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Documents authored by Rochange, Christine


Document
Warp-Level CFG Construction for GPU Kernel WCET Analysis

Authors: Louison Jeanmougin, Pascal Sotin, Christine Rochange, and Thomas Carle

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 114, 21th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2023)


Abstract
We present an abstract interpretation technique to automatically build a Control Flow Graph (CFG) representation of the execution of a GPU kernel. GPUs implement an inherently parallel execution model, in which threads are grouped within so-called warps that execute in lockstep. This execution model enables the representation of the execution of the threads of a warp as a single CFG. However, thread divergence may appear within a warp and its effect must be captured explicitly within the CFG. Our method builds the CFG of a warp by applying abstract interpretation on the assembly (Nvidia SASS) code of a kernel, and by maintaining an abstract representation of which threads within the warp agree on which values. This allows the method to detect precisely the points in the program where thread divergence may occur, and avoid spurious reactivation edges in the CFG. We apply our technique on benchmark kernels as a proof-of-concept, and generate IPET systems using the resulting CFGs.

Cite as

Louison Jeanmougin, Pascal Sotin, Christine Rochange, and Thomas Carle. Warp-Level CFG Construction for GPU Kernel WCET Analysis. In 21th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2023). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 114, pp. 1:1-1:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{jeanmougin_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2023.1,
  author =	{Jeanmougin, Louison and Sotin, Pascal and Rochange, Christine and Carle, Thomas},
  title =	{{Warp-Level CFG Construction for GPU Kernel WCET Analysis}},
  booktitle =	{21th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2023)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:13},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-293-8},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{114},
  editor =	{W\"{a}gemann, Peter},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2023.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-184303},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2023.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), Control Flow Graphs (CFG), Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET), Program analysis}
}
Document
Validation of Processor Timing Models Using Cycle-Accurate Timing Simulators

Authors: Alban Gruin, Thomas Carle, Christine Rochange, and Pascal Sainrat

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 114, 21th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2023)


Abstract
We propose a workflow to help find errors in the processor models that are used to prove their timing predictability. Recently, several papers have modeled processor cores using formal models that represent how instructions progress through the pipeline in each execution cycle. However, such models grow with the complexity of the cores and they are built by hand, using a description of the core, usually the HDL-level code. Such a task is error-prone, and verifying that the model actually captures the core’s timing behavior is required, otherwise the proofs become useless. Our workflow simulates the execution of benchmark applications using the HDL specification of a core in order to extract timing information as well as other relevant information (e.g. cache miss events, branch mispredictions). This information is used to replay the execution in a simulator of the core timing model, and to determine whether or not the model accurately represents the execution timing of the instructions. To avoid writing the simulator by hand for each new core, or new variation of a core, we developed a compiler that translates the timing model of a core into a C++ program. We evaluated our approach on the open source MINOTAuR core and we show how it enabled us to detect and correct errors in its model.

Cite as

Alban Gruin, Thomas Carle, Christine Rochange, and Pascal Sainrat. Validation of Processor Timing Models Using Cycle-Accurate Timing Simulators. In 21th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2023). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 114, pp. 2:1-2:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{gruin_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2023.2,
  author =	{Gruin, Alban and Carle, Thomas and Rochange, Christine and Sainrat, Pascal},
  title =	{{Validation of Processor Timing Models Using Cycle-Accurate Timing Simulators}},
  booktitle =	{21th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2023)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:12},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-293-8},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{114},
  editor =	{W\"{a}gemann, Peter},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2023.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-184319},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2023.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Processor model, timing predictability, simulator generation}
}
Document
EMSBench: Benchmark and Testbed for Reactive Real-Time Systems

Authors: Florian Kluge, Christine Rochange, and Theo Ungerer

Published in: LITES, Volume 4, Issue 2 (2017). Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems, Volume 4, Issue 2


