Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

The All-Pairs Min-Cut problem (aka All-Pairs Max-Flow) asks to compute a minimum s-t cut (or just its value) for all pairs of vertices s,t. We study this problem in directed graphs with unit edge/vertex capacities (corresponding to edge/vertex connectivity). Our focus is on the k-bounded case, where the algorithm has to find all pairs with min-cut value less than k, and report only those. The most basic case k=1 is the Transitive Closure (TC) problem, which can be solved in graphs with n vertices and m edges in time O(mn) combinatorially, and in time O(n^{omega}) where omega<2.38 is the matrix-multiplication exponent. These time bounds are conjectured to be optimal.
We present new algorithms and conditional lower bounds that advance the frontier for larger k, as follows:
- A randomized algorithm for vertex capacities that runs in time {O}((nk)^{omega}). This is only a factor k^omega away from the TC bound, and nearly matches it for all k=n^{o(1)}.
- Two deterministic algorithms for edge capacities (which is more general) that work in DAGs and further reports a minimum cut for each pair. The first algorithm is combinatorial (does not involve matrix multiplication) and runs in time {O}(2^{{O}(k^2)}* mn). The second algorithm can be faster on dense DAGs and runs in time {O}((k log n)^{4^{k+o(k)}}* n^{omega}). Previously, Georgiadis et al. [ICALP 2017], could match the TC bound (up to n^{o(1)} factors) only when k=2, and now our two algorithms match it for all k=o(sqrt{log n}) and k=o(log log n).
- The first super-cubic lower bound of n^{omega-1-o(1)} k^2 time under the 4-Clique conjecture, which holds even in the simplest case of DAGs with unit vertex capacities. It improves on the previous (SETH-based) lower bounds even in the unbounded setting k=n. For combinatorial algorithms, our reduction implies an n^{2-o(1)} k^2 conditional lower bound. Thus, we identify new settings where the complexity of the problem is (conditionally) higher than that of TC.
Our three sets of results are obtained via different techniques. The first one adapts the network coding method of Cheung, Lau, and Leung [SICOMP 2013] to vertex-capacitated digraphs. The second set exploits new insights on the structure of latest cuts together with suitable algebraic tools. The lower bounds arise from a novel reduction of a different structure than the SETH-based constructions.

Amir Abboud, Loukas Georgiadis, Giuseppe F. Italiano, Robert Krauthgamer, Nikos Parotsidis, Ohad Trabelsi, Przemysław Uznański, and Daniel Wolleb-Graf. Faster Algorithms for All-Pairs Bounded Min-Cuts. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 7:1-7:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{abboud_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.7, author = {Abboud, Amir and Georgiadis, Loukas and Italiano, Giuseppe F. and Krauthgamer, Robert and Parotsidis, Nikos and Trabelsi, Ohad and Uzna\'{n}ski, Przemys{\l}aw and Wolleb-Graf, Daniel}, title = {{Faster Algorithms for All-Pairs Bounded Min-Cuts}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {7:1--7:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-105833}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.7}, annote = {Keywords: All-pairs min-cut, k-reachability, network coding, Directed graphs, fine-grained complexity} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 126, 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)

In the Set Cover problem, the input is a ground set of n elements and a collection of m sets, and the goal is to find the smallest sub-collection of sets whose union is the entire ground set. The fastest algorithm known runs in time O(mn2^n) [Fomin et al., WG 2004], and the Set Cover Conjecture (SeCoCo) [Cygan et al., TALG 2016] asserts that for every fixed epsilon>0, no algorithm can solve Set Cover in time 2^{(1-epsilon)n} poly(m), even if set sizes are bounded by Delta=Delta(epsilon). We show strong connections between this problem and kTree, a special case of Subgraph Isomorphism where the input is an n-node graph G and a k-node tree T, and the goal is to determine whether G has a subgraph isomorphic to T.
First, we propose a weaker conjecture Log-SeCoCo, that allows input sets of size Delta=O(1/epsilon * log n), and show that an algorithm breaking Log-SeCoCo would imply a faster algorithm than the currently known 2^n poly(n)-time algorithm [Koutis and Williams, TALG 2016] for Directed nTree, which is kTree with k=n and arbitrary directions to the edges of G and T. This would also improve the running time for Directed Hamiltonicity, for which no algorithm significantly faster than 2^n poly(n) is known despite extensive research.
Second, we prove that if p-Partial Cover, a parameterized version of Set Cover that requires covering at least p elements, cannot be solved significantly faster than 2^n poly(m) (an assumption even weaker than Log-SeCoCo) then kTree cannot be computed significantly faster than 2^k poly(n), the running time of the Koutis and Williams' algorithm.

