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Documents authored by Martins, José


Document
IRQ Coloring: Mitigating Interrupt-Generated Interference on ARM Multicore Platforms

Authors: Diogo Costa, Luca Cuomo, Daniel Oliveira, Ida Maria Savino, Bruno Morelli, José Martins, Fabrizio Tronci, Alessandro Biasci, and Sandro Pinto

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 108, Fourth Workshop on Next Generation Real-Time Embedded Systems (NG-RES 2023)


Abstract
Mixed-criticality systems, which consolidate workloads with different criticalities, must comply with stringent spatial and temporal isolation requirements imposed by safety-critical standards (e.g., ISO26262). This, per se, has proven to be a challenge with the advent of multicore platforms due to the inner interference created by multiple subsystems while disputing access to shared resources. With this work, we pioneer the concept of Interrupt (IRQ) coloring as a novel mechanism to minimize the interference created by co-existing interrupt-driven workloads. The main idea consists of selectively deactivating specific ("colored") interrupts if the QoS of critical workloads (e.g., Virtual Machines) drops below a well-defined threshold. The IRQ Coloring approach encompasses two artifacts, i.e., the IRQ Coloring Design-Time Tool (IRQ DTT) and the IRQ Coloring Run-Time Mechanism (IRQ RTM). In this paper, we focus on presenting the conceptual IRQ coloring design, describing the first prototype of the IRQ RTM on Bao hypervisor, and providing initial evidence about the effectiveness of the proposed approach on a synthetic use case.

Cite as

Diogo Costa, Luca Cuomo, Daniel Oliveira, Ida Maria Savino, Bruno Morelli, José Martins, Fabrizio Tronci, Alessandro Biasci, and Sandro Pinto. IRQ Coloring: Mitigating Interrupt-Generated Interference on ARM Multicore Platforms. In Fourth Workshop on Next Generation Real-Time Embedded Systems (NG-RES 2023). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 108, pp. 2:1-2:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{costa_et_al:OASIcs.NG-RES.2023.2,
  author =	{Costa, Diogo and Cuomo, Luca and Oliveira, Daniel and Savino, Ida Maria and Morelli, Bruno and Martins, Jos\'{e} and Tronci, Fabrizio and Biasci, Alessandro and Pinto, Sandro},
  title =	{{IRQ Coloring: Mitigating Interrupt-Generated Interference on ARM Multicore Platforms}},
  booktitle =	{Fourth Workshop on Next Generation Real-Time Embedded Systems (NG-RES 2023)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:13},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-268-6},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{108},
  editor =	{Terraneo, Federico and Cattaneo, Daniele},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.NG-RES.2023.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-177333},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.NG-RES.2023.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: IRQ coloring, Interrupt Interference, Mixed-Criticality Systems, Hypervisors, Bao, Arm}
}
Document
Bao: A Lightweight Static Partitioning Hypervisor for Modern Multi-Core Embedded Systems

Authors: José Martins, Adriano Tavares, Marco Solieri, Marko Bertogna, and Sandro Pinto

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 77, Workshop on Next Generation Real-Time Embedded Systems (NG-RES 2020)


Abstract
Given the increasingly complex and mixed-criticality nature of modern embedded systems, virtualization emerges as a natural solution to achieve strong spatial and temporal isolation. Widely used hypervisors such as KVM and Xen were not designed having embedded constraints and requirements in mind. The static partitioning architecture pioneered by Jailhouse seems to address embedded concerns. However, Jailhouse still depends on Linux to boot and manage its VMs. In this paper, we present the Bao hypervisor, a minimal, standalone and clean-slate implementation of the static partitioning architecture for Armv8 and RISC-V platforms. Preliminary results regarding size, boot, performance, and interrupt latency, show this approach incurs only minimal virtualization overhead. Bao will soon be publicly available, in hopes of engaging both industry and academia on improving Bao’s safety, security, and real-time guarantees.

Cite as

José Martins, Adriano Tavares, Marco Solieri, Marko Bertogna, and Sandro Pinto. Bao: A Lightweight Static Partitioning Hypervisor for Modern Multi-Core Embedded Systems. In Workshop on Next Generation Real-Time Embedded Systems (NG-RES 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 77, pp. 3:1-3:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{martins_et_al:OASIcs.NG-RES.2020.3,
  author =	{Martins, Jos\'{e} and Tavares, Adriano and Solieri, Marco and Bertogna, Marko and Pinto, Sandro},
  title =	{{Bao: A Lightweight Static Partitioning Hypervisor for Modern Multi-Core Embedded Systems}},
  booktitle =	{Workshop on Next Generation Real-Time Embedded Systems (NG-RES 2020)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:14},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-136-8},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{77},
  editor =	{Bertogna, Marko and Terraneo, Federico},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.NG-RES.2020.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117795},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.NG-RES.2020.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: Virtualization, hypervisor, static partitioning, safety, security, real-time, embedded systems, Arm, RISC-V}
}
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