Abstract
Benchmark suites for real-time embedded systems (RTES) usually contain only pure computations that are often used in this domain. They allow to evaluate computing performance, but do not reproduce the complexity and behaviour that is typical for such systems. Actual RTES have to interact with the physical environment, which is often reflected by code that is executed concurrently. In this article, we present the software package EMSBench that mimics such complex behaviour, and highlight some of its use cases. The benchmark code ems of EMSBench is based on the open-source engine management system (EMS) FreeEMS. Additionally, EMSBench contains a trace generator (tg) that provides input signals for ems and enables to execute ems close to reality. We provide detailed descriptions of the ems's execution behaviour and of trace generation. EMSBench can be used as test or benchmark program to compare different hardware platforms, e.g. in terms of schedulability. Also, we use EMSBench as a benchmark for static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis and compare these results to measurements performed on existing hardware. Our results based on the OTAWA WCET estimation tool show WCET overestimations by the static analysis from 11.9% to 41.1% depending on the complexity of the analysed functions.

Cite as

Florian Kluge, Christine Rochange, and Theo Ungerer. EMSBench: Benchmark and Testbed for Reactive Real-Time Systems. In LITES, Volume 4, Issue 2 (2017). Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp. 02:1-02:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@Article{kluge_et_al:LITES-v004-i002-a002,
  author =	{Kluge, Florian and Rochange, Christine and Ungerer, Theo},
  title =	{{EMSBench: Benchmark and Testbed for Reactive Real-Time Systems}},
  journal =	{Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems},
  pages =	{02:1--02:23},
  ISSN =	{2199-2002},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{4},
  number =	{2},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LITES-v004-i002-a002},
  doi =		{10.4230/LITES-v004-i002-a002},
  annote =	{Keywords: Real-time benchmark, WCET Analysis, Engine Management System}
}
Document
The W-SEPT Project: Towards Semantic-Aware WCET Estimation

Authors: Claire Maiza, Pascal Raymond, Catherine Parent-Vigouroux, Armelle Bonenfant, Fabienne Carrier, Hugues Cassé, Philippe Cuenot, Denis Claraz, Nicolas Halbwachs, Erwan Jahier, Hanbing Li, Marianne de Michiel, Vincent Mussot, Isabelle Puaut, Christine Rochange, Erven Rohou, Jordy Ruiz, Pascal Sotin, and Wei-Tsun Sun

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 57, 17th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2017)


Abstract
Critical embedded systems are generally composed of repetitive tasks that must meet hard timing constraints, such as termination deadlines. Providing an upper bound of the worst-case execution time (WCET) of such tasks at design time is necessary to guarantee the correctness of the system. In static WCET analysis, a main source of over-approximation comes from the complexity of the modern hardware platforms: their timing behavior tends to become more unpredictable because of features like caches, pipeline, branch prediction, etc. Another source of over-approximation comes from the software itself: WCET analysis may consider potential worst-cases executions that are actually infeasible, because of the semantics of the program or because they correspond to unrealistic inputs. The W-SEPT project, for "WCET, Semantics, Precision and Traceability", has been carried out to study and exploit the influence of program semantics on the WCET estimation. This paper presents the results of this project : a semantic-aware WCET estimation workflow for high-level designed systems.

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Claire Maiza, Pascal Raymond, Catherine Parent-Vigouroux, Armelle Bonenfant, Fabienne Carrier, Hugues Cassé, Philippe Cuenot, Denis Claraz, Nicolas Halbwachs, Erwan Jahier, Hanbing Li, Marianne de Michiel, Vincent Mussot, Isabelle Puaut, Christine Rochange, Erven Rohou, Jordy Ruiz, Pascal Sotin, and Wei-Tsun Sun. The W-SEPT Project: Towards Semantic-Aware WCET Estimation. In 17th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2017). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 57, pp. 9:1-9:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{maiza_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2017.9,
  author =	{Maiza, Claire and Raymond, Pascal and Parent-Vigouroux, Catherine and Bonenfant, Armelle and Carrier, Fabienne and Cass\'{e}, Hugues and Cuenot, Philippe and Claraz, Denis and Halbwachs, Nicolas and Jahier, Erwan and Li, Hanbing and de Michiel, Marianne and Mussot, Vincent and Puaut, Isabelle and Rochange, Christine and Rohou, Erven and Ruiz, Jordy and Sotin, Pascal and Sun, Wei-Tsun},
  title =	{{The W-SEPT Project: Towards Semantic-Aware WCET Estimation}},
  booktitle =	{17th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2017)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:13},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-057-6},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{57},
  editor =	{Reineke, Jan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2017.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-73097},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2017.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: Worst-case execution time analysis, Static analysis, Program analysis}
}
Document
TACLeBench: A Benchmark Collection to Support Worst-Case Execution Time Research

