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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 317, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)

We consider a new scheduling problem on parallel identical machines in which the number of machines is initially not known, but it follows a given probability distribution. Only after all jobs are assigned to a given number of bags, the actual number of machines is revealed. Subsequently, the jobs need to be assigned to the machines without splitting the bags. This is the stochastic version of a related problem introduced by Stein and Zhong [SODA 2018, TALG 2020] and it is, for example, motivated by bundling jobs that need to be scheduled by data centers. We present two PTASs for the stochastic setting, computing job-to-bag assignments that (i) minimize the expected maximum machine load and (ii) maximize the expected minimum machine load (like in the Santa Claus problem), respectively. The former result follows by careful enumeration combined with known PTASs. For the latter result, we introduce an intricate dynamic program that we apply to a suitably rounded instance.

Moritz Buchem, Franziska Eberle, Hugo Kooki Kasuya Rosado, Kevin Schewior, and Andreas Wiese. Scheduling on a Stochastic Number of Machines. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 317, pp. 14:1-14:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{buchem_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.14, author = {Buchem, Moritz and Eberle, Franziska and Kasuya Rosado, Hugo Kooki and Schewior, Kevin and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Scheduling on a Stochastic Number of Machines}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)}, pages = {14:1--14:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-348-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {317}, editor = {Kumar, Amit and Ron-Zewi, Noga}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-210073}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.14}, annote = {Keywords: scheduling, approximation algorithms, stochastic machines, makespan, max-min fair allocation, dynamic programming} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

We study the geometric knapsack problem in which we are given a set of d-dimensional objects (each with associated profits) and the goal is to find the maximum profit subset that can be packed non-overlappingly into a given d-dimensional (unit hypercube) knapsack. Even if d = 2 and all input objects are disks, this problem is known to be NP-hard [Demaine, Fekete, Lang, 2010]. In this paper, we give polynomial time (1+ε)-approximation algorithms for the following types of input objects in any constant dimension d:
- disks and hyperspheres,
- a class of fat convex polygons that generalizes regular k-gons for k ≥ 5 (formally, polygons with a constant number of edges, whose lengths are in a bounded range, and in which each angle is strictly larger than π/2),
- arbitrary fat convex objects that are sufficiently small compared to the knapsack. We remark that in our PTAS for disks and hyperspheres, we output the computed set of objects, but for a O_ε(1) of them we determine their coordinates only up to an exponentially small error. However, it is not clear whether there always exists a (1+ε)-approximate solution that uses only rational coordinates for the disks' centers. We leave this as an open problem which is related to well-studied geometric questions in the realm of circle packing.

Pritam Acharya, Sujoy Bhore, Aaryan Gupta, Arindam Khan, Bratin Mondal, and Andreas Wiese. Approximation Schemes for Geometric Knapsack for Packing Spheres and Fat Objects. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 8:1-8:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{acharya_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.8, author = {Acharya, Pritam and Bhore, Sujoy and Gupta, Aaryan and Khan, Arindam and Mondal, Bratin and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Approximation Schemes for Geometric Knapsack for Packing Spheres and Fat Objects}}, booktitle = {51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)}, pages = {8:1--8:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-322-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {297}, editor = {Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201511}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.8}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Polygon Packing, Circle Packing, Sphere Packing, Geometric Knapsack, Resource Augmentation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 293, 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)

One important goal in algorithm design is determining the best running time for solving a problem (approximately). For some problems, we know the optimal running time, assuming certain conditional lower bounds. In this paper, we study the d-dimensional geometric knapsack problem in which we are far from this level of understanding. We are given a set of weighted d-dimensional geometric items like squares, rectangles, or hypercubes and a knapsack which is a square or a (hyper-)cube. Our goal is to select a subset of the given items that fit non-overlappingly inside the knapsack, maximizing the total profit of the packed items. We make a significant step towards determining the best running time for solving these problems approximately by presenting approximation algorithms whose running times are near-linear, i.e., O(n⋅poly(log n)), for any constant d and any parameter ε > 0 (the exponent of log n depends on d and 1/ε).
In the case of (hyper)-cubes, we present a (1+ε)-approximation algorithm. This improves drastically upon the currently best known algorithm which is a (1+ε)-approximation algorithm with a running time of n^{O_{ε,d}(1)} where the exponent of n depends exponentially on 1/ε and d. In particular, our algorithm is an efficient polynomial time approximation scheme (EPTAS). Moreover, we present a (2+ε)-approximation algorithm for rectangles in the setting without rotations and a (17/9+ε)≈ 1.89-approximation algorithm if we allow rotations by 90 degrees. The best known polynomial time algorithms for this setting have approximation ratios of 17/9+ε and 1.5+ε, respectively, and running times in which the exponent of n depends exponentially on 1/ε. In addition, we give dynamic algorithms with polylogarithmic query and update times, having the same approximation guarantees as our other algorithms above.
Key to our results is a new family of structured packings which we call easily guessable packings. They are flexible enough to guarantee the existence of profitable solutions while providing enough structure so that we can compute these solutions very quickly.

