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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

We give an oracle separation between QMA and QCMA for quantum algorithms that have bounded adaptivity in their oracle queries; that is, the number of rounds of oracle calls is small, though each round may involve polynomially many queries in parallel. Our oracle construction is a simplified version of the construction used recently by Li, Liu, Pelecanos, and Yamakawa (2023), who showed an oracle separation between QMA and QCMA when the quantum algorithms are only allowed to access the oracle classically. To prove our results, we introduce a property of relations called slipperiness, which may be useful for getting a fully general classical oracle separation between QMA and QCMA.

Shalev Ben-David and Srijita Kundu. Oracle Separation of QMA and QCMA with Bounded Adaptivity. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 21:1-21:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{bendavid_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.21, author = {Ben-David, Shalev and Kundu, Srijita}, title = {{Oracle Separation of QMA and QCMA with Bounded Adaptivity}}, booktitle = {51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)}, pages = {21:1--21:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-322-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {297}, editor = {Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201642}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.21}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum computing, computational complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 200, 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)

We investigate query-to-communication lifting theorems for models related to the quantum adversary bounds. Our results are as follows:
1) We show that the classical adversary bound lifts to a lower bound on randomized communication complexity with a constant-sized gadget. We also show that the classical adversary bound is a strictly stronger lower bound technique than the previously-lifted measure known as critical block sensitivity, making our lifting theorem one of the strongest lifting theorems for randomized communication complexity using a constant-sized gadget.
2) Turning to quantum models, we show a connection between lifting theorems for quantum adversary bounds and secure 2-party quantum computation in a certain "honest-but-curious" model. Under the assumption that such secure 2-party computation is impossible, we show that a simplified version of the positive-weight adversary bound lifts to a quantum communication lower bound using a constant-sized gadget. We also give an unconditional lifting theorem which lower bounds bounded-round quantum communication protocols.
3) Finally, we give some new results in query complexity. We show that the classical adversary and the positive-weight quantum adversary are quadratically related. We also show that the positive-weight quantum adversary is never larger than the square of the approximate degree. Both relations hold even for partial functions.

Anurag Anshu, Shalev Ben-David, and Srijita Kundu. On Query-To-Communication Lifting for Adversary Bounds. In 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 200, pp. 30:1-30:39, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{anshu_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2021.30, author = {Anshu, Anurag and Ben-David, Shalev and Kundu, Srijita}, title = {{On Query-To-Communication Lifting for Adversary Bounds}}, booktitle = {36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)}, pages = {30:1--30:39}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-193-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {200}, editor = {Kabanets, Valentine}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.30}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-143042}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.30}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum computing, query complexity, communication complexity, lifting theorems, adversary method} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)

Suppose we have randomized decision trees for an outer function f and an inner function g. The natural approach for obtaining a randomized decision tree for the composed function (f∘ gⁿ)(x¹,…,xⁿ) = f(g(x¹),…,g(xⁿ)) involves amplifying the success probability of the decision tree for g, so that a union bound can be used to bound the error probability over all the coordinates. The amplification introduces a logarithmic factor cost overhead. We study the question: When is this log factor necessary? We show that when the outer function is parity or majority, the log factor can be necessary, even for models that are more powerful than plain randomized decision trees. Our results are related to, but qualitatively strengthen in various ways, known results about decision trees with noisy inputs.

Shalev Ben-David, Mika Göös, Robin Kothari, and Thomas Watson. When Is Amplification Necessary for Composition in Randomized Query Complexity?. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 28:1-28:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bendavid_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.28, author = {Ben-David, Shalev and G\"{o}\"{o}s, Mika and Kothari, Robin and Watson, Thomas}, title = {{When Is Amplification Necessary for Composition in Randomized Query Complexity?}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)}, pages = {28:1--28:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-164-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {176}, editor = {Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126316}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.28}, annote = {Keywords: Amplification, composition, query complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 135, 14th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2019)

We define a new query measure we call quantum distinguishing complexity, denoted QD(f) for a Boolean function f. Unlike a quantum query algorithm, which must output a state close to |0> on a 0-input and a state close to |1> on a 1-input, a "quantum distinguishing algorithm" can output any state, as long as the output states for any 0-input and 1-input are distinguishable.
Using this measure, we establish a new relationship in query complexity: For all total functions f, Q_0(f)=O~(Q(f)^5), where Q_0(f) and Q(f) denote the zero-error and bounded-error quantum query complexity of f respectively, improving on the previously known sixth power relationship.
We also define a query measure based on quantum statistical zero-knowledge proofs, QSZK(f), which is at most Q(f). We show that QD(f) in fact lower bounds QSZK(f) and not just Q(f). QD(f) also upper bounds the (positive-weights) adversary bound, which yields the following relationships for all f: Q(f) >= QSZK(f) >= QD(f) = Omega(Adv(f)). This sheds some light on why the adversary bound proves suboptimal bounds for problems like Collision and Set Equality, which have low QSZK complexity.
Lastly, we show implications for lifting theorems in communication complexity. We show that a general lifting theorem for either zero-error quantum query complexity or for QSZK would imply a general lifting theorem for bounded-error quantum query complexity.