Authors: Heiko Falk, Sebastian Altmeyer, Peter Hellinckx, Björn Lisper, Wolfgang Puffitsch, Christine Rochange, Martin Schoeberl, Rasmus Bo Sørensen, Peter Wägemann, and Simon Wegener

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 55, 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)


Abstract
Engineering related research, such as research on worst-case execution time, uses experimentation to evaluate ideas. For these experiments we need example programs. Furthermore, to make the research experimentation repeatable those programs shall be made publicly available. We collected open-source programs, adapted them to a common coding style, and provide the collection in open-source. The benchmark collection is called TACLeBench and is available from GitHub in version 1.9 at the publication date of this paper. One of the main features of TACLeBench is that all programs are self-contained without any dependencies on standard libraries or an operating system.

Cite as

Heiko Falk, Sebastian Altmeyer, Peter Hellinckx, Björn Lisper, Wolfgang Puffitsch, Christine Rochange, Martin Schoeberl, Rasmus Bo Sørensen, Peter Wägemann, and Simon Wegener. TACLeBench: A Benchmark Collection to Support Worst-Case Execution Time Research. In 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 55, pp. 2:1-2:10, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{falk_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2016.2,
  author =	{Falk, Heiko and Altmeyer, Sebastian and Hellinckx, Peter and Lisper, Bj\"{o}rn and Puffitsch, Wolfgang and Rochange, Christine and Schoeberl, Martin and S{\o}rensen, Rasmus Bo and W\"{a}gemann, Peter and Wegener, Simon},
  title =	{{TACLeBench: A Benchmark Collection to Support Worst-Case Execution Time Research}},
  booktitle =	{16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:10},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-025-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Schoeberl, Martin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68958},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Benchmark, WCET analysis, real-time systems}
}
Document
Parallel Real-Time Tasks, as Viewed by WCET Analysis and Task Scheduling Approaches

Authors: Christine Rochange

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 55, 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)


Abstract
With the advent of multi-core platforms, research in the field of hard real-time has recently considered parallel software, from the perspective of both worst-case execution time (WCET) and task schedulability (or worst-case response time, WCRT) analyses. These two areas consider task models that are not completely identical and sometimes make different assumptions. This paper draws a brief overview of the state of the art in the timing analysis of parallel tasks and tries to identify points of convergence and divergence between the existing approaches.

Cite as

Christine Rochange. Parallel Real-Time Tasks, as Viewed by WCET Analysis and Task Scheduling Approaches. In 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 55, pp. 11:1-11:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{rochange:OASIcs.WCET.2016.11,
  author =	{Rochange, Christine},
  title =	{{Parallel Real-Time Tasks, as Viewed by WCET Analysis and Task Scheduling Approaches}},
  booktitle =	{16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:11},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-025-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Schoeberl, Martin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-69048},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: multicore, parallel tasks, worst-case execution time analysis, schedulability, worst-case response time analysis}
}
Document
A Framework to Quantify the Overestimations of Static WCET Analysis

Authors: Hugues Cassé, Haluk Ozaktas, and Christine Rochange

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 47, 15th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2015)


Abstract
To reduce complexity while computing an upper bound on the worst-case execution time, static WCET analysis performs over-approximations. This feeds the general feeling that static WCET estimations can be far above the real WCET. This feeling is strengthened when these estimations are compared to measured execution times: generally, it is very unlikely to capture the worstcase from observations, then the difference between the highest watermark and the proven WCET upper bound might be considerable. In this paper, we introduce a framework to quantify the possible overestimation on WCET upper bounds obtained by static analysis. The objective is to derive a lower bound on the WCET to complement the upper bound.