Moritz Buchem, Paul Deuker, and Andreas Wiese. Approximating the Geometric Knapsack Problem in Near-Linear Time and Dynamically. In 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 293, pp. 26:1-26:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{buchem_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.26, author = {Buchem, Moritz and Deuker, Paul and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Approximating the Geometric Knapsack Problem in Near-Linear Time and Dynamically}}, booktitle = {40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)}, pages = {26:1--26:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-316-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {293}, editor = {Mulzer, Wolfgang and Phillips, Jeff M.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-199716}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.26}, annote = {Keywords: Geometric packing, approximation algorithms, dynamic algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)

We study routing problems of a convoy in a graph, generalizing the shortest path problem (SPP), the travelling salesperson problem (TSP), and the Chinese postman problem (CPP) which are all well-studied in the classical (non-convoy) setting. We assume that each edge in the graph has a length and a speed at which it can be traversed and that our convoy has a given length. While the convoy moves through the graph, parts of it can be located on different edges. For safety requirements, at all time the whole convoy needs to travel at the same speed which is dictated by the slowest edge on which currently a part of the convoy is located. For Convoy-SPP, we give a strongly polynomial time exact algorithm. For Convoy-TSP, we provide an O(log n)-approximation algorithm and an O(1)-approximation algorithm for trees. Both results carry over to Convoy-CPP which - maybe surprisingly - we prove to be NP-hard in the convoy setting. This contrasts the non-convoy setting in which the problem is polynomial time solvable.

Martijn van Ee, Tim Oosterwijk, René Sitters, and Andreas Wiese. Exact and Approximation Algorithms for Routing a Convoy Through a Graph. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 86:1-86:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{vanee_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.86, author = {van Ee, Martijn and Oosterwijk, Tim and Sitters, Ren\'{e} and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Exact and Approximation Algorithms for Routing a Convoy Through a Graph}}, booktitle = {48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)}, pages = {86:1--86:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-292-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {272}, editor = {Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.86}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186205}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.86}, annote = {Keywords: approximation algorithms, convoy routing, shortest path problem, traveling salesperson problem} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 258, 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)

Set cover and hitting set are fundamental problems in combinatorial optimization which are well-studied in the offline, online, and dynamic settings. We study the geometric versions of these problems and present new online and dynamic algorithms for them. In the online version of set cover (resp. hitting set), m sets (resp. n points) are given and n points (resp. m sets) arrive online, one-by-one. In the dynamic versions, points (resp. sets) can arrive as well as depart. Our goal is to maintain a set cover (resp. hitting set), minimizing the size of the computed solution.
For online set cover for (axis-parallel) squares of arbitrary sizes, we present a tight O(log n)-competitive algorithm. In the same setting for hitting set, we provide a tight O(log N)-competitive algorithm, assuming that all points have integral coordinates in [0,N)². No online algorithm had been known for either of these settings, not even for unit squares (apart from the known online algorithms for arbitrary set systems).
For both dynamic set cover and hitting set with d-dimensional hyperrectangles, we obtain (log m)^O(d)-approximation algorithms with (log m)^O(d) worst-case update time. This partially answers an open question posed by Chan et al. [SODA'22]. Previously, no dynamic algorithms with polylogarithmic update time were known even in the setting of squares (for either of these problems). Our main technical contributions are an extended quad-tree approach and a frequency reduction technique that reduces geometric set cover instances to instances of general set cover with bounded frequency.

Arindam Khan, Aditya Lonkar, Saladi Rahul, Aditya Subramanian, and Andreas Wiese. Online and Dynamic Algorithms for Geometric Set Cover and Hitting Set. In 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 258, pp. 46:1-46:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{khan_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.46, author = {Khan, Arindam and Lonkar, Aditya and Rahul, Saladi and Subramanian, Aditya and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Online and Dynamic Algorithms for Geometric Set Cover and Hitting Set}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)}, pages = {46:1--46:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-273-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {258}, editor = {Chambers, Erin W. and Gudmundsson, Joachim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.46}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178967}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.46}, annote = {Keywords: Geometric Set Cover, Hitting Set, Rectangles, Squares, Hyperrectangles, Online Algorithms, Dynamic Data Structures} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

We study the classical scheduling problem of minimizing the makespan of a set of unit size jobs with precedence constraints on parallel identical machines. Research on the problem dates back to the landmark paper by Graham from 1966 who showed that the simple List Scheduling algorithm is a (2-1/m)-approximation. Interestingly, it is open whether the problem is NP-hard if m = 3 which is one of the few remaining open problems in the seminal book by Garey and Johnson. Recently, quite some progress has been made for the setting that m is a constant. In a break-through paper, Levey and Rothvoss presented a (1+ε)-approximation with a running time of n^{(log n)^{O((m²/ε²)log log n)}} [STOC 2016, SICOMP 2019] and this running time was improved to quasi-polynomial by Garg [ICALP 2018] and to even n^O_{m,ε}(log³log n) by Li [SODA 2021]. These results use techniques like LP-hierarchies, conditioning on certain well-selected jobs, and abstractions like (partial) dyadic systems and virtually valid schedules.
In this paper, we present a QPTAS for the problem which is arguably simpler than the previous algorithms. We just guess the positions of certain jobs in the optimal solution, recurse on a set of guessed subintervals, and fill in the remaining jobs with greedy routines. We believe that also our analysis is more accessible, in particular since we do not use (LP-)hierarchies or abstractions of the problem like the ones above, but we guess properties of the optimal solution directly.

