijay and Guruswami, Venkatesan and Lee, Euiwoong}, title = {{Sum-of-Squares Certificates for Maxima of Random Tensors on the Sphere}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)}, pages = {31:1--31:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-044-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {81}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Williamson, David P. and Vempala, Santosh S.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75808}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.31}, annote = {Keywords: Sum-of-Squares, Optimization over Sphere, Random Polynomials} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We study variants of the classic s-t cut problem and prove the following improved hardness results assuming the Unique Games Conjecture (UGC).
* For Length-Bounded Cut and Shortest Path Interdiction, we show that both problems are hard to approximate within any constant factor, even if we allow bicriteria approximation. If we want to cut vertices or the graph is directed, our hardness ratio for Length-Bounded Cut matches the best approximation ratio up to a constant. Previously, the best hardness ratio was 1.1377 for Length-Bounded Cut and 2 for Shortest Path Interdiction.
* For any constant k >= 2 and epsilon > 0, we show that Directed Multicut with k source-sink pairs is hard to approximate within a factor k - epsilon. This matches the trivial k-approximation algorithm. By a simple reduction, our result for k = 2 implies that Directed Multiway Cut with two terminals (also known as s-t Bicut} is hard to approximate within a factor 2 - epsilon, matching the trivial 2-approximation algorithm.
* Assuming a variant of the UGC (implied by another variant of Bansal and Khot), we prove that it is hard to approximate Resource Minimization Fire Containment within any constant factor. Previously, the best hardness ratio was 2. For directed layered graphs with b layers, our hardness ratio Omega(log b) matches the best approximation algorithm.
Our results are based on a general method of converting an integrality gap instance to a length-control dictatorship test for variants of the s-t cut problem, which may be useful for other problems.

Euiwoong Lee. Improved Hardness for Cut, Interdiction, and Firefighter Problems. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 92:1-92:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{lee:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.92, author = {Lee, Euiwoong}, title = {{Improved Hardness for Cut, Interdiction, and Firefighter Problems}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {92:1--92:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.92}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74854}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.92}, annote = {Keywords: length bounded cut, shortest path interdiction, multicut; firefighter, unique games conjecture} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 40, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)

A hypergraph is said to be X-colorable if its vertices can be colored with X colors so that no hyperedge is monochromatic. 2-colorability is a fundamental property (called Property B) of hypergraphs and is extensively studied in combinatorics. Algorithmically, however, given a 2-colorable k-uniform hypergraph, it is NP-hard to find a 2-coloring miscoloring fewer than a fraction 2^(-k+1) of hyperedges (which is trivially achieved by a random 2-coloring), and the best algorithms to color the hypergraph properly require about n^(1-1/k) colors, approaching the trivial bound of n as k increases.
In this work, we study the complexity of approximate hypergraph coloring, for both the maximization (finding a 2-coloring with fewest miscolored edges) and minimization (finding a proper coloring using fewest number of colors) versions, when the input hypergraph is promised to have the following stronger properties than 2-colorability:
(A) Low-discrepancy: If the hypergraph has a 2-coloring of discrepancy l << sqrt(k), we give an algorithm to color the hypergraph with about n^(O(l^2/k)) colors. However, for the maximization version, we prove NP-hardness of finding a 2-coloring miscoloring a smaller than 2^(-O(k)) (resp. k^(-O(k))) fraction of the hyperedges when l = O(log k) (resp. l=2). Assuming the Unique Games conjecture, we improve the latter hardness factor to 2^(-O(k)) for almost discrepancy-1 hypergraphs.
(B) Rainbow colorability: If the hypergraph has a (k-l)-coloring such that each hyperedge is polychromatic with all these colors (this is stronger than a (l+1)-discrepancy 2-coloring), we give a 2-coloring algorithm that miscolors at most k^(-Omega(k)) of the hyperedges when l << sqrt(k), and complement this with a matching Unique Games hardness result showing that when l = sqrt(k), it is hard to even beat the 2^(-k+1) bound achieved by a random coloring.
(C) Strong Colorability: We obtain similar (stronger) Min- and Max-2-Coloring algorithmic results in the case of (k+l)-strong colorability.

