Found 2 Possible Name Variants:

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 20, 30th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2013)

We study the difference between the standard seeded model (aTAM) of tile self-assembly, and the "seedless" two-handed model of tile self-assembly (2HAM). Most of our results suggest that the two-handed model is more powerful. In particular, we show how to simulate any seeded system with a two-handed system that is essentially just a constant factor larger. We exhibit finite shapes with a busy-beaver separation in the number of distinct tiles required by seeded versus two-handed, and exhibit an infinite shape that can be constructed two-handed but not seeded. Finally, we show that verifying whether a given system uniquely assembles a desired supertile is co-NP-complete in the two-handed model, while it was known to be polynomially solvable in the seeded model.

Sarah Cannon, Erik D. Demaine, Martin L. Demaine, Sarah Eisenstat, Matthew J. Patitz, Robert T. Schweller, Scott M Summers, and Andrew Winslow. Two Hands Are Better Than One (up to constant factors): Self-Assembly In The 2HAM vs. aTAM. In 30th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2013). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 20, pp. 172-184, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2013)

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@InProceedings{cannon_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2013.172, author = {Cannon, Sarah and Demaine, Erik D. and Demaine, Martin L. and Eisenstat, Sarah and Patitz, Matthew J. and Schweller, Robert T. and Summers, Scott M and Winslow, Andrew}, title = {{Two Hands Are Better Than One (up to constant factors): Self-Assembly In The 2HAM vs. aTAM}}, booktitle = {30th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2013)}, pages = {172--184}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-50-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2013}, volume = {20}, editor = {Portier, Natacha and Wilke, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2013.172}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-39321}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2013.172}, annote = {Keywords: abstract tile assembly model, hierarchical tile assembly model, two-handed tile assembly model, algorithmic self-assembly, DNA computing, biocomputing} }

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Extended Abstract

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 9, 28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011)

We consider a model of algorithmic self-assembly of geometric shapes out of square Wang tiles studied in SODA 2010, in which there are two types of tiles (e.g., constructed out of DNA and RNA material) and one operation that destroys all tiles of a particular type (e.g., an RNAse enzyme destroys all RNA tiles). We show that a single use of this destruction operation enables much more efficient construction of arbitrary shapes. In particular, an arbitrary shape can be constructed using an asymptotically optimal number of distinct tile type (related to the shape's Kolmogorov complexity), after scaling the shape by only a logarithmic factor. By contrast, without the destruction operation, the best such result has a scale factor at least linear in the size of the shape and is connected only by a spanning tree of the scaled tiles. We also characterize a large collection of shapes that can be constructed efficiently without any scaling.

Erik D. Demaine, Matthew J. Patitz, Robert T. Schweller, and Scott M. Summers. Self-Assembly of Arbitrary Shapes Using RNAse Enzymes: Meeting the Kolmogorov Bound with Small Scale Factor (Extended Abstract). In 28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 9, pp. 201-212, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2011)

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@InProceedings{demaine_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2011.201, author = {Demaine, Erik D. and Patitz, Matthew J. and Schweller, Robert T. and Summers, Scott M.}, title = {{Self-Assembly of Arbitrary Shapes Using RNAse Enzymes: Meeting the Kolmogorov Bound with Small Scale Factor}}, booktitle = {28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011)}, pages = {201--212}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-25-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2011}, volume = {9}, editor = {Schwentick, Thomas and D\"{u}rr, Christoph}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2011.201}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-30118}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2011.201}, annote = {Keywords: Biomolecular computation, RNAse enzyme self-assembly, algorithmic self-assembly, Komogorov complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 314, 30th International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA 30) (2024)

Molecular programmers and nanostructure engineers use domain-level design to abstract away messy DNA/RNA sequence, chemical and geometric details. Such domain-level abstractions are enforced by sequence design principles and provide a key principle that allows scaling up of complex multistranded DNA/RNA programs and structures. Determining the most favoured secondary structure, or Minimum Free Energy (MFE), of a set of strands, is typically studied at the sequence level but has seen limited domain-level work. We analyse the computational complexity of MFE for multistranded systems in a simple setting were we allow only 1 or 2 domains per strand. On the one hand, with 2-domain strands, we find that the MFE decision problem is NP-complete, even without pseudoknots, and requires exponential time algorithms assuming SAT does. On the other hand, in the simplest case of 1-domain strands there are efficient MFE algorithms for various binding modes. However, even in this single-domain case, MFE is P-hard for promiscuous binding, where one domain may bind to multiple as experimentally used by Nikitin [Nat Chem., 2023], which in turn implies that strands consisting of a single domain efficiently implement arbitrary Boolean circuits.