Syamantak Das and Andreas Wiese. A Simpler QPTAS for Scheduling Jobs with Precedence Constraints. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 40:1-40:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{das_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.40, author = {Das, Syamantak and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{A Simpler QPTAS for Scheduling Jobs with Precedence Constraints}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {40:1--40:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-169782}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.40}, annote = {Keywords: makespan minimization, precedence constraints, QPTAS} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

We study Round-UFP and Round-SAP, two generalizations of the classical Bin Packing problem that correspond to the unsplittable flow problem on a path (UFP) and the storage allocation problem (SAP), respectively. We are given a path with capacities on its edges and a set of jobs where for each job we are given a demand and a subpath. In Round-UFP, the goal is to find a packing of all jobs into a minimum number of copies (rounds) of the given path such that for each copy, the total demand of jobs on any edge does not exceed the capacity of the respective edge. In Round-SAP, the jobs are considered to be rectangles and the goal is to find a non-overlapping packing of these rectangles into a minimum number of rounds such that all rectangles lie completely below the capacity profile of the edges.
We show that in contrast to Bin Packing, both problems do not admit an asymptotic polynomial-time approximation scheme (APTAS), even when all edge capacities are equal. However, for this setting, we obtain asymptotic (2+ε)-approximations for both problems. For the general case, we obtain an O(log log n)-approximation algorithm and an O(log log 1/δ)-approximation under (1+δ)-resource augmentation for both problems. For the intermediate setting of the no bottleneck assumption (i.e., the maximum job demand is at most the minimum edge capacity), we obtain an absolute 12- and an asymptotic (16+ε)-approximation algorithm for Round-UFP and Round-SAP, respectively.

Debajyoti Kar, Arindam Khan, and Andreas Wiese. Approximation Algorithms for Round-UFP and Round-SAP. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 71:1-71:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{kar_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.71, author = {Kar, Debajyoti and Khan, Arindam and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Approximation Algorithms for Round-UFP and Round-SAP}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {71:1--71:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.71}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-170098}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.71}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Scheduling, Rectangle Packing} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

In the Strip Packing problem (SP), we are given a vertical half-strip [0,W]×[0,∞) and a set of n axis-aligned rectangles of width at most W. The goal is to find a non-overlapping packing of all rectangles into the strip such that the height of the packing is minimized. A well-studied and frequently used practical constraint is to allow only those packings that are guillotine separable, i.e., every rectangle in the packing can be obtained by recursively applying a sequence of edge-to-edge axis-parallel cuts (guillotine cuts) that do not intersect any item of the solution. In this paper, we study approximation algorithms for the Guillotine Strip Packing problem (GSP), i.e., the Strip Packing problem where we require additionally that the packing needs to be guillotine separable. This problem generalizes the classical Bin Packing problem and also makespan minimization on identical machines, and thus it is already strongly NP-hard. Moreover, due to a reduction from the Partition problem, it is NP-hard to obtain a polynomial-time (3/2-ε)-approximation algorithm for GSP for any ε > 0 (exactly as Strip Packing). We provide a matching polynomial time (3/2+ε)-approximation algorithm for GSP. Furthermore, we present a pseudo-polynomial time (1+ε)-approximation algorithm for GSP. This is surprising as it is NP-hard to obtain a (5/4-ε)-approximation algorithm for (general) Strip Packing in pseudo-polynomial time. Thus, our results essentially settle the approximability of GSP for both the polynomial and the pseudo-polynomial settings.

Arindam Khan, Aditya Lonkar, Arnab Maiti, Amatya Sharma, and Andreas Wiese. Tight Approximation Algorithms for Two-Dimensional Guillotine Strip Packing. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 80:1-80:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{khan_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.80, author = {Khan, Arindam and Lonkar, Aditya and Maiti, Arnab and Sharma, Amatya and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Tight Approximation Algorithms for Two-Dimensional Guillotine Strip Packing}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {80:1--80:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.80}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164215}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.80}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Two-Dimensional Packing, Rectangle Packing, Guillotine Cuts, Computational Geometry} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)

Knapsack problems are among the most fundamental problems in optimization. In the Multiple Knapsack problem, we are given multiple knapsacks with different capacities and items with values and sizes. The task is to find a subset of items of maximum total value that can be packed into the knapsacks without exceeding the capacities. We investigate this problem and special cases thereof in the context of dynamic algorithms and design data structures that efficiently maintain near-optimal knapsack solutions for dynamically changing input. More precisely, we handle the arrival and departure of individual items or knapsacks during the execution of the algorithm with worst-case update time polylogarithmic in the number of items. As the optimal and any approximate solution may change drastically, we maintain implicit solutions and support polylogarithmic time query operations that can return the computed solution value and the packing of any given item.
While dynamic algorithms are well-studied in the context of graph problems, there is hardly any work on packing problems (and generally much less on non-graph problems). Motivated by the theoretical interest in knapsack problems and their practical relevance, our work bridges this gap.

Franziska Eberle, Nicole Megow, Lukas Nölke, Bertrand Simon, and Andreas Wiese. Fully Dynamic Algorithms for Knapsack Problems with Polylogarithmic Update Time. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 18:1-18:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{eberle_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.18, author = {Eberle, Franziska and Megow, Nicole and N\"{o}lke, Lukas and Simon, Bertrand and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Fully Dynamic Algorithms for Knapsack Problems with Polylogarithmic Update Time}}, booktitle = {41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)}, pages = {18:1--18:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-215-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {213}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155297}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.18}, annote = {Keywords: Fully dynamic algorithms, knapsack problem, approximation schemes} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 204, 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)

