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Documents authored by Pagani, Marco


Document
Artifact
Modeling and Analysis of Bus Contention for Hardware Accelerators in FPGA SoCs (Artifact)

Authors: Francesco Restuccia, Marco Pagani, Alessandro Biondi, Mauro Marinoni, and Giorgio Buttazzo

Published in: DARTS, Volume 6, Issue 1, Special Issue of the 32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020)


Abstract
This artifact provides the means for reproducing the experiments presented in the paper "Modeling and Analysis of Bus Contention for Hardware Accelerators in FPGA SoC". In particular, it provides the means and describes how to replicate the experimental study that has been carried out to evaluate the proposed analysis with synthetic workloads.

Cite as

Francesco Restuccia, Marco Pagani, Alessandro Biondi, Mauro Marinoni, and Giorgio Buttazzo. Modeling and Analysis of Bus Contention for Hardware Accelerators in FPGA SoCs (Artifact). In Special Issue of the 32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020). Dagstuhl Artifacts Series (DARTS), Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 4:1-4:3, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@Article{restuccia_et_al:DARTS.6.1.4,
  author =	{Restuccia, Francesco and Pagani, Marco and Biondi, Alessandro and Marinoni, Mauro and Buttazzo, Giorgio},
  title =	{{Modeling and Analysis of Bus Contention for Hardware Accelerators in FPGA SoCs (Artifact)}},
  pages =	{4:1--4:3},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Artifacts Series},
  ISSN =	{2509-8195},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{6},
  number =	{1},
  editor =	{Restuccia, Francesco and Pagani, Marco and Biondi, Alessandro and Marinoni, Mauro and Buttazzo, Giorgio},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DARTS.6.1.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-123941},
  doi =		{10.4230/DARTS.6.1.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Heterogeneous computing, Predictable hardware acceleration, FPGA SoCs, Multi-Master architectures}
}
Document
Modeling and Analysis of Bus Contention for Hardware Accelerators in FPGA SoCs

Authors: Francesco Restuccia, Marco Pagani, Alessandro Biondi, Mauro Marinoni, and Giorgio Buttazzo

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 165, 32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020)


Abstract
FPGA System-on-Chips (SoCs) are heterogeneous platforms that combine general-purpose processors with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) fabric. The FPGA fabric is composed of a programmable logic in which hardware accelerators can be deployed to accelerate the execution of specific functionality. The main source of unpredictability when bounding the execution times of hardware accelerators pertains the access to the shared memories via the on-chip bus. This work is focused on bounding the worst-case bus contention experienced by the hardware accelerators deployed in the FPGA fabric. To this end, this work considers the AMBA AXI bus, which is the de-facto standard communication interface used in most the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) FPGA SoCs, and presents an analysis technique to bound the response times of hardware accelerators implemented on such platforms. A fine-grained modeling of the AXI bus and AXI interconnects is first provided. Then, contention delays are studied under hierarchical bus infrastructures with arbitrary depths. Experimental results are finally presented to validate the proposed model with execution traces on two modern FPGA-based SoC produced by Xilinx (Zynq-7000 and Zynq-Ultrascale+ families) and to assess the performance of the proposed analysis.

Cite as

Francesco Restuccia, Marco Pagani, Alessandro Biondi, Mauro Marinoni, and Giorgio Buttazzo. Modeling and Analysis of Bus Contention for Hardware Accelerators in FPGA SoCs. In 32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 165, pp. 12:1-12:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{restuccia_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.12,
  author =	{Restuccia, Francesco and Pagani, Marco and Biondi, Alessandro and Marinoni, Mauro and Buttazzo, Giorgio},
  title =	{{Modeling and Analysis of Bus Contention for Hardware Accelerators in FPGA SoCs}},
  booktitle =	{32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020)},
  pages =	{12:1--12:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-152-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{165},
  editor =	{V\"{o}lp, Marcus},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.12},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-123753},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.12},
  annote =	{Keywords: Heterogeneous computing, Predictable hardware acceleration, FPGA SoCs, Multi-Master architectures}
}
Document
A Bandwidth Reservation Mechanism for AXI-Based Hardware Accelerators on FPGAs

Authors: Marco Pagani, Enrico Rossi, Alessandro Biondi, Mauro Marinoni, Giuseppe Lipari, and Giorgio Buttazzo

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 133, 31st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2019)


Abstract
Hardware platforms for real-time embedded systems are evolving towards heterogeneous architectures comprising different types of processing cores and dedicated hardware accelerators, which can be implemented on silicon or dynamically deployed on FPGA fabric. Such accelerators typically access a shared memory to exchange a significant amount of data with other processing elements. Existing COTS solutions focus on maximizing the overall throughput of the system, rather than guaranteeing the timing constraints of individual hardware accelerators. This paper presents the AXI budgeting unit (ABU), a hardware-based solution to implement a bandwidth reservation mechanism on top of the AMBA AXI standard infrastructure for hardware accelerators deployed on FPGAs. An accurate and tractable model, as well as the corresponding analysis, are also proposed to bound the response time of hardware accelerators in the presence of ABUs, in order to verify whether they can complete before their deadlines. Finally, a set of experiments are reported to evaluate the proposed approach on a state-of-the-art platform, namely the Zynq-7020 by Xilinx. The resource consumption of the ABU has been quantified to be less than 1% of the total FPGA resources of the Zynq-7020.

Cite as

Marco Pagani, Enrico Rossi, Alessandro Biondi, Mauro Marinoni, Giuseppe Lipari, and Giorgio Buttazzo. A Bandwidth Reservation Mechanism for AXI-Based Hardware Accelerators on FPGAs. In 31st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 133, pp. 24:1-24:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{pagani_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2019.24,
  author =	{Pagani, Marco and Rossi, Enrico and Biondi, Alessandro and Marinoni, Mauro and Lipari, Giuseppe and Buttazzo, Giorgio},
  title =	{{A Bandwidth Reservation Mechanism for AXI-Based Hardware Accelerators on FPGAs}},
  booktitle =	{31st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2019)},
  pages =	{24:1--24:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-110-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{133},
  editor =	{Quinton, Sophie},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2019.24},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-107611},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2019.24},
  annote =	{Keywords: AXI Bus, Bandwidth Reservation, Hardware Acceleration, FPGA}
}