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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 248, 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)

In this paper, we prove a super-cubic lower bound on the size of a communication protocol for generalized Karchmer-Wigderson game for an explicit function f: {0,1}ⁿ → {0,1}^{log n}. Lower bounds for original Karchmer-Wigderson games correspond to De Morgan formula lower bounds, thus the best known size lower bound is cubic. The generalized Karchmer-Wigderson games are similar to the original ones, so we hope that our approach can provide an insight for proving better lower bounds on the original Karchmer-Wigderson games, and hence for proving new lower bounds on De Morgan formula size.
To achieve super-cubic lower bound we adapt several techniques used in formula complexity to communication protocols, prove communication complexity lower bound for a composition of several functions with a multiplexer relation, and use a technique from [Ivan Mihajlin and Alexander Smal, 2021] to extract the "hardest" function from it. As a result, in this setting we are able to show that there is a relatively small set of functions such that at least one of them does not have a small protocol. The resulting lower bound of Ω̃(n^3.156) is significantly better than the bound obtained from the counting argument.

Artur Ignatiev, Ivan Mihajlin, and Alexander Smal. Super-Cubic Lower Bound for Generalized Karchmer-Wigderson Games. In 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 248, pp. 66:1-66:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{ignatiev_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.66, author = {Ignatiev, Artur and Mihajlin, Ivan and Smal, Alexander}, title = {{Super-Cubic Lower Bound for Generalized Karchmer-Wigderson Games}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)}, pages = {66:1--66:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-258-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {248}, editor = {Bae, Sang Won and Park, Heejin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.66}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173510}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.66}, annote = {Keywords: communication complexity, circuit complexity, Karchmer-Wigderson games} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 241, 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)

The minimum number of clauses in a CNF representation of the parity function x₁ ⊕ x₂ ⊕ … ⊕ x_n is 2^{n-1}. One can obtain a more compact CNF encoding by using non-deterministic variables (also known as guess or auxiliary variables). In this paper, we prove the following lower bounds, that almost match known upper bounds, on the number m of clauses and the maximum width k of clauses: 1) if there are at most s auxiliary variables, then m ≥ Ω(2^{n/(s+1)}/n) and k ≥ n/(s+1); 2) the minimum number of clauses is at least 3n. We derive the first two bounds from the Satisfiability Coding Lemma due to Paturi, Pudlák, and Zane using a tight connection between CNF encodings and depth-3 circuits. In particular, we show that lower bounds on the size of a CNF encoding of a Boolean function imply depth-3 circuit lower bounds for this function.

Gregory Emdin, Alexander S. Kulikov, Ivan Mihajlin, and Nikita Slezkin. CNF Encodings of Parity. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 47:1-47:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{emdin_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.47, author = {Emdin, Gregory and Kulikov, Alexander S. and Mihajlin, Ivan and Slezkin, Nikita}, title = {{CNF Encodings of Parity}}, booktitle = {47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)}, pages = {47:1--47:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-256-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {241}, editor = {Szeider, Stefan and Ganian, Robert and Silva, Alexandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-168455}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.47}, annote = {Keywords: encoding, parity, lower bounds, circuits, CNF} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)

We prove that a modification of Andreev’s function is not computable by (3 + α - ε) log(n) depth De Morgan formula with (2α - ε)log{n} layers of AND gates at the top for any 0 < α < 1/5 and any constant ε > 0. In order to do this, we prove a weak variant of Karchmer-Raz-Wigderson conjecture. To be more precise, we prove the existence of two functions f : {0,1}ⁿ → {0,1} and g : {0,1}ⁿ → {0,1}ⁿ such that f(g(x) ⊕ y) is not computable by depth (1 + α - ε) n formulas with (2 α - ε) n layers of AND gates at the top. We do this by a top-down approach, which was only used before for depth-3 model.
Our technical contribution includes combinatorial insights into structure of composition with random boolean function, which led us to introducing a notion of well-mixed sets. A set of functions is well-mixed if, when composed with a random function, it does not have subsets that agree on large fractions of inputs. We use probabilistic method to prove the existence of well-mixed sets.