Unsplittable flow on a path (UFP) is an important and well-studied problem. We are given a path with capacities on its edges, and a set of tasks where for each task we are given a demand, a subpath, and a weight. The goal is to select the set of tasks of maximum total weight whose total demands do not exceed the capacity on any edge. UFP admits an (1+ε)-approximation with a running time of n^{O_{ε}(poly(log n))}, i.e., a QPTAS {[}Bansal et al., STOC 2006; Batra et al., SODA 2015{]} and it is considered an important open problem to construct a PTAS. To this end, in a series of papers polynomial time approximation algorithms have been developed, which culminated in a (5/3+ε)-approximation {[}Grandoni et al., STOC 2018{]} and very recently an approximation ratio of (1+1/(e+1)+ε) < 1.269 {[}Grandoni et al., 2020{]}. In this paper, we address the search for a PTAS from a different angle: we present a faster (1+ε)-approximation with a running time of only n^{O_{ε}(log log n)}. We first give such a result in the relaxed setting of resource augmentation and then transform it to an algorithm without resource augmentation. For this, we present a framework which transforms algorithms for (a slight generalization of) UFP under resource augmentation in a black-box manner into algorithms for UFP without resource augmentation, with only negligible loss.

Fabrizio Grandoni, Tobias Mömke, and Andreas Wiese. Faster (1+ε)-Approximation for Unsplittable Flow on a Path via Resource Augmentation and Back. In 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 204, pp. 49:1-49:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{grandoni_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2021.49, author = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and M\"{o}mke, Tobias and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Faster (1+\epsilon)-Approximation for Unsplittable Flow on a Path via Resource Augmentation and Back}}, booktitle = {29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)}, pages = {49:1--49:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-204-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {204}, editor = {Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.49}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146301}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.49}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Unsplittable Flow, Dynamic Programming} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 204, 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)

We study the unsplittable flow on trees (UFT) problem in which we are given a tree with capacities on its edges and a set of tasks, where each task is described by a path and a demand. Our goal is to select a subset of the given tasks of maximum size such that the demands of the selected tasks respect the edge capacities. The problem models throughput maximization in tree networks. The best known approximation ratio for (unweighted) UFT is O(log n). We study the problem under the angle of FPT and FPT-approximation algorithms. We prove that
- UFT is FPT if the parameters are the cardinality k of the desired solution and the number of different task demands in the input,
- UFT is FPT under (1+δ)-resource augmentation of the edge capacities for parameters k and 1/δ, and
- UFT admits an FPT-5-approximation algorithm for parameter k. One key to our results is to compute structured hitting sets of the input edges which partition the given tree into O(k) clean components. This allows us to guess important properties of the optimal solution. Also, in some settings we can compute core sets of subsets of tasks out of which at least one task i is contained in the optimal solution. These sets have bounded size, and hence we can guess this task i easily.
A consequence of our results is that the integral multicommodity flow problem on trees is FPT if the parameter is the desired amount of sent flow. Also, even under (1+δ)-resource augmentation UFT is APX-hard, and hence our FPT-approximation algorithm for this setting breaks this boundary.

Tomás Martínez-Muñoz and Andreas Wiese. FPT and FPT-Approximation Algorithms for Unsplittable Flow on Trees. In 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 204, pp. 67:1-67:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{martinezmunoz_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2021.67, author = {Mart{\'\i}nez-Mu\~{n}oz, Tom\'{a}s and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{FPT and FPT-Approximation Algorithms for Unsplittable Flow on Trees}}, booktitle = {29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)}, pages = {67:1--67:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-204-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {204}, editor = {Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.67}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146486}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.67}, annote = {Keywords: FPT algorithms, FPT-approximation algorithms, packing problems, unsplittable flow, trees} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

We formalize the concept of additive approximation schemes and apply it to load balancing problems on identical machines. Additive approximation schemes compute a solution with an absolute error in the objective of at most ε h for some suitable parameter h and any given ε > 0. We consider the problem of assigning jobs to identical machines with respect to common load balancing objectives like makespan minimization, the Santa Claus problem (on identical machines), and the envy-minimizing Santa Claus problem. For these settings we present additive approximation schemes for h = p_{max}, the maximum processing time of the jobs.
Our technical contribution is two-fold. First, we introduce a new relaxation based on integrally assigning slots to machines and fractionally assigning jobs to the slots. We refer to this relaxation as the slot-MILP. While it has a linear number of integral variables, we identify structural properties of (near-)optimal solutions, which allow us to compute those in polynomial time. The second technical contribution is a local-search algorithm which rounds any given solution to the slot-MILP, introducing an additive error on the machine loads of at most ε⋅ p_{max}.

Moritz Buchem, Lars Rohwedder, Tjark Vredeveld, and Andreas Wiese. Additive Approximation Schemes for Load Balancing Problems. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 42:1-42:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{buchem_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.42, author = {Buchem, Moritz and Rohwedder, Lars and Vredeveld, Tjark and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Additive Approximation Schemes for Load Balancing Problems}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {42:1--42:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.42}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141116}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.42}, annote = {Keywords: Load balancing, Approximation schemes, Parallel machine scheduling} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 189, 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)

In the 2-Dimensional Knapsack problem (2DK) we are given a square knapsack and a collection of n rectangular items with integer sizes and profits. Our goal is to find the most profitable subset of items that can be packed non-overlappingly into the knapsack. The currently best known polynomial-time approximation factor for 2DK is 17/9+ε < 1.89 and there is a (3/2+ε)-approximation algorithm if we are allowed to rotate items by 90 degrees [Gálvez et al., FOCS 2017]. In this paper, we give (4/3+ε)-approximation algorithms in polynomial time for both cases, assuming that all input data are integers polynomially bounded in n.
Gálvez et al.’s algorithm for 2DK partitions the knapsack into a constant number of rectangular regions plus one L-shaped region and packs items into those in a structured way. We generalize this approach by allowing up to a constant number of more general regions that can have the shape of an L, a U, a Z, a spiral, and more, and therefore obtain an improved approximation ratio. In particular, we present an algorithm that computes the essentially optimal structured packing into these regions.