Erik D. Demaine, Timothy Gomez, Elise Grizzell, Markus Hecher, Jayson Lynch, Robert Schweller, Ahmed Shalaby, and Damien Woods. Domain-Based Nucleic-Acid Minimum Free Energy: Algorithmic Hardness and Parameterized Bounds. In 30th International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA 30). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 314, pp. 2:1-2:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{demaine_et_al:LIPIcs.DNA.30.2, author = {Demaine, Erik D. and Gomez, Timothy and Grizzell, Elise and Hecher, Markus and Lynch, Jayson and Schweller, Robert and Shalaby, Ahmed and Woods, Damien}, title = {{Domain-Based Nucleic-Acid Minimum Free Energy: Algorithmic Hardness and Parameterized Bounds}}, booktitle = {30th International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA 30)}, pages = {2:1--2:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-344-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {314}, editor = {Seki, Shinnosuke and Stewart, Jaimie Marie}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DNA.30.2}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-209304}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DNA.30.2}, annote = {Keywords: Domain-based DNA designs, minimum free energy, efficient algorithms, NP-hard, P-hard, NC, fixed-parameter tractable} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 276, 29th International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA 29) (2023)

We analyze the computational complexity of basic reconfiguration problems for the recently introduced surface Chemical Reaction Networks (sCRNs), where ordered pairs of adjacent species nondeterministically transform into a different ordered pair of species according to a predefined set of allowed transition rules (chemical reactions). In particular, two questions that are fundamental to the simulation of sCRNs are whether a given configuration of molecules can ever transform into another given configuration, and whether a given cell can ever contain a given species, given a set of transition rules. We show that these problems can be solved in polynomial time, are NP-complete, or are PSPACE-complete in a variety of different settings, including when adjacent species just swap instead of arbitrary transformation (swap sCRNs), and when cells can change species a limited number of times (k-burnout). Most problems turn out to be at least NP-hard except with very few distinct species (2 or 3).

Robert M. Alaniz, Josh Brunner, Michael Coulombe, Erik D. Demaine, Jenny Diomidova, Timothy Gomez, Elise Grizzell, Ryan Knobel, Jayson Lynch, Andrew Rodriguez, Robert Schweller, and Tim Wylie. Complexity of Reconfiguration in Surface Chemical Reaction Networks. In 29th International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA 29). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 276, pp. 10:1-10:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{alaniz_et_al:LIPIcs.DNA.29.10, author = {Alaniz, Robert M. and Brunner, Josh and Coulombe, Michael and Demaine, Erik D. and Diomidova, Jenny and Gomez, Timothy and Grizzell, Elise and Knobel, Ryan and Lynch, Jayson and Rodriguez, Andrew and Schweller, Robert and Wylie, Tim}, title = {{Complexity of Reconfiguration in Surface Chemical Reaction Networks}}, booktitle = {29th International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA 29)}, pages = {10:1--10:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-297-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {276}, editor = {Chen, Ho-Lin and Evans, Constantine G.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DNA.29.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187936}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DNA.29.10}, annote = {Keywords: Chemical Reaction Networks, reconfiguration, hardness} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 257, 2nd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2023)

There have been many advances in molecular computation that offer benefits such as targeted drug delivery, nanoscale mapping, and improved classification of nanoscale organisms. This power led to recent work exploring privacy in the computation, specifically, covert computation in self-assembling circuits. Here, we prove several important results related to the concept of a hidden computation in the most well-known model of self-assembly, the Abstract Tile-Assembly Model (aTAM). We show that in 2D, surprisingly, the model is capable of covert computation, but only with an exponential-sized assembly. We also show that the model is capable of covert computation with polynomial-sized assemblies with only one step in the third dimension (just-barely 3D). Finally, we investigate types of functions that can be covertly computed as members of P/Poly.