Ivan Mihajlin and Anastasia Sofronova. A Better-Than-3log(n) Depth Lower Bound for De Morgan Formulas with Restrictions on Top Gates. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 13:1-13:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{mihajlin_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.13, author = {Mihajlin, Ivan and Sofronova, Anastasia}, title = {{A Better-Than-3log(n) Depth Lower Bound for De Morgan Formulas with Restrictions on Top Gates}}, booktitle = {37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)}, pages = {13:1--13:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-241-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {234}, editor = {Lovett, Shachar}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165755}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.13}, annote = {Keywords: formula complexity, communication complexity, Karchmer-Raz-Wigderson conjecture, De Morgan formulas} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 204, 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)

In the minimum common string partition problem (MCSP), one gets two strings and is asked to find the minimum number of cuts in the first string such that the second string can be obtained by rearranging the resulting pieces. It is a difficult algorithmic problem having applications in computational biology, text processing, and data compression. MCSP has been studied extensively from various algorithmic angles: there are many papers studying approximation, heuristic, and parameterized algorithms. At the same time, almost nothing is known about its exact complexity. In this paper, we present new results in this direction. We improve the known 2ⁿ upper bound (where n is the length of input strings) to ϕⁿ where ϕ ≈ 1.618... is the golden ratio. The algorithm uses Fibonacci numbers to encode subsets as monomials of a certain implicit polynomial and extracts one of its coefficients using the fast Fourier transform. Then, we show that the case of constant size alphabet can be solved in subexponential time 2^{O(nlog log n/log n)} by a hybrid strategy: enumerate all long pieces and use dynamic programming over histograms of short pieces. Finally, we prove almost matching lower bounds assuming the Exponential Time Hypothesis.

Marek Cygan, Alexander S. Kulikov, Ivan Mihajlin, Maksim Nikolaev, and Grigory Reznikov. Minimum Common String Partition: Exact Algorithms. In 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 204, pp. 35:1-35:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{cygan_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2021.35, author = {Cygan, Marek and Kulikov, Alexander S. and Mihajlin, Ivan and Nikolaev, Maksim and Reznikov, Grigory}, title = {{Minimum Common String Partition: Exact Algorithms}}, booktitle = {29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)}, pages = {35:1--35:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-204-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {204}, editor = {Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146167}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.35}, annote = {Keywords: similarity measure, string distance, exact algorithms, upper bounds, lower bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 200, 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)

In this paper, we propose a new conjecture, the XOR-KRW conjecture, which is a relaxation of the Karchmer-Raz-Wigderson conjecture [Mauricio Karchmer et al., 1995]. This relaxation is still strong enough to imply 𝐏 ̸ ⊆ NC¹ if proven. We also present a weaker version of this conjecture that might be used for breaking n³ lower bound for De Morgan formulas. Our study of this conjecture allows us to partially answer an open question stated in [Dmitry Gavinsky et al., 2017] regarding the composition of the universal relation with a function. To be more precise, we prove that there exists a function g such that the composition of the universal relation with g is significantly harder than just a universal relation. The fact that we can only prove the existence of g is an inherent feature of our approach.
The paper’s main technical contribution is a new approach to lower bounds for multiplexer-type relations based on the non-deterministic hardness of non-equality and a new method of converting lower bounds for multiplexer-type relations into lower bounds against some function. In order to do this, we develop techniques to lower bound communication complexity in half-duplex and partially half-duplex communication models.

Ivan Mihajlin and Alexander Smal. Toward Better Depth Lower Bounds: The XOR-KRW Conjecture. In 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 200, pp. 38:1-38:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{mihajlin_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2021.38, author = {Mihajlin, Ivan and Smal, Alexander}, title = {{Toward Better Depth Lower Bounds: The XOR-KRW Conjecture}}, booktitle = {36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)}, pages = {38:1--38:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-193-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {200}, editor = {Kabanets, Valentine}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-143121}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.38}, annote = {Keywords: communication complexity, KRW conjecture, circuit complexity, half-duplex communication complexity, Karchmer-Wigderson games, multiplexer relation, universal relation} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

We prove that the Hadwiger number of an n-vertex graph G (the maximum size of a clique minor in G) cannot be computed in time n^o(n), unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH) fails. This resolves a well-known open question in the area of exact exponential algorithms. The technique developed for resolving the Hadwiger number problem has a wider applicability. We use it to rule out the existence of n^o(n)-time algorithms (up to ETH) for a large class of computational problems concerning edge contractions in graphs.

Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, Ivan Mihajlin, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Computation of Hadwiger Number and Related Contraction Problems: Tight Lower Bounds. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 49:1-49:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.49, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Mihajlin, Ivan and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Computation of Hadwiger Number and Related Contraction Problems: Tight Lower Bounds}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {49:1--49:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.49}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124568}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.49}, annote = {Keywords: Hadwiger Number, Exponential-Time Hypothesis, Exact Algorithms, Edge Contraction Problems} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

