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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

Given x,y ∈ {0,1}ⁿ, Set Disjointness consists in deciding whether x_i = y_i = 1 for some index i ∈ [n]. We study the problem of computing this function in a distributed computing scenario in which the inputs x and y are given to the processors at the two extremities of a path of length d. Each vertex of the path has a quantum processor that can communicate with each of its neighbours by exchanging O(log n) qubits per round. We are interested in the number of rounds required for computing Set Disjointness with constant probability bounded away from 1/2. We call this problem "Set Disjointness on a Line".
Set Disjointness on a Line was introduced by Le Gall and Magniez [Le Gall and Magniez, 2018] for proving lower bounds on the quantum distributed complexity of computing the diameter of an arbitrary network in the CONGEST model. However, they were only able to provide a lower bound when the local memory used by the processors on the intermediate vertices of the path is severely limited. More precisely, their bound applies only when the local memory of each intermediate processor consists of O(log n) qubits.
In this work, we prove an unconditional lower bound of Ω̃(∛{n d²} + √n) rounds for Set Disjointness on a Line with d + 1 processors. This is the first non-trivial lower bound when there is no restriction on the memory used by the processors. The result gives us a new lower bound of Ω̃ (∛{nδ²} + √n) on the number of rounds required for computing the diameter δ of any n-node network with quantum messages of size O(log n) in the CONGEST model.
We draw a connection between the distributed computing scenario above and a new model of query complexity. In this model, an algorithm computing a bi-variate function f (such as Set Disjointness) has access to the inputs x and y through two separate oracles 𝒪_x and 𝒪_y, respectively. The restriction is that the algorithm is required to alternately make d queries to 𝒪_x and d queries to 𝒪_y, with input-independent computation in between queries. The model reflects a "switching delay" of d queries between a "round" of queries to x and the following "round" of queries to y. The technique we use for deriving the round lower bound for Set Disjointness on a Line also applies to this query model. We provide an algorithm for Set Disjointness in this query model with query complexity that matches the round lower bound stated above, up to a polylogarithmic factor. In this sense, the round lower bound we show for Set Disjointness on a Line is optimal.

Frédéric Magniez and Ashwin Nayak. Quantum Distributed Complexity of Set Disjointness on a Line. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 82:1-82:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{magniez_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.82, author = {Magniez, Fr\'{e}d\'{e}ric and Nayak, Ashwin}, title = {{Quantum Distributed Complexity of Set Disjointness on a Line}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {82:1--82:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.82}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124892}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.82}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum distributed computing, Set Disjointness, communication complexity, query complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 79, 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)

We show how two recently developed quantum information theoretic tools can be applied to obtain lower bounds on quantum information complexity. We also develop new tools with potential for broader applicability, and use them to establish a lower bound on the quantum information complexity for the Augmented Index function on an easy distribution. This approach allows us to handle superpositions rather than distributions over inputs, the main technical challenge faced previously. By providing a quantum generalization of the argument of Jain and Nayak [IEEE TIT'14], we leverage this to obtain a lower bound on the space complexity of multi-pass, unidirectional quantum streaming algorithms for the DYCK(2) language.

Ashwin Nayak and Dave Touchette. Augmented Index and Quantum Streaming Algorithms for DYCK(2). In 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 79, pp. 23:1-23:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{nayak_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2017.23, author = {Nayak, Ashwin and Touchette, Dave}, title = {{Augmented Index and Quantum Streaming Algorithms for DYCK(2)}}, booktitle = {32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)}, pages = {23:1--23:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-040-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {79}, editor = {O'Donnell, Ryan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75437}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.23}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum streaming algorithms, Space complexity, Quantum communication complexity, Quantum information cost, DYCK(2), Augmented Index} }

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