Shalev Ben-David and Robin Kothari. Quantum Distinguishing Complexity, Zero-Error Algorithms, and Statistical Zero Knowledge. In 14th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 135, pp. 2:1-2:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{bendavid_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2019.2, author = {Ben-David, Shalev and Kothari, Robin}, title = {{Quantum Distinguishing Complexity, Zero-Error Algorithms, and Statistical Zero Knowledge}}, booktitle = {14th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2019)}, pages = {2:1--2:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-112-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {135}, editor = {van Dam, Wim and Man\v{c}inska, Laura}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2019.2}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-103944}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2019.2}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum query complexity, quantum algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 67, 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)

We provide new query complexity separations against sensitivity for total Boolean functions: a power 3 separation between deterministic (and even randomized or quantum) query complexity and sensitivity, and a power 2.22 separation between certificate complexity and sensitivity. We get these separations by using a new connection between sensitivity and a seemingly unrelated measure called one-sided unambiguous certificate complexity. We also show that one-sided unambiguous certificate complexity is lower-bounded by fractional block sensitivity, which means we cannot use these techniques to get a super-quadratic separation between block sensitivity and sensitivity.
Along the way, we give a power 1.22 separation between certificate complexity and one-sided unambiguous certificate complexity, improving the power 1.128 separation due to Goos [FOCS 2015]. As a consequence, we obtain an improved lower-bound on the co-nondeterministic communication complexity of the Clique vs. Independent Set problem.

Shalev Ben-David, Pooya Hatami, and Avishay Tal. Low-Sensitivity Functions from Unambiguous Certificates. In 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 67, pp. 28:1-28:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{bendavid_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.28, author = {Ben-David, Shalev and Hatami, Pooya and Tal, Avishay}, title = {{Low-Sensitivity Functions from Unambiguous Certificates}}, booktitle = {8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)}, pages = {28:1--28:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-029-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {67}, editor = {Papadimitriou, Christos H.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-81869}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.28}, annote = {Keywords: Boolean functions, decision tree complexity, query complexity, sensitivity conjecture} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 79, 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)

One of the best lower bound methods for the quantum communication complexity of a function H (with or without shared entanglement) is the logarithm of the approximate rank of the communication matrix of H. This measure is essentially equivalent to the approximate gamma-2 norm and generalized discrepancy, and subsumes several other lower bounds. All known lower bounds on quantum communication complexity in the general unbounded-round model can be shown via the logarithm of approximate rank, and it was an open problem to give any separation at all between quantum communication complexity and the logarithm of the approximate rank.
In this work we provide the first such separation: We exhibit a total function H with quantum communication complexity almost quadratically larger than the logarithm of its approximate rank. We construct H using the communication lookup function framework of Anshu et al. (FOCS 2016) based on the cheat sheet framework of Aaronson et al. (STOC 2016). From a starting function F, this framework defines a new function H=F_G. Our main technical result is a lower bound on the quantum communication complexity of F_G in terms of the discrepancy of F, which we do via quantum information theoretic arguments. We show the upper bound on the approximate rank of F_G by relating it to the Boolean circuit size of the starting function F.

Anurag Anshu, Shalev Ben-David, Ankit Garg, Rahul Jain, Robin Kothari, and Troy Lee. Separating Quantum Communication and Approximate Rank. In 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 79, pp. 24:1-24:33, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{anshu_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2017.24, author = {Anshu, Anurag and Ben-David, Shalev and Garg, Ankit and Jain, Rahul and Kothari, Robin and Lee, Troy}, title = {{Separating Quantum Communication and Approximate Rank}}, booktitle = {32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)}, pages = {24:1--24:33}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-040-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {79}, editor = {O'Donnell, Ryan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75303}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.24}, annote = {Keywords: Communication Complexity, Quantum Computing, Lower Bounds, logrank, Quantum Information} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 61, 11th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2016)