Robert M. Alaniz, David Caballero, Timothy Gomez, Elise Grizzell, Andrew Rodriguez, Robert Schweller, and Tim Wylie. Covert Computation in the Abstract Tile-Assembly Model. In 2nd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 257, pp. 12:1-12:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{alaniz_et_al:LIPIcs.SAND.2023.12, author = {Alaniz, Robert M. and Caballero, David and Gomez, Timothy and Grizzell, Elise and Rodriguez, Andrew and Schweller, Robert and Wylie, Tim}, title = {{Covert Computation in the Abstract Tile-Assembly Model}}, booktitle = {2nd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2023)}, pages = {12:1--12:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-275-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {257}, editor = {Doty, David and Spirakis, Paul}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2023.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-179482}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2023.12}, annote = {Keywords: self-assembly, covert computation, atam} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

One of the most fundamental and well-studied problems in tile self-assembly is the Unique Assembly Verification (UAV) problem. This algorithmic problem asks whether a given tile system uniquely assembles a specific assembly. The complexity of this problem in the 2-Handed Assembly Model (2HAM) at a constant temperature is a long-standing open problem since the model was introduced. Previously, only membership in the class coNP was known and that the problem is in P if the temperature is one (τ = 1). The problem is known to be hard for many generalizations of the model, such as allowing one step into the third dimension or allowing the temperature of the system to be a variable, but the most fundamental version has remained open.
In this paper, we prove the UAV problem in the 2HAM is hard even with a small constant temperature (τ = 2), and finally answer the complexity of this problem (open since 2013). Further, this result proves that UAV in the staged self-assembly model is coNP-complete with a single bin and stage (open since 2007), and that UAV in the q-tile model is also coNP-complete (open since 2004). We reduce from Monotone Planar 3-SAT with Neighboring Variable Pairs, a special case of 3SAT recently proven to be NP-hard. We accompany this reduction with a positive result showing that UAV is solvable in polynomial time with the promise that the given target assembly will have a tree-shaped bond graph, i.e., contains no cycles. We provide a 𝒪(n⁵) algorithm for UAV on tree-bonded assemblies when the temperature is fixed to 2, and a 𝒪(n⁵log τ) time algorithm when the temperature is part of the input.

David Caballero, Timothy Gomez, Robert Schweller, and Tim Wylie. Unique Assembly Verification in Two-Handed Self-Assembly. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 34:1-34:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{caballero_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.34, author = {Caballero, David and Gomez, Timothy and Schweller, Robert and Wylie, Tim}, title = {{Unique Assembly Verification in Two-Handed Self-Assembly}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {34:1--34:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163751}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.34}, annote = {Keywords: self-assembly, unique assembly verification, 2-handed assembly model} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 221, 1st Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2022)

Tile Automata is a recently defined model of self-assembly that borrows many concepts from cellular automata to create active self-assembling systems where changes may be occurring within an assembly without requiring attachment. This model has been shown to be powerful, but many fundamental questions have yet to be explored. Here, we study the state complexity of assembling n × n squares in seeded Tile Automata systems where growth starts from a seed and tiles may attach one at a time, similar to the abstract Tile Assembly Model. We provide optimal bounds for three classes of seeded Tile Automata systems (all without detachment), which vary in the amount of complexity allowed in the transition rules. We show that, in general, seeded Tile Automata systems require Θ(log^{1/4} n) states. For Single-Transition systems, where only one state may change in a transition rule, we show a bound of Θ(log^{1/3} n), and for deterministic systems, where each pair of states may only have one associated transition rule, a bound of Θ(({log n}/{log log n})^{1/2}).