In the Shortest Common Superstring (SCS) problem, one is given a collection of strings, and needs to find a shortest string containing each of them as a substring. SCS admits 2 11/23-approximation in polynomial time (Mucha, SODA'13). While this algorithm and its analysis are technically involved, the 30 years old Greedy Conjecture claims that the trivial and efficient Greedy Algorithm gives a 2-approximation for SCS.
We develop a graph-theoretic framework for studying approximation algorithms for SCS. The framework is reminiscent of the classical 2-approximation for Traveling Salesman: take two copies of an optimal solution, apply a trivial edge-collapsing procedure, and get an approximate solution. In this framework, we observe two surprising properties of SCS solutions, and we conjecture that they hold for all input instances. The first conjecture, that we call Collapsing Superstring conjecture, claims that there is an elementary way to transform any solution repeated twice into the same graph G. This conjecture would give an elementary 2-approximate algorithm for SCS. The second conjecture claims that not only the resulting graph G is the same for all solutions, but that G can be computed by an elementary greedy procedure called Greedy Hierarchical Algorithm.
While the second conjecture clearly implies the first one, perhaps surprisingly we prove their equivalence. We support these equivalent conjectures by giving a proof for the special case where all input strings have length at most 3 (which until recently had been the only case where the Greedy Conjecture was proven). We also tested our conjectures on millions of instances of SCS.
We prove that the standard Greedy Conjecture implies Greedy Hierarchical Conjecture, while the latter is sufficient for an efficient greedy 2-approximate approximation of SCS. Except for its (conjectured) good approximation ratio, the Greedy Hierarchical Algorithm provably finds a 3.5-approximation, and finds exact solutions for the special cases where we know polynomial time (not greedy) exact algorithms: (1) when the input strings form a spectrum of a string (2) when all input strings have length at most 2.

Alexander Golovnev, Alexander S. Kulikov, Alexander Logunov, Ivan Mihajlin, and Maksim Nikolaev. Collapsing Superstring Conjecture. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 26:1-26:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{golovnev_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.26, author = {Golovnev, Alexander and Kulikov, Alexander S. and Logunov, Alexander and Mihajlin, Ivan and Nikolaev, Maksim}, title = {{Collapsing Superstring Conjecture}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {26:1--26:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112411}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.26}, annote = {Keywords: superstring, shortest common superstring, approximation, greedy algorithms, greedy conjecture} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 123, 29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018)

Suppose Alice and Bob are communicating in order to compute some function f, but instead of a classical communication channel they have a pair of walkie-talkie devices. They can use some classical communication protocol for f where in each round one player sends a bit and the other one receives it. The question is whether talking via walkie-talkie gives them more power? Using walkie-talkies instead of a classical communication channel allows players two extra possibilities: to speak simultaneously (but in this case they do not hear each other) and to listen at the same time (but in this case they do not transfer any bits). The motivation for this kind of a communication model comes from the study of the KRW conjecture. We show that for some definitions this non-classical communication model is, in fact, more powerful than the classical one as it allows to compute some functions in a smaller number of rounds. We also prove lower bounds for these models using both combinatorial and information theoretic methods.

Kenneth Hoover, Russell Impagliazzo, Ivan Mihajlin, and Alexander V. Smal. Half-Duplex Communication Complexity. In 29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 123, pp. 10:1-10:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{hoover_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.10, author = {Hoover, Kenneth and Impagliazzo, Russell and Mihajlin, Ivan and Smal, Alexander V.}, title = {{Half-Duplex Communication Complexity}}, booktitle = {29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018)}, pages = {10:1--10:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-094-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {123}, editor = {Hsu, Wen-Lian and Lee, Der-Tsai and Liao, Chung-Shou}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-99583}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.10}, annote = {Keywords: communication complexity, half-duplex channel, information theory} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 102, 33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018)

We show that proving mildly super-linear lower bounds on non-commutative arithmetic circuits implies exponential lower bounds on non-commutative circuits. That is, non-commutative circuit complexity is a threshold phenomenon: an apparently weak lower bound actually suffices to show the strongest lower bounds we could desire.
This is part of a recent line of inquiry into why arithmetic circuit complexity, despite being a heavily restricted version of Boolean complexity, still cannot prove super-linear lower bounds on general devices. One can view our work as positive news (it suffices to prove weak lower bounds to get strong ones) or negative news (it is as hard to prove weak lower bounds as it is to prove strong ones). We leave it to the reader to determine their own level of optimism.

Marco L. Carmosino, Russell Impagliazzo, Shachar Lovett, and Ivan Mihajlin. Hardness Amplification for Non-Commutative Arithmetic Circuits. In 33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 102, pp. 12:1-12:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{carmosino_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2018.12, author = {Carmosino, Marco L. and Impagliazzo, Russell and Lovett, Shachar and Mihajlin, Ivan}, title = {{Hardness Amplification for Non-Commutative Arithmetic Circuits}}, booktitle = {33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018)}, pages = {12:1--12:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-069-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {102}, editor = {Servedio, Rocco A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2018.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88772}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2018.12}, annote = {Keywords: arithmetic circuits, hardness amplification, circuit lower bounds, non-commutative computation} }