Vijay V. S. P. Bhattiprolu, Venkatesan Guruswami, and Euiwoong Lee. Approximate Hypergraph Coloring under Low-discrepancy and Related Promises. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 40, pp. 152-174, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{bhattiprolu_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.152, author = {Bhattiprolu, Vijay V. S. P. and Guruswami, Venkatesan and Lee, Euiwoong}, title = {{Approximate Hypergraph Coloring under Low-discrepancy and Related Promises}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)}, pages = {152--174}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-89-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {40}, editor = {Garg, Naveen and Jansen, Klaus and Rao, Anup and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.152}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-53011}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.152}, annote = {Keywords: Hypergraph Coloring, Discrepancy, Rainbow Coloring, Stong Coloring, Algorithms, Semidefinite Programming, Hardness of Approximation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 40, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)

Given an undirected graph G=(V,E) and a fixed pattern graph H with k vertices, we consider the H-Transversal and H-Packing problems. The former asks to find the smallest subset S of vertices such that the subgraph induced by V - S does not have H as a subgraph, and the latter asks to find the maximum number of pairwise disjoint k-subsets S1, ..., Sm such that the subgraph induced by each Si has H as a subgraph.
We prove that if H is 2-connected, H-Transversal and H-Packing are almost as hard to approximate as general k-Hypergraph Vertex Cover and k-Set Packing, so it is NP-hard to approximate them within a factor of Omega(k) and Omega(k / polylog(k)) respectively. We also show that there is a 1-connected H where H-Transversal admits an O(log k)-approximation algorithm, so that the connectivity requirement cannot be relaxed from 2 to 1. For a special case of H-Transversal where H is a (family of) cycles, we mention the implication of our result to the related Feedback Vertex Set problem, and give a different hardness proof for directed graphs.

Venkatesan Guruswami and Euiwoong Lee. Inapproximability of H-Transversal/Packing. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 40, pp. 284-304, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{guruswami_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.284, author = {Guruswami, Venkatesan and Lee, Euiwoong}, title = {{Inapproximability of H-Transversal/Packing}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)}, pages = {284--304}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-89-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {40}, editor = {Garg, Naveen and Jansen, Klaus and Rao, Anup and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.284}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-53085}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.284}, annote = {Keywords: Constraint Satisfaction Problems, Approximation resistance} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 40, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)

A Boolean constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) is called approximation resistant if independently setting variables to 1 with some probability achieves the best possible approximation ratio for the fraction of constraints satisfied. We study approximation resistance of a natural subclass of CSPs that we call Symmetric Constraint Satisfaction Problems (SCSPs), where satisfaction of each constraint only depends on the number of true literals in its scope. Thus a SCSP of arity k can be described by a subset of allowed number of true literals.
For SCSPs without negation, we conjecture that a simple sufficient condition to be approximation resistant by Austrin and Hastad is indeed necessary. We show that this condition has a compact analytic representation in the case of symmetric CSPs (depending only on the gap between the largest and smallest numbers in S), and provide the rationale behind our conjecture. We prove two interesting special cases of the conjecture, (i) when S is an interval and (ii) when S is even. For SCSPs with negation, we prove that the analogous sufficient condition by Austrin and Mossel is necessary for the same two cases, though we do not pose an analogous conjecture in general.

Venkatesan Guruswami and Euiwoong Lee. Towards a Characterization of Approximation Resistance for Symmetric CSPs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 40, pp. 305-322, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{guruswami_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.305, author = {Guruswami, Venkatesan and Lee, Euiwoong}, title = {{Towards a Characterization of Approximation Resistance for Symmetric CSPs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)}, pages = {305--322}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-89-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {40}, editor = {Garg, Naveen and Jansen, Klaus and Rao, Anup and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.305}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-53095}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.305}, annote = {Keywords: Constraint Satisfaction Problems, Approximation resistance} }

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