Waldo Gálvez, Fabrizio Grandoni, Arindam Khan, Diego Ramírez-Romero, and Andreas Wiese. Improved Approximation Algorithms for 2-Dimensional Knapsack: Packing into Multiple L-Shapes, Spirals, and More. In 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 189, pp. 39:1-39:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{galvez_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.39, author = {G\'{a}lvez, Waldo and Grandoni, Fabrizio and Khan, Arindam and Ram{\'\i}rez-Romero, Diego and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Improved Approximation Algorithms for 2-Dimensional Knapsack: Packing into Multiple L-Shapes, Spirals, and More}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)}, pages = {39:1--39:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-184-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {189}, editor = {Buchin, Kevin and Colin de Verdi\`{e}re, \'{E}ric}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-138386}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.39}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation algorithms, two-dimensional knapsack, geometric packing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 189, 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)

In two-dimensional geometric knapsack problem, we are given a set of n axis-aligned rectangular items and an axis-aligned square-shaped knapsack. Each item has integral width, integral height and an associated integral profit. The goal is to find a (non-overlapping axis-aligned) packing of a maximum profit subset of rectangles into the knapsack. A well-studied and frequently used constraint in practice is to allow only packings that are guillotine separable, i.e., every rectangle in the packing can be obtained by recursively applying a sequence of edge-to-edge axis-parallel cuts that do not intersect any item of the solution. In this paper we study approximation algorithms for the geometric knapsack problem under guillotine cut constraints. We present polynomial time (1+ε)-approximation algorithms for the cases with and without allowing rotations by 90 degrees, assuming that all input numeric data are polynomially bounded in n. In comparison, the best-known approximation factor for this setting is 3+ε [Jansen-Zhang, SODA 2004], even in the cardinality case where all items have the same profit.
Our main technical contribution is a structural lemma which shows that any guillotine packing can be converted into another structured guillotine packing with almost the same profit. In this packing, each item is completely contained in one of a constant number of boxes and 𝖫-shaped regions, inside which the items are placed by a simple greedy routine. In particular, we provide a clean sufficient condition when such a packing obeys the guillotine cut constraints which might be useful for other settings where these constraints are imposed.

Arindam Khan, Arnab Maiti, Amatya Sharma, and Andreas Wiese. On Guillotine Separable Packings for the Two-Dimensional Geometric Knapsack Problem. In 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 189, pp. 48:1-48:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{khan_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.48, author = {Khan, Arindam and Maiti, Arnab and Sharma, Amatya and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{On Guillotine Separable Packings for the Two-Dimensional Geometric Knapsack Problem}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)}, pages = {48:1--48:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-184-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {189}, editor = {Buchin, Kevin and Colin de Verdi\`{e}re, \'{E}ric}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.48}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-138474}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.48}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Multidimensional Knapsack, Guillotine Cuts, Geometric Packing, Rectangle Packing} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

We study the two-dimensional geometric knapsack problem for convex polygons. Given a set of weighted convex polygons and a square knapsack, the goal is to select the most profitable subset of the given polygons that fits non-overlappingly into the knapsack. We allow to rotate the polygons by arbitrary angles. We present a quasi-polynomial time O(1)-approximation algorithm for the general case and a polynomial time O(1)-approximation algorithm if all input polygons are triangles, both assuming polynomially bounded integral input data. Also, we give a quasi-polynomial time algorithm that computes a solution of optimal weight under resource augmentation, i.e., we allow to increase the size of the knapsack by a factor of 1+δ for some δ > 0 but compare ourselves with the optimal solution for the original knapsack. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results for two-dimensional geometric knapsack in which the input objects are more general than axis-parallel rectangles or circles and in which the input polygons can be rotated by arbitrary angles.

Arturo Merino and Andreas Wiese. On the Two-Dimensional Knapsack Problem for Convex Polygons. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 84:1-84:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{merino_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.84, author = {Merino, Arturo and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{On the Two-Dimensional Knapsack Problem for Convex Polygons}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {84:1--84:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.84}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124916}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.84}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation algorithms, geometric knapsack problem, polygons, rotation} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

Packing problems are an important class of optimization problems. The probably most well-known problem if this type is knapsack and many generalizations of it have been studied in the literature like Two-dimensional Geometric Knapsack (2DKP) and Unsplittable Flow on a Path (UFP). For the latter two problems, recently the first polynomial time approximation algorithms with better approximation ratios than 2 were presented [Gálvez et al., FOCS 2017][Grandoni et al., STOC 2018]. In this paper we break the barrier of 2 for the Storage Allocation Problem (SAP), a problem which combines properties of 2DKP and UFP. In SAP, we are given a path with capacitated edges and a set of tasks where each task has a start vertex, an end vertex, a size, and a profit. We seek to select the most profitable set of tasks that we can draw as non-overlapping rectangles underneath the capacity profile of the edges where the height of each rectangle equals the size of the corresponding task.
The problem SAP appears naturally in settings of allocating resources like memory, bandwidth, etc. where each request needs a contiguous portion of the resource. The best known polynomial time approximation algorithm for SAP has an approximation ratio of 2+ε [Mömke and Wiese, ICALP 2015] and no better quasi-polynomial time algorithm is known. We present a polynomial time (63/32+ε) < 1.969-approximation algorithm for the important case of uniform edge capacities and a quasi-polynomial time (1.997+ε)-approximation algorithm for non-uniform quasi-polynomially bounded edge capacities. Key to our results are building blocks consisting of stair-blocks, jammed tasks, and boxes that we use to construct profitable solutions and which allow us to compute solutions of these types efficiently. Finally, using our techniques we show that under slight resource augmentation we can obtain even approximation ratios of 3/2+ε in polynomial time and 1+ε in quasi-polynomial time, both for arbitrary edge capacities.

