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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 219, 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)

Given polynomials f_0, f_1, …, f_k the Ideal Membership Problem, IMP for short, asks if f₀ belongs to the ideal generated by f_1, …, f_k. In the search version of this problem the task is to find a proof of this fact. The IMP is a well-known fundamental problem with numerous applications, for instance, it underlies many proof systems based on polynomials such as Nullstellensatz, Polynomial Calculus, and Sum-of-Squares. Although the IMP is in general intractable, in many important cases it can be efficiently solved.
Mastrolilli [SODA'19] initiated a systematic study of IMPs for ideals arising from Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs), parameterized by constraint languages, denoted IMP(Γ). The ultimate goal of this line of research is to classify all such IMPs accordingly to their complexity. Mastrolilli achieved this goal for IMPs arising from CSP(Γ) where Γ is a Boolean constraint language, while Bulatov and Rafiey [arXiv'21] advanced these results to several cases of CSPs over finite domains. In this paper we consider IMPs arising from CSPs over "affine" constraint languages, in which constraints are subgroups (or their cosets) of direct products of Abelian groups. This kind of CSPs include systems of linear equations and are considered one of the most important types of tractable CSPs. Some special cases of the problem have been considered before by Bharathi and Mastrolilli [MFCS'21] for linear equation modulo 2, and by Bulatov and Rafiey [arXiv'21] to systems of linear equations over GF(p), p prime. Here we prove that if Γ is an affine constraint language then IMP(Γ) is solvable in polynomial time assuming the input polynomial has bounded degree.

Andrei A. Bulatov and Akbar Rafiey. The Ideal Membership Problem and Abelian Groups. In 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 219, pp. 18:1-18:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bulatov_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2022.18, author = {Bulatov, Andrei A. and Rafiey, Akbar}, title = {{The Ideal Membership Problem and Abelian Groups}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)}, pages = {18:1--18:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-222-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {219}, editor = {Berenbrink, Petra and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-158280}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.18}, annote = {Keywords: Polynomial Ideal Membership, Constraint Satisfaction Problems, Polymorphisms, Gr\"{o}bner Bases, Abelian Groups} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

Given two (di)graphs G, H and a cost function c:V(G) x V(H) -> Q_{>= 0} cup {+infty}, in the minimum cost homomorphism problem, MinHOM(H), we are interested in finding a homomorphism f:V(G)-> V(H) (a.k.a H-coloring) that minimizes sum limits_{v in V(G)}c(v,f(v)). The complexity of exact minimization of this problem is well understood [Pavol Hell and Arash Rafiey, 2012], and the class of digraphs H, for which the MinHOM(H) is polynomial time solvable is a small subset of all digraphs.
In this paper, we consider the approximation of MinHOM within a constant factor. In terms of digraphs, MinHOM(H) is not approximable if H contains a digraph asteroidal triple (DAT). We take a major step toward a dichotomy classification of approximable cases. We give a dichotomy classification for approximating the MinHOM(H) when H is a graph (i.e. symmetric digraph). For digraphs, we provide constant factor approximation algorithms for two important classes of digraphs, namely bi-arc digraphs (digraphs with a conservative semi-lattice polymorphism or min-ordering), and k-arc digraphs (digraphs with an extended min-ordering). Specifically, we show that:
- Dichotomy for Graphs: MinHOM(H) has a 2|V(H)|-approximation algorithm if graph H admits a conservative majority polymorphims (i.e. H is a bi-arc graph), otherwise, it is inapproximable;
- MinHOM(H) has a |V(H)|^2-approximation algorithm if H is a bi-arc digraph;
- MinHOM(H) has a |V(H)|^2-approximation algorithm if H is a k-arc digraph.
In conclusion, we show the importance of these results and provide insights for achieving a dichotomy classification of approximable cases. Our constant factors depend on the size of H. However, the implementation of our algorithms provides a much better approximation ratio. It leaves open to investigate a classification of digraphs H, where MinHOM(H) admits a constant factor approximation algorithm that is independent of |V(H)|.

Akbar Rafiey, Arash Rafiey, and Thiago Santos. Toward a Dichotomy for Approximation of H-Coloring. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 91:1-91:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{rafiey_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.91, author = {Rafiey, Akbar and Rafiey, Arash and Santos, Thiago}, title = {{Toward a Dichotomy for Approximation of H-Coloring}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {91:1--91:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.91}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106678}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.91}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation algorithms, minimum cost homomorphism, randomized rounding} }