Robert M. Alaniz, David Caballero, Sonya C. Cirlos, Timothy Gomez, Elise Grizzell, Andrew Rodriguez, Robert Schweller, Armando Tenorio, and Tim Wylie. Building Squares with Optimal State Complexity in Restricted Active Self-Assembly. In 1st Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 221, pp. 6:1-6:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{alaniz_et_al:LIPIcs.SAND.2022.6, author = {Alaniz, Robert M. and Caballero, David and Cirlos, Sonya C. and Gomez, Timothy and Grizzell, Elise and Rodriguez, Andrew and Schweller, Robert and Tenorio, Armando and Wylie, Tim}, title = {{Building Squares with Optimal State Complexity in Restricted Active Self-Assembly}}, booktitle = {1st Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2022)}, pages = {6:1--6:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-224-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {221}, editor = {Aspnes, James and Michail, Othon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2022.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-159482}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2022.6}, annote = {Keywords: Active Self-Assembly, State Complexity, Tile Automata} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 221, 1st Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2022)

We analyze the complexity of two fundamental verification problems within a generalization of the two-handed tile self-assembly model (2HAM) where initial system assemblies are not restricted to be singleton tiles, but may be larger pre-built assemblies. Within this model we consider the producibility problem, which asks if a given tile system builds, or produces, a given assembly, and the unique assembly verification (UAV) problem, which asks if a given system uniquely produces a given assembly. We show that producibility is NP-complete and UAV is coNP^{NP}-complete even when the initial assembly size and temperature threshold are both bounded by a constant. This is in stark contrast to results in the standard model with singleton input tiles where producibility is in P and UAV is in coNP for 𝒪(1) bounded temperature and coNP-complete when temperature is part of the input. We further provide preliminary results for producibility and UAV in the case of 1-dimensional linear assemblies with pre-built assemblies, and provide polynomial time solutions.

David Caballero, Timothy Gomez, Robert Schweller, and Tim Wylie. Complexity of Verification in Self-Assembly with Prebuilt Assemblies. In 1st Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 221, pp. 8:1-8:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{caballero_et_al:LIPIcs.SAND.2022.8, author = {Caballero, David and Gomez, Timothy and Schweller, Robert and Wylie, Tim}, title = {{Complexity of Verification in Self-Assembly with Prebuilt Assemblies}}, booktitle = {1st Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2022)}, pages = {8:1--8:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-224-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {221}, editor = {Aspnes, James and Michail, Othon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2022.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-159503}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2022.8}, annote = {Keywords: 2-handed assembly, verification, prebuilt} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 204, 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)

Staged self-assembly has proven to be a powerful abstract model of self-assembly by modeling laboratory techniques where several nanoscale systems are allowed to assemble separately and then be mixed at a later stage. A fundamental problem in self-assembly is Unique Assembly Verification (UAV), which asks whether a single final assembly is uniquely constructed. This has previously been shown to be Π^{p}₂-hard in staged self-assembly with a constant number of stages, but a more precise complexity classification was left open related to the polynomial hierarchy.
Covert Computation was recently introduced as a way to compute a function while hiding the input to that function for self-assembly systems. These Tile Assembly Computers (TACs), in a growth only negative aTAM system, can compute arbitrary circuits, which proves UAV is coNP-hard in that model. Here, we show that the staged assembly model is capable of covert computation using only 3 stages. We then utilize this construction to show UAV with only 3 stages is Π^{p}₂-hard. We then extend this technique to open problems and prove that general staged UAV is PSPACE-complete. Measuring the complexity of n stage UAV, we show Π^{p}_{n - 1}-hardness. We finish by showing a Π^{p}_{n + 1} algorithm to solve n stage UAV leaving only a constant gap between membership and hardness.