Tobias Mömke and Andreas Wiese. Breaking the Barrier of 2 for the Storage Allocation Problem. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 86:1-86:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{momke_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.86, author = {M\"{o}mke, Tobias and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Breaking the Barrier of 2 for the Storage Allocation Problem}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {86:1--86:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.86}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124931}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.86}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Resource Allocation, Dynamic Programming} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 164, 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)

Independent set is a fundamental problem in combinatorial optimization. While in general graphs the problem is essentially inapproximable, for many important graph classes there are approximation algorithms known in the offline setting. These graph classes include interval graphs and geometric intersection graphs, where vertices correspond to intervals/geometric objects and an edge indicates that the two corresponding objects intersect.
We present dynamic approximation algorithms for independent set of intervals, hypercubes and hyperrectangles in d dimensions. They work in the fully dynamic model where each update inserts or deletes a geometric object. All our algorithms are deterministic and have worst-case update times that are polylogarithmic for constant d and ε>0, assuming that the coordinates of all input objects are in [0, N]^d and each of their edges has length at least 1. We obtain the following results:
- For weighted intervals, we maintain a (1+ε)-approximate solution.
- For d-dimensional hypercubes we maintain a (1+ε)2^d-approximate solution in the unweighted case and a O(2^d)-approximate solution in the weighted case. Also, we show that for maintaining an unweighted (1+ε)-approximate solution one needs polynomial update time for d ≥ 2 if the ETH holds.
- For weighted d-dimensional hyperrectangles we present a dynamic algorithm with approximation ratio (1+ε)log^{d-1}N.

Monika Henzinger, Stefan Neumann, and Andreas Wiese. Dynamic Approximate Maximum Independent Set of Intervals, Hypercubes and Hyperrectangles. In 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 164, pp. 51:1-51:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{henzinger_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.51, author = {Henzinger, Monika and Neumann, Stefan and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Dynamic Approximate Maximum Independent Set of Intervals, Hypercubes and Hyperrectangles}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)}, pages = {51:1--51:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-143-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {164}, editor = {Cabello, Sergio and Chen, Danny Z.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.51}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-122094}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.51}, annote = {Keywords: Dynamic algorithms, independent set, approximation algorithms, interval graphs, geometric intersection graphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 154, 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)

The Unsplittable Flow Cover problem (UFP-cover) models the well-studied general caching problem and various natural resource allocation settings. We are given a path with a demand on each edge and a set of tasks, each task being defined by a subpath and a size. The goal is to select a subset of the tasks of minimum cardinality such that on each edge e the total size of the selected tasks using e is at least the demand of e. There is a polynomial time 4-approximation for the problem [Bar-Noy et al., STOC 2000] and also a QPTAS [Höhn et al., ICALP 2014]. In this paper we study fixed-parameter algorithms for the problem. We show that it is W[1]-hard but it becomes FPT if we can slightly violate the edge demands (resource augmentation) and also if there are at most k different task sizes. Then we present a parameterized approximation scheme (PAS), i.e., an algorithm with a running time of f(k)⋅ n^O_ε(1) that outputs a solution with at most (1+ε)k tasks or assert that there is no solution with at most k tasks. In this algorithm we use a new trick that intuitively allows us to pretend that we can select tasks from OPT multiple times.

Andrés Cristi, Mathieu Mari, and Andreas Wiese. Fixed-Parameter Algorithms for Unsplittable Flow Cover. In 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 154, pp. 42:1-42:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{cristi_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2020.42, author = {Cristi, Andr\'{e}s and Mari, Mathieu and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Fixed-Parameter Algorithms for Unsplittable Flow Cover}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)}, pages = {42:1--42:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-140-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {154}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Bl\"{a}ser, Markus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.42}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-119037}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.42}, annote = {Keywords: Unsplittable Flow Cover, fixed parameter algorithms, approximation algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 154, 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)

In the Unsplittable Flow on a Path Cover (UFP-cover) problem we are given a path with a demand for each edge and a set of tasks where each task is defined by a subpath, a size and a cost. The goal is to select a subset of the tasks of minimum cost that together cover the demand of each edge. This problem models various resource allocation settings and also the general caching problem. The best known polynomial time approximation ratio for it is 4 [Bar-Noy et al., STOC 2000]. In this paper, we study the resource augmentation setting in which we need to cover only a slightly smaller demand on each edge than the compared optimal solution. If the cost of each task equals its size (which represents the natural bit-model in the related general caching problem) we provide a polynomial time algorithm that computes a solution of optimal cost. We extend this result to general caching and to the packing version of Unsplittable Flow on a Path in their respective natural resource augmentation settings. For the case that the cost of each task equals its "area", i.e., the product of its size and its path length, we present a polynomial time (1+ε)-approximation for UFP-cover. If additionally the edge capacities are in a constant range we compute even a solution of optimal cost and also obtain a PTAS without resource augmentation.