Robert Krauthgamer and Ohad Trabelsi. The Set Cover Conjecture and Subgraph Isomorphism with a Tree Pattern. In 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 126, pp. 45:1-45:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{krauthgamer_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2019.45, author = {Krauthgamer, Robert and Trabelsi, Ohad}, title = {{The Set Cover Conjecture and Subgraph Isomorphism with a Tree Pattern}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)}, pages = {45:1--45:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-100-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {126}, editor = {Niedermeier, Rolf and Paul, Christophe}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.45}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102840}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.45}, annote = {Keywords: Conditional lower bounds, Hardness in P, Set Cover Conjecture, Subgraph Isomorphism} }

Document

**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 69, 2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019)

We reprove three known algorithmic bounds for terminal-clustering problems, using a single framework that leads to simpler proofs. In this genre of problems, the input is a metric space (X,d) (possibly arising from a graph) and a subset of terminals K subset X, and the goal is to partition the points X such that each part, called a cluster, contains exactly one terminal (possibly with connectivity requirements) so as to minimize some objective. The three bounds we reprove are for Steiner Point Removal on trees [Gupta, SODA 2001], for Metric 0-Extension in bounded doubling dimension [Lee and Naor, unpublished 2003], and for Connected Metric 0-Extension [Englert et al., SICOMP 2014].
A natural approach is to cluster each point with its closest terminal, which would partition X into so-called Voronoi cells, but this approach can fail miserably due to its stringent cluster boundaries. A now-standard fix, which we call the Relaxed-Voronoi framework, is to use enlarged Voronoi cells, but to obtain disjoint clusters, the cells are computed greedily according to some order. This method, first proposed by Calinescu, Karloff and Rabani [SICOMP 2004], was employed successfully to provide state-of-the-art results for terminal-clustering problems on general metrics. However, for restricted families of metrics, e.g., trees and doubling metrics, only more complicated, ad-hoc algorithms are known. Our main contribution is to demonstrate that the Relaxed-Voronoi algorithm is applicable to restricted metrics, and actually leads to relatively simple algorithms and analyses.

Arnold Filtser, Robert Krauthgamer, and Ohad Trabelsi. Relaxed Voronoi: A Simple Framework for Terminal-Clustering Problems. In 2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 69, pp. 10:1-10:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{filtser_et_al:OASIcs.SOSA.2019.10, author = {Filtser, Arnold and Krauthgamer, Robert and Trabelsi, Ohad}, title = {{Relaxed Voronoi: A Simple Framework for Terminal-Clustering Problems}}, booktitle = {2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019)}, pages = {10:1--10:14}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-099-6}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2019}, volume = {69}, editor = {Fineman, Jeremy T. and Mitzenmacher, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.SOSA.2019.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-100369}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.SOSA.2019.10}, annote = {Keywords: Clustering, Steiner point removal, Zero extension, Doubling dimension, Relaxed voronoi} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We provide evidence that computing the maximum flow value between every pair of nodes in a directed graph on n nodes, m edges, and capacities in the range [1..n], which we call the All-Pairs Max-Flow problem, cannot be solved in time that is faster significantly (i.e., by a polynomial factor) than O(n^2 m). Since a single maximum st-flow in such graphs can be solved in time \tilde{O}(m\sqrt{n}) [Lee and Sidford, FOCS 2014], we conclude that the all-pairs version might require time equivalent to \tilde\Omega(n^{3/2}) computations of maximum st-flow, which strongly separates the directed case from the undirected one. Moreover, if maximum $st$-flow can be solved in time \tilde{O}(m), then the runtime of \tilde\Omega(n^2) computations is needed. This is in contrast to a conjecture of Lacki, Nussbaum, Sankowski, and Wulf-Nilsen [FOCS 2012] that All-Pairs Max-Flow in general graphs can be solved faster than the time of O(n^2) computations of maximum st-flow.
Specifically, we show that in sparse graphs G=(V,E,w), if one can compute the maximum st-flow from every s in an input set of sources S\subseteq V to every t in an input set of sinks T\subseteq V in time O((|S||T|m)^{1-epsilon}), for some |S|, |T|, and a constant epsilon>0, then MAX-CNF-SAT (maximum satisfiability of conjunctive normal form formulas) with n' variables and m' clauses can be solved in time {m'}^{O(1)}2^{(1-delta)n'} for a constant delta(epsilon)>0, a problem for which not even 2^{n'}/\poly(n') algorithms are known. Such runtime for MAX-CNF-SAT would in particular refute the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis (SETH). Hence, we improve the lower bound of Abboud, Vassilevska-Williams, and Yu [STOC 2015], who showed that for every fixed epsilon>0 and |S|=|T|=O(\sqrt{n}), if the above problem can be solved in time O(n^{3/2-epsilon}), then some incomparable (and intuitively weaker) conjecture is false. Furthermore, a larger lower bound than ours implies strictly super-linear time for maximum st-flow problem, which would be an amazing breakthrough.
In addition, we show that All-Pairs Max-Flow in uncapacitated networks with every edge-density m=m(n), cannot be computed in time significantly faster than O(mn), even for acyclic networks. The gap to the fastest known algorithm by Cheung, Lau, and Leung [FOCS 2011] is a factor of O(m^{omega-1}/n), and for acyclic networks it is O(n^{omega-1}), where omega is the matrix multiplication exponent.

Robert Krauthgamer and Ohad Trabelsi. Conditional Lower Bounds for All-Pairs Max-Flow. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 20:1-20:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{krauthgamer_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.20, author = {Krauthgamer, Robert and Trabelsi, Ohad}, title = {{Conditional Lower Bounds for All-Pairs Max-Flow}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {20:1--20:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74264}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.20}, annote = {Keywords: Conditional lower bounds, Hardness in P, All-Pairs Maximum Flow, Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis} }