David Caballero, Timothy Gomez, Robert Schweller, and Tim Wylie. Covert Computation in Staged Self-Assembly: Verification Is PSPACE-Complete. In 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 204, pp. 23:1-23:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{caballero_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2021.23, author = {Caballero, David and Gomez, Timothy and Schweller, Robert and Wylie, Tim}, title = {{Covert Computation in Staged Self-Assembly: Verification Is PSPACE-Complete}}, booktitle = {29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)}, pages = {23:1--23:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-204-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {204}, editor = {Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146047}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.23}, annote = {Keywords: self-assembly, covert computation, staged self-assembly, assembly verification} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 181, 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)

The natural process of self-assembly has been studied through various abstract models due to the abundant applications that benefit from self-assembly. Many of these different models emerged in an effort to capture and understand the fundamental properties of different physical systems and the mechanisms by which assembly may occur. A newly proposed model, known as Tile Automata, offers an abstract toolkit to analyze and compare the algorithmic properties of different self-assembly systems. In this paper, we show that for every Tile Automata system, there exists a Signal-passing Tile Assembly system that can simulate it. Finally, we connect our result with a recent discovery showing that Tile Automata can simulate Amoebot programmable matter systems, thus showing that the Signal-passing Tile Assembly can simulate any Amoebot system.

Angel A. Cantu, Austin Luchsinger, Robert Schweller, and Tim Wylie. Signal Passing Self-Assembly Simulates Tile Automata. In 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 181, pp. 53:1-53:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{cantu_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.53, author = {Cantu, Angel A. and Luchsinger, Austin and Schweller, Robert and Wylie, Tim}, title = {{Signal Passing Self-Assembly Simulates Tile Automata}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)}, pages = {53:1--53:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-173-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {181}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Cheng, Siu-Wing and Li, Minming}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133978}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.53}, annote = {Keywords: self-assembly, signal-passing tile assembly model, tile automata, cellular automata, simulation} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 174, 26th International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA 26) (2020)

Many models of self-assembly have been shown to be capable of performing computation. Tile Automata was recently introduced combining features of both Celluar Automata and the 2-Handed Model of self-assembly both capable of universal computation. In this work we study the complexity of Tile Automata utilizing features inherited from the two models mentioned above. We first present a construction for simulating Turing Machines that performs both covert and fuel efficient computation. We then explore the capabilities of limited Tile Automata systems such as 1-Dimensional systems (all assemblies are of height 1) and freezing Systems (tiles may not repeat states). Using these results we provide a connection between the problem of finding the largest uniquely producible assembly using n states and the busy beaver problem for non-freezing systems and provide a freezing system capable of uniquely assembling an assembly whose length is exponential in the number of states of the system. We finish by exploring the complexity of the Unique Assembly Verification problem in Tile Automata with different limitations such as freezing and systems without the power of detachment.

David Caballero, Timothy Gomez, Robert Schweller, and Tim Wylie. Verification and Computation in Restricted Tile Automata. In 26th International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA 26). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 174, pp. 10:1-10:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{caballero_et_al:LIPIcs.DNA.2020.10, author = {Caballero, David and Gomez, Timothy and Schweller, Robert and Wylie, Tim}, title = {{Verification and Computation in Restricted Tile Automata}}, booktitle = {26th International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA 26)}, pages = {10:1--10:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-163-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {174}, editor = {Geary, Cody and Patitz, Matthew J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DNA.2020.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-129635}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DNA.2020.10}, annote = {Keywords: Tile Automata, Turing Machines, Unique Assembly Verification} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

Traditionally, computation within self-assembly models is hard to conceal because the self-assembly process generates a crystalline assembly whose computational history is inherently part of the structure itself. With no way to remove information from the computation, this computational model offers a unique problem: how can computational input and computation be hidden while still computing and reporting the final output? Designing such systems is inherently motivated by privacy concerns in biomedical computing and applications in cryptography.
In this paper we propose the problem of performing "covert computation" within tile self-assembly that seeks to design self-assembly systems that "conceal" both the input and computational history of performed computations. We achieve these results within the growth-only restricted abstract tile assembly model (aTAM) with positive and negative interactions. We show that general-case covert computation is possible by implementing a set of basic covert logic gates capable of simulating any circuit (functionally complete). To further motivate the study of covert computation, we apply our new framework to resolve an outstanding complexity question; we use our covert circuitry to show that the unique assembly verification problem within the growth-only aTAM with negative interactions is coNP-complete.