Cite as

Hugues Cassé, Haluk Ozaktas, and Christine Rochange. A Framework to Quantify the Overestimations of Static WCET Analysis. In 15th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2015). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 47, pp. 1-10, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)


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@InProceedings{casse_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2015.1,
  author =	{Cass\'{e}, Hugues and Ozaktas, Haluk and Rochange, Christine},
  title =	{{A Framework to Quantify the Overestimations of Static WCET Analysis}},
  booktitle =	{15th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2015)},
  pages =	{1--10},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-95-8},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2015},
  volume =	{47},
  editor =	{Cazorla, Francisco J.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2015.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-52517},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2015.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Static WCET analysis, uncertainty, overestimation, cache analysis}
}
Document
WCET and Mixed-Criticality: What does Confidence in WCET Estimations Depend Upon?

Authors: Sebastian Altmeyer, Björn Lisper, Claire Maiza, Jan Reineke, and Christine Rochange

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 47, 15th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2015)


Abstract
Mixed-criticality systems integrate components of different criticality. Different criticality levels require different levels of confidence in the correct behavior of a component. One aspect of correctness is timing. Confidence in worst-case execution time (WCET) estimates depends on the process by which they have been obtained. A somewhat naive view is that static WCET analyses determines safe bounds in which we can have absolute confidence, while measurement-based approaches are inherently unreliable. In this paper, we refine this view by exploring sources of doubt in the correctness of both static and measurement-based WCET analysis.

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Sebastian Altmeyer, Björn Lisper, Claire Maiza, Jan Reineke, and Christine Rochange. WCET and Mixed-Criticality: What does Confidence in WCET Estimations Depend Upon?. In 15th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2015). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 47, pp. 65-74, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)


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@InProceedings{altmeyer_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2015.65,
  author =	{Altmeyer, Sebastian and Lisper, Bj\"{o}rn and Maiza, Claire and Reineke, Jan and Rochange, Christine},
  title =	{{WCET and Mixed-Criticality: What does Confidence in WCET Estimations Depend Upon?}},
  booktitle =	{15th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2015)},
  pages =	{65--74},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-95-8},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2015},
  volume =	{47},
  editor =	{Cazorla, Francisco J.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2015.65},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-52574},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2015.65},
  annote =	{Keywords: mixed criticality, WCET analysis, confidence in WCET estimates}
}
Document
Contention in Multicore Hardware Shared Resources: Understanding of the State of the Art

Authors: Gabriel Fernandez, Jaume Abella, Eduardo Quiñones, Christine Rochange, Tullio Vardanega, and Francisco J. Cazorla

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 39, 14th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (2014)


Abstract
The real-time systems community has over the years devoted considerable attention to the impact on execution timing that arises from contention on access to hardware shared resources. The relevance of this problem has been accentuated with the arrival of multicore processors. From the state of the art on the subject, there appears to be considerable diversity in the understanding of the problem and in the "approach" to solve it. This sparseness makes it difficult for any reader to form a coherent picture of the problem and solution space. This paper draws a tentative taxonomy in which each known approach to the problem can be categorised based on its specific goals and assumptions.

