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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 237, 13th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2022)

The DPRM (Davis-Putnam-Robinson-Matiyasevich) theorem is the main step in the negative resolution of Hilbert’s 10th problem. Almost three decades of work on the problem have resulted in several equally surprising results. These include the existence of diophantine equations with a reduced number of variables, as well as the explicit construction of polynomials that represent specific sets, in particular the set of primes. In this work, we formalize these constructions in the Mizar system. We focus on the set of prime numbers and its explicit representation using 10 variables. It is the smallest representation known today. For this, we show that the exponential function is diophantine, together with the same properties for the binomial coefficient and factorial. This formalization is the next step in the research on formal approaches to diophantine sets following the DPRM theorem.

Karol Pąk and Cezary Kaliszyk. Formalizing a Diophantine Representation of the Set of Prime Numbers. In 13th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 237, pp. 26:1-26:8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{pak_et_al:LIPIcs.ITP.2022.26, author = {P\k{a}k, Karol and Kaliszyk, Cezary}, title = {{Formalizing a Diophantine Representation of the Set of Prime Numbers}}, booktitle = {13th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2022)}, pages = {26:1--26:8}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-252-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {237}, editor = {Andronick, June and de Moura, Leonardo}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2022.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-167350}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2022.26}, annote = {Keywords: DPRM theorem, Polynomial reduction, prime numbers} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 141, 10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019)

We formally introduce a foundation for computer verified proofs based on higher-order Tarski-Grothendieck set theory. We show that this theory has a model if a 2-inaccessible cardinal exists. This assumption is the same as the one needed for a model of plain Tarski-Grothendieck set theory. The foundation allows the co-existence of proofs based on two major competing foundations for formal proofs: higher-order logic and TG set theory. We align two co-existing Isabelle libraries, Isabelle/HOL and Isabelle/Mizar, in a single foundation in the Isabelle logical framework. We do this by defining isomorphisms between the basic concepts, including integers, functions, lists, and algebraic structures that preserve the important operations. With this we can transfer theorems proved in higher-order logic to TG set theory and vice versa. We practically show this by formally transferring Lagrange’s four-square theorem, Fermat 3-4, and other theorems between the foundations in the Isabelle framework.

Chad E. Brown, Cezary Kaliszyk, and Karol Pąk. Higher-Order Tarski Grothendieck as a Foundation for Formal Proof. In 10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 141, pp. 9:1-9:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{brown_et_al:LIPIcs.ITP.2019.9, author = {Brown, Chad E. and Kaliszyk, Cezary and P\k{a}k, Karol}, title = {{Higher-Order Tarski Grothendieck as a Foundation for Formal Proof}}, booktitle = {10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019)}, pages = {9:1--9:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-122-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {141}, editor = {Harrison, John and O'Leary, John and Tolmach, Andrew}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2019.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110643}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2019.9}, annote = {Keywords: model, higher-order, Tarski Grothendieck, proof foundation} }

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Short Paper

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 141, 10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019)

Declarative proof styles of different proof assistants include a number of incompatible features. In this paper we discuss and classify the differences between them and propose efficient algorithms for declarative proof outline translation. We demonstrate the practicality of our algorithms by automatically translating the proof outlines in 200 articles from the Mizar Mathematical Library to the Isabelle/Isar proof style. This generates the corresponding theories with 15301 proof outlines accepted by the Isabelle proof checker. The goal of our translation is to produce a declarative proof in the target system that is both accepted and short and therefore readable. For this three kinds of adaptations are required. First, the proof structure often needs to be rebuilt to capture the extensions of the natural deduction rules supported by the systems. Second, the references to previous items and their labels need to be matched and aligned. Finally, adaptations in the annotations of individual proof step may be necessary.

Cezary Kaliszyk and Karol Pąk. Declarative Proof Translation (Short Paper). In 10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 141, pp. 35:1-35:7, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{kaliszyk_et_al:LIPIcs.ITP.2019.35, author = {Kaliszyk, Cezary and P\k{a}k, Karol}, title = {{Declarative Proof Translation}}, booktitle = {10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019)}, pages = {35:1--35:7}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-122-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {141}, editor = {Harrison, John and O'Leary, John and Tolmach, Andrew}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2019.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110903}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2019.35}, annote = {Keywords: Declarative Proof, Translation, Isabelle/Isar, Mizar} }