Angel A. Cantu, Austin Luchsinger, Robert Schweller, and Tim Wylie. Covert Computation in Self-Assembled Circuits. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 31:1-31:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{cantu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.31, author = {Cantu, Angel A. and Luchsinger, Austin and Schweller, Robert and Wylie, Tim}, title = {{Covert Computation in Self-Assembled Circuits}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {31:1--31:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106075}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.31}, annote = {Keywords: self-assembly, covert circuits} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 112, 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)

Inspired by nature and motivated by a lack of top-down tools for precise nanoscale manufacture, self-assembly is a bottom-up process where simple, unorganized components autonomously combine to form larger more complex structures. Such systems hide rich algorithmic properties - notably, Turing universality - and a self-assembly system can be seen as both the object to be manufactured as well as the machine controlling the manufacturing process. Thus, a benchmark problem in self-assembly is the unique assembly of shapes: to design a set of simple agents which, based on aggregation rules and random movement, self-assemble into a particular shape and nothing else. We use a popular model of self-assembly, the 2-handed or hierarchical tile assembly model, and allow the existence of repulsive forces, which is a well-studied variant. The technique utilizes a finely-tuned temperature (the minimum required affinity required for aggregation of separate complexes).
We show that calibrating the temperature and the strength of the aggregation between the tiles, one can encode the shape to be assembled without increasing the number of distinct tile types. Precisely, we show one tile set for which the following holds: for any finite connected shape S, there exists a setting of binding strengths between tiles and a temperature under which the system uniquely assembles S at some scale factor. Our tile system only uses one repulsive glue type and the system is growth-only (it produces no unstable assemblies). The best previous unique shape assembly results in tile assembly models use O(K(S)/(log K(S))) distinct tile types, where K(S) is the Kolmogorov (descriptional) complexity of the shape S.

Cameron Chalk, Austin Luchsinger, Robert Schweller, and Tim Wylie. Self-Assembly of Any Shape with Constant Tile Types using High Temperature. In 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 112, pp. 14:1-14:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{chalk_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2018.14, author = {Chalk, Cameron and Luchsinger, Austin and Schweller, Robert and Wylie, Tim}, title = {{Self-Assembly of Any Shape with Constant Tile Types using High Temperature}}, booktitle = {26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)}, pages = {14:1--14:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-081-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {112}, editor = {Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94773}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.14}, annote = {Keywords: self-assembly, molecular computing, tiling, tile, shapes} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 57, 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)

We analyze the number of stages, tiles, and bins needed to construct n * n squares and scaled shapes in the staged tile assembly model. In particular, we prove that there exists a staged system with b bins and t tile types assembling an n * n square using O((log n - tb - t log t)/b^2 + log log b/log t) stages and Omega((log n - tb - t log t)/b^2) are necessary for almost all n. For a shape S, we prove O((K(S) - tb - t log t)/b^2 + (log log b)/log t) stages suffice and Omega((K(S) - tb - t log t)/b^2) are necessary for the assembly of a scaled version of S, where K(S) denotes the Kolmogorov complexity of S. Similarly tight bounds are also obtained when more powerful flexible glue functions are permitted. These are the first staged results that hold for all choices of b and t and generalize prior results.
The upper bound constructions use a new technique for efficiently converting each both sources of system complexity, namely the tile types and mixing graph, into a "bit string" assembly.

Cameron Chalk, Eric Martinez, Robert Schweller, Luis Vega, Andrew Winslow, and Tim Wylie. Optimal Staged Self-Assembly of General Shapes. In 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 57, pp. 26:1-26:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{chalk_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2016.26, author = {Chalk, Cameron and Martinez, Eric and Schweller, Robert and Vega, Luis and Winslow, Andrew and Wylie, Tim}, title = {{Optimal Staged Self-Assembly of General Shapes}}, booktitle = {24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)}, pages = {26:1--26:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-015-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {57}, editor = {Sankowski, Piotr and Zaroliagis, Christos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63776}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.26}, annote = {Keywords: Tile self-assembly, 2HAM, aTAM, DNA computing, biocomputing} }

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