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Gabriel Fernandez, Jaume Abella, Eduardo Quiñones, Christine Rochange, Tullio Vardanega, and Francisco J. Cazorla. Contention in Multicore Hardware Shared Resources: Understanding of the State of the Art. In 14th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis. Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 39, pp. 31-42, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)


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@InProceedings{fernandez_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2014.31,
  author =	{Fernandez, Gabriel and Abella, Jaume and Qui\~{n}ones, Eduardo and Rochange, Christine and Vardanega, Tullio and Cazorla, Francisco J.},
  title =	{{Contention in Multicore Hardware Shared Resources: Understanding of the State of the Art}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis},
  pages =	{31--42},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-69-9},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2014},
  volume =	{39},
  editor =	{Falk, Heiko},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2014.31},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-46027},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2014.31},
  annote =	{Keywords: Contention, Multicores, WCET Analysis}
}
Document
Automatic WCET Analysis of Real-Time Parallel Applications

Authors: Haluk Ozaktas, Christine Rochange, and Pascal Sainrat

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 30, 13th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (2013)


Abstract
Tomorrow's real-time embedded systems will be built upon multicore architectures. This raises two challenges. First, shared resources should be arbitrated in such a way that the WCET of independent threads running concurrently can be computed: in this paper, we assume that timepredictable multicore architectures are available. The second challenge is to develop software that achieves a high level of performance without impairing timing predictability. We investigate parallel software based on the POSIX threads standard and we show how the WCET of a parallel program can be analysed. We report experimental results obtained for typical parallel programs with an extended version of the OTAWA toolset.

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Haluk Ozaktas, Christine Rochange, and Pascal Sainrat. Automatic WCET Analysis of Real-Time Parallel Applications. In 13th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis. Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 30, pp. 11-20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2013)


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@InProceedings{ozaktas_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2013.11,
  author =	{Ozaktas, Haluk and Rochange, Christine and Sainrat, Pascal},
  title =	{{Automatic WCET Analysis of Real-Time Parallel Applications}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis},
  pages =	{11--20},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-54-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2013},
  volume =	{30},
  editor =	{Maiza, Claire},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2013.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-41186},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2013.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: WCET analysis, parallel programming, thread synchronisation}
}
Document
Complete Volume
OASIcs, Volume 6, WCET'07, Complete Volume

Authors: Christine Rochange

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 6, 7th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'07) (2007)


Abstract
OASIcs, Volume 6, WCET'07, Complete Volume

Cite as

7th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'07). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 6, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2012)


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@Proceedings{rochange:OASIcs.WCET.2007,
  title =	{{OASIcs, Volume 6, WCET'07, Complete Volume}},
  booktitle =	{7th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'07)},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-05-7},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2012},
  volume =	{6},
  editor =	{Rochange, Christine},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2007},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-35684},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2007},
  annote =	{Keywords: Performance of Systems, Software/Program Verification}
}
Document
An Overview of Approaches Towards the Timing Analysability of Parallel Architecture

Authors: Christine Rochange

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 18, Bringing Theory to Practice: Predictability and Performance in Embedded Systems (2011)


Abstract
In order to meet performance/low energy/integration requirements, parallel architectures (multithreaded cores and multi-cores) are more and more considered in the design of embedded systems running critical software. The objective is to run several applications concurrently. When applications have strict real-time constraints, two questions arise: a) how can the worst-case execution time (WCET) of each application be computed while concurrent applications might interfere? b)~how can the tasks be scheduled so that they are guarantee to meet their deadlines? The second question has received much attention for several years~\cite{CFHS04,DaBu11}. Proposed schemes generally assume that the first question has been solved, and in addition that they do not impact the WCETs. In effect, the first question is far from been answered even if several approaches have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we present an overview of these approaches from the point of view of static WCET analysis techniques.