Andrés Cristi and Andreas Wiese. Better Approximations for General Caching and UFP-Cover Under Resource Augmentation. In 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 154, pp. 44:1-44:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{cristi_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2020.44, author = {Cristi, Andr\'{e}s and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Better Approximations for General Caching and UFP-Cover Under Resource Augmentation}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)}, pages = {44:1--44:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-140-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {154}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Bl\"{a}ser, Markus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.44}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-119053}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.44}, annote = {Keywords: General caching, unsplittable flow cover, approximation algorithm, resource augmentation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 144, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)

The area of parameterized approximation seeks to combine approximation and parameterized algorithms to obtain, e.g., (1+epsilon)-approximations in f(k,epsilon)n^O(1) time where k is some parameter of the input. The goal is to overcome lower bounds from either of the areas. We obtain the following results on parameterized approximability:
- In the maximum independent set of rectangles problem (MISR) we are given a collection of n axis parallel rectangles in the plane. Our goal is to select a maximum-cardinality subset of pairwise non-overlapping rectangles. This problem is NP-hard and also W[1]-hard [Marx, ESA'05]. The best-known polynomial-time approximation factor is O(log log n) [Chalermsook and Chuzhoy, SODA'09] and it admits a QPTAS [Adamaszek and Wiese, FOCS'13; Chuzhoy and Ene, FOCS'16]. Here we present a parameterized approximation scheme (PAS) for MISR, i.e. an algorithm that, for any given constant epsilon>0 and integer k>0, in time f(k,epsilon)n^g(epsilon), either outputs a solution of size at least k/(1+epsilon), or declares that the optimum solution has size less than k.
- In the (2-dimensional) geometric knapsack problem (2DK) we are given an axis-aligned square knapsack and a collection of axis-aligned rectangles in the plane (items). Our goal is to translate a maximum cardinality subset of items into the knapsack so that the selected items do not overlap. In the version of 2DK with rotations (2DKR), we are allowed to rotate items by 90 degrees. Both variants are NP-hard, and the best-known polynomial-time approximation factor is 2+epsilon [Jansen and Zhang, SODA'04]. These problems admit a QPTAS for polynomially bounded item sizes [Adamaszek and Wiese, SODA'15]. We show that both variants are W[1]-hard. Furthermore, we present a PAS for 2DKR.
For all considered problems, getting time f(k,epsilon)n^O(1), rather than f(k,epsilon)n^g(epsilon), would give FPT time f'(k)n^O(1) exact algorithms by setting epsilon=1/(k+1), contradicting W[1]-hardness. Instead, for each fixed epsilon>0, our PASs give (1+epsilon)-approximate solutions in FPT time.
For both MISR and 2DKR our techniques also give rise to preprocessing algorithms that take n^g(epsilon) time and return a subset of at most k^g(epsilon) rectangles/items that contains a solution of size at least k/(1+epsilon) if a solution of size k exists. This is a special case of the recently introduced notion of a polynomial-size approximate kernelization scheme [Lokshtanov et al., STOC'17].

Fabrizio Grandoni, Stefan Kratsch, and Andreas Wiese. Parameterized Approximation Schemes for Independent Set of Rectangles and Geometric Knapsack. In 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 144, pp. 53:1-53:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{grandoni_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2019.53, author = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and Kratsch, Stefan and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Parameterized Approximation Schemes for Independent Set of Rectangles and Geometric Knapsack}}, booktitle = {27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)}, pages = {53:1--53:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-124-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {144}, editor = {Bender, Michael A. and Svensson, Ola and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111741}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.53}, annote = {Keywords: parameterized approximation, parameterized intractability, independent set of rectangles, geometric knapsack} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 144, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)

In the Highway problem, we are given a path with n edges (the highway), and a set of m drivers, each one characterized by a subpath and a budget. For a given assignment of edge prices (the tolls), the highway owner collects from each driver the total price of the associated path when it does not exceed drivers’s budget, and zero otherwise. The goal is to choose the prices to maximize the total profit. A PTAS is known for this (strongly NP-hard) problem [Grandoni,Rothvoss-SODA'11, SICOMP'16].
In this paper we study the limited supply generalization of Highway, that incorporates capacity constraints. Here the input also includes a capacity u_e >= 0 for each edge e; we need to select, among drivers that can afford the required price, a subset such that the number of drivers that use each edge e is at most u_e (and we get profit only from selected drivers). To the best of our knowledge, the only approximation algorithm known for this problem is a folklore O(log m) approximation based on a reduction to the related Unsplittable Flow on a Path problem (UFP). The main result of this paper is a PTAS for limited supply highway.
As a second contribution, we study a natural generalization of the problem where each driver i demands a different amount d_i of capacity. Using known techniques, it is not hard to derive a QPTAS for this problem. Here we present a PTAS for the case that drivers have uniform budgets. Finding a PTAS for non-uniform-demand limited supply highway is left as a challenging open problem.

