Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

Given two (di)graphs G, H and a cost function c:V(G) x V(H) -> Q_{>= 0} cup {+infty}, in the minimum cost homomorphism problem, MinHOM(H), we are interested in finding a homomorphism f:V(G)-> V(H) (a.k.a H-coloring) that minimizes sum limits_{v in V(G)}c(v,f(v)). The complexity of exact minimization of this problem is well understood [Pavol Hell and Arash Rafiey, 2012], and the class of digraphs H, for which the MinHOM(H) is polynomial time solvable is a small subset of all digraphs.
In this paper, we consider the approximation of MinHOM within a constant factor. In terms of digraphs, MinHOM(H) is not approximable if H contains a digraph asteroidal triple (DAT). We take a major step toward a dichotomy classification of approximable cases. We give a dichotomy classification for approximating the MinHOM(H) when H is a graph (i.e. symmetric digraph). For digraphs, we provide constant factor approximation algorithms for two important classes of digraphs, namely bi-arc digraphs (digraphs with a conservative semi-lattice polymorphism or min-ordering), and k-arc digraphs (digraphs with an extended min-ordering). Specifically, we show that:
- Dichotomy for Graphs: MinHOM(H) has a 2|V(H)|-approximation algorithm if graph H admits a conservative majority polymorphims (i.e. H is a bi-arc graph), otherwise, it is inapproximable;
- MinHOM(H) has a |V(H)|^2-approximation algorithm if H is a bi-arc digraph;
- MinHOM(H) has a |V(H)|^2-approximation algorithm if H is a k-arc digraph.
In conclusion, we show the importance of these results and provide insights for achieving a dichotomy classification of approximable cases. Our constant factors depend on the size of H. However, the implementation of our algorithms provides a much better approximation ratio. It leaves open to investigate a classification of digraphs H, where MinHOM(H) admits a constant factor approximation algorithm that is independent of |V(H)|.

Akbar Rafiey, Arash Rafiey, and Thiago Santos. Toward a Dichotomy for Approximation of H-Coloring. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 91:1-91:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{rafiey_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.91, author = {Rafiey, Akbar and Rafiey, Arash and Santos, Thiago}, title = {{Toward a Dichotomy for Approximation of H-Coloring}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {91:1--91:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.91}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106678}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.91}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation algorithms, minimum cost homomorphism, randomized rounding} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 117, 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)

We unify several seemingly different graph and digraph classes under one umbrella. These classes are all, broadly speaking, different generalizations of interval graphs, and include, in addition to interval graphs, adjusted interval digraphs, threshold graphs, complements of threshold tolerance graphs (known as `co-TT' graphs), bipartite interval containment graphs, bipartite co-circular arc graphs, and two-directional orthogonal ray graphs. (The last three classes coincide, but have been investigated in different contexts.) This common view is made possible by introducing reflexive relationships (loops) into the analysis. We also show that all the above classes are united by a common ordering characterization, the existence of a min ordering. We propose a common generalization of all these graph and digraph classes, namely signed-interval digraphs, and show that they are precisely the digraphs that are characterized by the existence of a min ordering. We also offer an alternative geometric characterization of these digraphs. For most of the above graph and digraph classes, we show that they are exactly those signed-interval digraphs that satisfy a suitable natural restriction on the digraph, like having a loop on every vertex, or having a symmetric edge-set, or being bipartite. For instance, co-TT graphs are precisely those signed-interval digraphs that have each edge symmetric. We also offer some discussion of future work on recognition algorithms and characterizations.

Pavol Hell, Jing Huang, Ross M. McConnell, and Arash Rafiey. Interval-Like Graphs and Digraphs. In 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 117, pp. 68:1-68:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{hell_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.68, author = {Hell, Pavol and Huang, Jing and McConnell, Ross M. and Rafiey, Arash}, title = {{Interval-Like Graphs and Digraphs}}, booktitle = {43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)}, pages = {68:1--68:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-086-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {117}, editor = {Potapov, Igor and Spirakis, Paul and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.68}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-96503}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.68}, annote = {Keywords: graph theory, interval graphs, interval bigraphs, min ordering, co-TT graph} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 34, 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)

We show that in the hierarchical tile assembly model, if there is a producible assembly that overlaps a nontrivial translation of itself consistently (i.e., the pattern of tile types in the overlap region is identical in both translations), then arbitrarily large assemblies are producible. The significance of this result is that tile systems intended to controllably produce finite structures must avoid pattern repetition in their producible assemblies that would lead to such overlap.
This answers an open question of Chen and Doty (SODA 2012), who showed that so-called "partial-order" systems producing a unique finite assembly and avoiding such overlaps must require time linear in the assembly diameter. An application of our main result is that any system producing a unique finite assembly is automatically guaranteed to avoid such overlaps, simplifying the hypothesis of Chen and Doty's main theorem.

Ho-Lin Chen, David Doty, Ján Manuch, Arash Rafiey, and Ladislav Stacho. Pattern Overlap Implies Runaway Growth in Hierarchical Tile Systems. In 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 34, pp. 360-373, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.360, author = {Chen, Ho-Lin and Doty, David and Manuch, J\'{a}n and Rafiey, Arash and Stacho, Ladislav}, title = {{Pattern Overlap Implies Runaway Growth in Hierarchical Tile Systems}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)}, pages = {360--373}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-83-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {34}, editor = {Arge, Lars and Pach, J\'{a}nos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.360}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-50935}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.360}, annote = {Keywords: self-assembly, hierarchical, pumping} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 24, IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2013)

We consider the problem of fair allocation of indivisible goods where
we are given a set I of m indivisible resources (items) and a set P of n customers (players) competing for the resources. Each resource
j in I has a same value vj > 0 for a subset of customers interested in j and it has no value for other customers. The goal is to find a feasible allocation of the resources to the interested customers such that in the Max-Min scenario (also known as Santa Claus problem) the minimum utility (sum of the resources) received by each of the customers is as high as possible and in the Min-Max case (also known as R||C_max problem), the maximum utility is as low as possible.
In this paper we are interested in instances of the problem that admit a PTAS. These instances are not only of theoretical interest but also have practical applications. For the Max-Min allocation problem, we start with instances of the problem that can be viewed as a convex bipartite graph; there exists an ordering of the resources such that each customer is interested (has positive evaluation) in a set of consecutive resources and we demonstrate a PTAS. For the Min-Max allocation problem, we obtain a PTAS for instances in which there is an ordering of the customers (machines) and each resource (job) is adjacent to a consecutive set of customers (machines).
Next we show that our method for the Max-Min scenario, can be extended to a broader class of bipartite graphs where the resources can be viewed as a tree and each customer is interested in a sub-tree of a bounded number of leaves of this tree (e.g. a sub-path).

Kamyar Khodamoradi, Ramesh Krishnamurti, Arash Rafiey, and Georgios Stamoulis. PTAS for Ordered Instances of Resource Allocation Problems. In IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2013). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 24, pp. 461-473, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2013)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{khodamoradi_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2013.461, author = {Khodamoradi, Kamyar and Krishnamurti, Ramesh and Rafiey, Arash and Stamoulis, Georgios}, title = {{PTAS for Ordered Instances of Resource Allocation Problems}}, booktitle = {IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2013)}, pages = {461--473}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-64-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2013}, volume = {24}, editor = {Seth, Anil and Vishnoi, Nisheeth K.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2013.461}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-43936}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2013.461}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Convex Bipartite Graphs, Resource Allocation} }