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Christine Rochange. An Overview of Approaches Towards the Timing Analysability of Parallel Architecture. In Bringing Theory to Practice: Predictability and Performance in Embedded Systems. Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 18, pp. 32-41, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2011)


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@InProceedings{rochange:OASIcs.PPES.2011.32,
  author =	{Rochange, Christine},
  title =	{{An Overview of Approaches Towards the Timing Analysability of Parallel Architecture}},
  booktitle =	{Bringing Theory to Practice: Predictability and Performance in Embedded Systems},
  pages =	{32--41},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-28-6},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2011},
  volume =	{18},
  editor =	{Lucas, Philipp and Wilhelm, Reinhard},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.PPES.2011.32},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-30798},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.PPES.2011.32},
  annote =	{Keywords: WCET analysis, multicore, time predictability}
}
Document
WCET Analysis of a Parallel 3D Multigrid Solver Executed on the MERASA Multi-Core

Authors: Christine Rochange, Armelle Bonenfant, Pascal Sainrat, Mike Gerdes, Julian Wolf, Theo Ungerer, Zlatko Petrov, and Frantisek Mikulu

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 15, 10th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2010)


Abstract
To meet performance requirements as well as constraints on cost and power consumption, future embedded systems will be designed with multi-core processors. However, the question of timing analysability is raised with these architectures. In the MERASA project, a WCET-aware multi-core processor has been designed with the appropriate system software. They both guarantee that the WCET of tasks running on different cores can be safely analyzed since their possible interactions can be bounded. Nevertheless, computing the WCET of a parallel application is still not straightforward and a high-level preliminary analysis of the communication and synchronization patterns must be performed. In this paper, we report on our experience in evaluating the WCET of a parallel 3D multigrid solver code and we propose lines for further research on this topic.

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Christine Rochange, Armelle Bonenfant, Pascal Sainrat, Mike Gerdes, Julian Wolf, Theo Ungerer, Zlatko Petrov, and Frantisek Mikulu. WCET Analysis of a Parallel 3D Multigrid Solver Executed on the MERASA Multi-Core. In 10th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2010). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 15, pp. 90-100, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2010)


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@InProceedings{rochange_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2010.90,
  author =	{Rochange, Christine and Bonenfant, Armelle and Sainrat, Pascal and Gerdes, Mike and Wolf, Julian and Ungerer, Theo and Petrov, Zlatko and Mikulu, Frantisek},
  title =	{{WCET Analysis of a Parallel 3D Multigrid Solver Executed on the MERASA Multi-Core}},
  booktitle =	{10th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2010)},
  pages =	{90--100},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-21-7},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2010},
  volume =	{15},
  editor =	{Lisper, Bj\"{o}rn},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2010.90},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-28298},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2010.90},
  annote =	{Keywords: WCET analysis, multicore, timing predictability}
}
Document
WCET 2008 -- Report from the Tool Challenge 2008 -- 8th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) Analysis

Authors: Niklas Holsti, Jan Gustafsson, Guillem Bernat, Clément Ballabriga, Armelle Bonenfant, Roman Bourgade, Hugues Cassé, Daniel Cordes, Albrecht Kadlec, Raimund Kirner, Jens Knoop, Paul Lokuciejewski, Nicholas Merriam, Marianne de Michiel, Adrian Prantl, Bernhard Rieder, Christine Rochange, Pascal Sainrat, and Markus Schordan

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 8, 8th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'08) (2008)


Abstract
Following the successful WCET Tool Challenge in 2006, the second event in this series was organized in 2008, again with support from the ARTIST2 Network of Excellence. The WCET Tool Challenge 2008 (WCC'08) provides benchmark programs and poses a number of "analysis problems" about the dynamic, run-time properties of these programs. The participants are challenged to solve these problems with their program analysis tools. Two kinds of problems are defined: WCET problems, which ask for bounds on the execution time of chosen parts (subprograms) of the benchmarks, under given constraints on input data; and flow-analysis problems, which ask for bounds on the number of times certain parts of the benchmark can be executed, again under some constraints. We describe the organization of WCC'08, the benchmark programs, the participating tools, and the general results, successes, and failures. Most participants found WCC'08 to be a useful test of their tools. Unlike the 2006 Challenge, the WCC'08 participants include several tools for the same target (ARM7, LPC2138), and tools that combine measurements and static analysis, as well as pure static-analysis tools.