In 1998, Beals, Buhrman, Cleve, Mosca, and de Wolf showed that no super-polynomial quantum speedup is possible in the query complexity setting unless there is a promise on the input. We examine several types of "unstructured" promises, and show that they also are not compatible with super-polynomial quantum speedups. We conclude that such speedups are only possible when the input is known to have some structure.
Specifically, we show that there is a polynomial relationship of degree 18 between D(f) and Q(f) for any Boolean function f defined on permutations (elements of [n]^n in which each alphabet element occurs exactly once). More generally, this holds for all f defined on orbits of the symmetric group action (which acts on an element of [M]^n by permuting its entries). We also show that any Boolean function f defined on a "symmetric" subset of the Boolean hypercube has a polynomial relationship between R(f) and Q(f) - although in that setting, D(f) may be exponentially larger.

Shalev Ben-David. The Structure of Promises in Quantum Speedups. In 11th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 61, pp. 7:1-7:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{bendavid:LIPIcs.TQC.2016.7, author = {Ben-David, Shalev}, title = {{The Structure of Promises in Quantum Speedups}}, booktitle = {11th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2016)}, pages = {7:1--7:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-019-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {61}, editor = {Broadbent, Anne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2016.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66882}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2016.7}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum computing, quantum query complexity, decision tree complexity, lower bounds, quantum adversary method} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 50, 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)

Given a problem which is intractable for both quantum and classical algorithms, can we find a sub-problem for which quantum algorithms provide an exponential advantage? We refer to this problem as the "sculpting problem." In this work, we give a full characterization of sculptable functions in the query complexity setting. We show that a total function f can be restricted to a promise P such that Q(f|_P)=O(polylog(N)) and R(f|_P)=N^{Omega(1)}, if and only if f has a large number of inputs with large certificate complexity. The proof uses some interesting techniques: for one direction, we introduce new relationships between randomized and quantum query complexity in various settings, and for the other direction, we use a recent result from communication complexity due to Klartag and Regev. We also characterize sculpting for other query complexity measures, such as R(f) vs. R_0(f) and R_0(f) vs. D(f).
Along the way, we prove some new relationships for quantum query complexity: for example, a nearly quadratic relationship between Q(f) and D(f) whenever the promise of f is small. This contrasts with the recent super-quadratic query complexity separations, showing that the maximum gap between classical and quantum query complexities is indeed quadratic in various settings - just not for total functions!
Lastly, we investigate sculpting in the Turing machine model. We show that if there is any BPP-bi-immune language in BQP, then every language outside BPP can be restricted to a promise which places it in PromiseBQP but not in PromiseBPP. Under a weaker assumption, that some problem in BQP is hard on average for P/poly, we show that every paddable language outside BPP is sculptable in this way.

Scott Aaronson and Shalev Ben-David. Sculpting Quantum Speedups. In 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 50, pp. 26:1-26:28, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2016.26, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Ben-David, Shalev}, title = {{Sculpting Quantum Speedups}}, booktitle = {31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)}, pages = {26:1--26:28}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-008-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {50}, editor = {Raz, Ran}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58538}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.26}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum Computing, Query Complexity, Decision Tree Complexity, Structural Complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)

We study the composition question for bounded-error randomized query complexity: Is R(f circ g) = Omega(R(f)R(g))? We show that inserting a simple function h, whose query complexity is onlyTheta(log R(g)), in between f and g allows us to prove R(f circ h circ g) = Omega(R(f)R(h)R(g)).
We prove this using a new lower bound measure for randomized query complexity we call randomized sabotage complexity, RS(f). Randomized sabotage complexity has several desirable properties, such as a perfect composition theorem, RS(f circ g) >= RS(f) RS(g), and a composition theorem with randomized query complexity, R(f circ g) = Omega(R(f) RS(g)). It is also a quadratically tight lower bound for total functions and can be quadratically superior to the partition bound, the best known general lower bound for randomized query complexity.
Using this technique we also show implications for lifting theorems in communication complexity. We show that a general lifting theorem from zero-error randomized query to communication complexity implies a similar result for bounded-error algorithms for all total functions.

Ben-David Shalev and Robin Kothari. Randomized Query Complexity of Sabotaged and Composed Functions. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 60:1-60:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{shalev_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.60, author = {Shalev, Ben-David and Kothari, Robin}, title = {{Randomized Query Complexity of Sabotaged and Composed Functions}}, booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)}, pages = {60:1--60:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-013-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {55}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.60}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-62233}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.60}, annote = {Keywords: Randomized query complexity, decision tree complexity, composition theorem, partition bound, lifting theorem} }

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