Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 289, 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)

The celebrated result by Ben-Or and Cleve [SICOMP92] showed that algebraic formulas are polynomially equivalent to width-3 algebraic branching programs (ABP) for computing polynomials. i.e., VF = VBP₃. Further, there are simple polynomials, such as ∑_{i = 1}⁸ x_i y_i, that cannot be computed by width-2 ABPs [Allender and Wang, CC16]. Bringmann, Ikenmeyer and Zuiddam, [JACM18], on the other hand, studied these questions in the setting of approximate (i.e., border complexity) computation, and showed the universality of border width-2 ABPs, over fields of characteristic ≠ 2. In particular, they showed that polynomials that can be approximated by formulas can also be approximated (with only a polynomial blowup in size) by width-2 ABPs, i.e., VF ̅ = VBP₂ ̅. The power of border width-2 algebraic branching programs when the characteristic of the field is 2 was left open.
In this paper, we show that width-2 ABPs can approximate every polynomial irrespective of the field characteristic. We show that any polynomial f with 𝓁 monomials and with at most t odd-power indeterminates per monomial can be approximated by 𝒪(𝓁⋅ (deg(f)+2^t))-size width-2 ABPs. Since 𝓁 and t are finite, this proves universality of border width-2 ABPs. For univariate polynomials, we improve this upper-bound from O(deg(f)²) to O(deg(f)).
Moreover, we show that, if a polynomial f can be approximated by small formulas, then the polynomial f^d, for some small power d, can be approximated by small width-2 ABPs. Therefore, even over fields of characteristic two, border width-2 ABPs are a reasonably powerful computational model. Our construction works over any field.

Pranjal Dutta, Christian Ikenmeyer, Balagopal Komarath, Harshil Mittal, Saraswati Girish Nanoti, and Dhara Thakkar. On the Power of Border Width-2 ABPs over Fields of Characteristic 2. In 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 289, pp. 31:1-31:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{dutta_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2024.31, author = {Dutta, Pranjal and Ikenmeyer, Christian and Komarath, Balagopal and Mittal, Harshil and Nanoti, Saraswati Girish and Thakkar, Dhara}, title = {{On the Power of Border Width-2 ABPs over Fields of Characteristic 2}}, booktitle = {41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)}, pages = {31:1--31:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-311-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {289}, editor = {Beyersdorff, Olaf and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha and Kupferman, Orna and Lokshtanov, Daniel}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-197419}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.31}, annote = {Keywords: Algebraic branching programs, border complexity, characteristic 2} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 283, 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)

For any fixed positive integer r and a given budget k, the r-Eigenvalue Vertex Deletion (r-EVD) problem asks if a graph G admits a subset S of at most k vertices such that the adjacency matrix of G⧵S has at most r distinct eigenvalues. The edge deletion, edge addition, and edge editing variants are defined analogously. For r = 1, r-EVD is equivalent to the Vertex Cover problem. For r = 2, it turns out that r-EVD amounts to removing a subset S of at most k vertices so that G⧵ S is a cluster graph where all connected components have the same size.
We show that r-EVD is NP-complete even on bipartite graphs with maximum degree four for every fixed r > 2, and FPT when parameterized by the solution size and the maximum degree of the graph.
We also establish several results for the special case when r = 2. For the vertex deletion variant, we show that 2-EVD is NP-complete even on triangle-free and 3d-regular graphs for any d ≥ 2, and also NP-complete on d-regular graphs for any d ≥ 8. The edge deletion, addition, and editing variants are all NP-complete for r = 2. The edge deletion problem admits a polynomial time algorithm if the input is a cluster graph, while - in contrast - the edge addition variant is hard even when the input is a cluster graph. We show that the edge addition variant has a quadratic kernel. The edge deletion and vertex deletion variants admit a single-exponential FPT algorithm when parameterized by the solution size alone.
Our main contribution is to develop the complexity landscape for the problem of modifying a graph with the aim of reducing the number of distinct eigenvalues in the spectrum of its adjacency matrix. It turns out that this captures, apart from Vertex Cover, also a natural variation of the problem of modifying to a cluster graph as a special case, which we believe may be of independent interest.

Neeldhara Misra, Harshil Mittal, Saket Saurabh, and Dhara Thakkar. On the Complexity of the Eigenvalue Deletion Problem. In 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 283, pp. 53:1-53:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{misra_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.53, author = {Misra, Neeldhara and Mittal, Harshil and Saurabh, Saket and Thakkar, Dhara}, title = {{On the Complexity of the Eigenvalue Deletion Problem}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)}, pages = {53:1--53:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-289-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {283}, editor = {Iwata, Satoru and Kakimura, Naonori}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-193555}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.53}, annote = {Keywords: Graph Modification, Rank Reduction, Eigenvalues} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 219, 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)

A finite group of order n can be represented by its Cayley table. In the word-RAM model the Cayley table of a group of order n can be stored using O(n²) words and can be used to answer a multiplication query in constant time. It is interesting to ask if we can design a data structure to store a group of order n that uses o(n²) space but can still answer a multiplication query in constant time.
We design a constant query-time data structure that can store any finite group using O(n) words where n is the order of the group.
Farzan and Munro (ISSAC 2006) gave an information theoretic lower bound of Ω(n) on the number of words to store a group of order n. Since our data structure achieves this lower bound and answers queries in constant time, it is optimal in both space usage and query-time.
A crucial step in the process is essentially to design linear space and constant query-time data structures for nonabelian simple groups. The data structures for nonableian simple groups are designed using a lemma that we prove using the Classification Theorem for Finite Simple Groups (CFSG).

Bireswar Das, Anant Kumar, Shivdutt Sharma, and Dhara Thakkar. Linear Space Data Structures for Finite Groups with Constant Query-Time. In 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 219, pp. 25:1-25:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{das_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2022.25, author = {Das, Bireswar and Kumar, Anant and Sharma, Shivdutt and Thakkar, Dhara}, title = {{Linear Space Data Structures for Finite Groups with Constant Query-Time}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)}, pages = {25:1--25:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-222-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {219}, editor = {Berenbrink, Petra and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-158350}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.25}, annote = {Keywords: Compact Data Structures, Space Efficient Representations, Finite Groups, Simple Groups, Classification Theorem for Finite Simple Groups} }

X

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing

Feedback submitted

Please try again later or send an E-mail