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Niklas Holsti, Jan Gustafsson, Guillem Bernat, Clément Ballabriga, Armelle Bonenfant, Roman Bourgade, Hugues Cassé, Daniel Cordes, Albrecht Kadlec, Raimund Kirner, Jens Knoop, Paul Lokuciejewski, Nicholas Merriam, Marianne de Michiel, Adrian Prantl, Bernhard Rieder, Christine Rochange, Pascal Sainrat, and Markus Schordan. WCET 2008 -- Report from the Tool Challenge 2008 -- 8th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) Analysis. In 8th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'08). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 8, pp. 1-23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2008)


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@InProceedings{holsti_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2008.1663,
  author =	{Holsti, Niklas and Gustafsson, Jan and Bernat, Guillem and Ballabriga, Cl\'{e}ment and Bonenfant, Armelle and Bourgade, Roman and Cass\'{e}, Hugues and Cordes, Daniel and Kadlec, Albrecht and Kirner, Raimund and Knoop, Jens and Lokuciejewski, Paul and Merriam, Nicholas and de Michiel, Marianne and Prantl, Adrian and Rieder, Bernhard and Rochange, Christine and Sainrat, Pascal and Schordan, Markus},
  title =	{{WCET 2008 -- Report from the Tool Challenge 2008 -- 8th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) Analysis}},
  booktitle =	{8th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'08)},
  pages =	{1--23},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-10-1},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2008},
  volume =	{8},
  editor =	{Kirner, Raimund},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2008.1663},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-16637},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2008.1663},
  annote =	{Keywords: WCET analysis, benchmark}
}
Document
Front Matter
WCET 2007 Abstracts Collection -- 7th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) Analysis

Authors: Christine Rochange

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 6, 7th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'07) (2007)


Abstract
The workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis is a satellite event to the annual Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems. It brings together people that are interested in all aspects of timing analysis for real-time systems. In the 2007 edition, 13 papers were presented, organized into four sessions: methods for WCET computation, low-level analysis, system-level analysis and flow-analysis. The workshop was also the opportunity to report from the 2006 WCET tool challenge.

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7th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'07). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 6, pp. i-x, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{rochange:OASIcs.WCET.2007.1238,
  author =	{Rochange, Christine},
  title =	{{WCET 2007 Abstracts Collection -- 7th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) Analysis}},
  booktitle =	{7th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'07)},
  pages =	{i--x},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-05-7},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{6},
  editor =	{Rochange, Christine},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2007.1238},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-12387},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2007.1238},
  annote =	{Keywords: Worst-case execution time, real-time systems, timing analysis}
}
Document
History-based Schemes and Implicit Path Enumeration

Authors: Claire Burguière and Christine Rochange

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 4, 6th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'06) (2006)


Abstract
The Implicit Path Enumeration Technique is often used to compute the WCET of control-intensive programs. This method does not consider execution paths as ordered sequences of basic blocks but instead as lists of basic blocks with their respective execution counts. This way of describing an execution path is adequate to compute its execution time, provided that safe individual WCETs for the blocks are known. Recently, a model for branch prediction has been integrated into WCET computation with IPET. This model generates safe estimations of the branch misprediction counts. However, we show in this paper that these counts can be over-estimated because IPET does consider simplified flow information that do not completely reflect the program semantics. We show how additional information on nested loops can be specified so that the model provides tighter WCET estimations.

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Claire Burguière and Christine Rochange. History-based Schemes and Implicit Path Enumeration. In 6th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'06). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 4, pp. 1-6, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2006)


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@InProceedings{burguiere_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2006.670,
  author =	{Burgui\`{e}re, Claire and Rochange, Christine},
  title =	{{History-based Schemes and Implicit Path Enumeration}},
  booktitle =	{6th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'06)},
  pages =	{1--6},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-03-3},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2006},
  volume =	{4},
  editor =	{Mueller, Frank},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2006.670},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-6703},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2006.670},
  annote =	{Keywords: WCET, IPET (Implicit Path Enumeration Technique), branch prediction}
}