Fabrizio Grandoni and Andreas Wiese. Packing Cars into Narrow Roads: PTASs for Limited Supply Highway. In 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 144, pp. 54:1-54:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{grandoni_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2019.54, author = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Packing Cars into Narrow Roads: PTASs for Limited Supply Highway}}, booktitle = {27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)}, pages = {54:1--54:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-124-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {144}, editor = {Bender, Michael A. and Svensson, Ola and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.54}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111751}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.54}, annote = {Keywords: approximation algorithms, pricing problems, highway problem, unsplittable flow on a path} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 112, 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)

We consider two optimization problems in planar graphs. In {Maximum Weight Independent Set of Objects} we are given a graph G and a family D of {objects}, each being a connected subgraph of G with a prescribed weight, and the task is to find a maximum-weight subfamily of D consisting of pairwise disjoint objects. In {Minimum Weight Distance Set Cover} we are given an edge-weighted graph G, two sets D,C of vertices of G, where vertices of D have prescribed weights, and a nonnegative radius r. The task is to find a minimum-weight subset of D such that every vertex of C is at distance at most r from some selected vertex. Via simple reductions, these two problems generalize a number of geometric optimization tasks, notably {Maximum Weight Independent Set} for polygons in the plane and {Weighted Geometric Set Cover} for unit disks and unit squares. We present {quasi-polynomial time approximation schemes} (QPTASs) for both of the above problems in planar graphs: given an accuracy parameter epsilon>0 we can compute a solution whose weight is within multiplicative factor of (1+epsilon) from the optimum in time 2^{poly(1/epsilon,log |D|)}* n^{O(1)}, where n is the number of vertices of the input graph. Our main technical contribution is to transfer the techniques used for recursive approximation schemes for geometric problems due to Adamaszek, Har-Peled, and Wiese [Adamaszek and Wiese, 2013; Adamaszek and Wiese, 2014; Sariel Har-Peled, 2014] to the setting of planar graphs. In particular, this yields a purely combinatorial viewpoint on these methods.

Michal Pilipczuk, Erik Jan van Leeuwen, and Andreas Wiese. Quasi-Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes for Packing and Covering Problems in Planar Graphs. In 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 112, pp. 65:1-65:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{pilipczuk_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2018.65, author = {Pilipczuk, Michal and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Quasi-Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes for Packing and Covering Problems in Planar Graphs}}, booktitle = {26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)}, pages = {65:1--65:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-081-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {112}, editor = {Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.65}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-95282}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.65}, annote = {Keywords: QPTAS, planar graphs, Voronoi diagram} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 116, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)

Given a set of n jobs with integral release dates, processing times and weights, it is a natural and important scheduling problem to compute a schedule that minimizes the sum of the weighted flow times of the jobs. There are strong lower bounds for the possible approximation ratios. In the non-preemptive case, even on a single machine the best known result is a O(sqrt{n})-approximation which is best possible. In the preemptive case on m identical machines there is a O(log min{n/m,P})-approximation (where P denotes the maximum job size) which is also best possible.
We study the problem in the parametrized setting where our parameter k is an upper bound on the maximum (integral) processing time and weight of a job, a standard parameter for scheduling problems. We present a (1+epsilon)-approximation algorithm for the preemptive and the non-preemptive case of minimizing weighted flow time on m machines with a running time of f(k,epsilon,m)* n^{O(1)}, i.e., our combined parameters are k,epsilon, and m. Key to our results is to distinguish time intervals according to whether in the optimal solution the pending jobs have large or small total weight. Depending on this we employ dynamic programming, linear programming, greedy routines, or combinations of the latter to compute the schedule for each respective interval.

Andreas Wiese. Fixed-Parameter Approximation Schemes for Weighted Flowtime. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 116, pp. 28:1-28:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{wiese:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.28, author = {Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Fixed-Parameter Approximation Schemes for Weighted Flowtime}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)}, pages = {28:1--28:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-085-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {116}, editor = {Blais, Eric and Jansen, Klaus and D. P. Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Steurer, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94326}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.28}, annote = {Keywords: Scheduling, fixed-parameter algorithms, approximation algorithms, approximation schemes} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 83, 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)

Consider the Maximum Weight Independent Set problem for rectangles: given a family of weighted axis-parallel rectangles in the plane, find a maximum-weight subset of non-overlapping rectangles. The problem is notoriously hard both in the approximation and in the parameterized setting. The best known polynomial-time approximation algorithms achieve super-constant approximation ratios [Chalermsook & Chuzhoy, Proc. SODA 2009; Chan & Har-Peled, Discrete & Comp. Geometry, 2012], even though there is a (1+epsilon)-approximation running in quasi-polynomial time [Adamaszek & Wiese, Proc. FOCS 2013; Chuzhoy & Ene, Proc. FOCS 2016]. When parameterized by the target size of the solution, the problem is W[1]-hard even in the unweighted setting [Marx, ESA 2005].
To achieve tractability, we study the following shrinking model: one is allowed to shrink each input rectangle by a multiplicative factor 1-delta for some fixed delta > 0, but the performance is still compared against the optimal solution for the original, non-shrunk instance. We prove that in this regime, the problem admits an EPTAS with running time f(epsilon,delta) n^{O(1)}, and an FPT algorithm with running time f(k,delta) n^{O(1)}, in the setting where a maximum-weight solution of size at most k is to be computed. This improves and significantly simplifies a PTAS given earlier for this problem [Adamaszek, Chalermsook & Wiese, Proc. APPROX/RANDOM 2015], and provides the first parameterized results for the shrinking model. Furthermore, we explore kernelization in the shrinking model, by giving efficient kernelization procedures for several variants of the problem when the input rectangles are squares.

Michal Pilipczuk, Erik Jan van Leeuwen, and Andreas Wiese. Approximation and Parameterized Algorithms for Geometric Independent Set with Shrinking. In 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 83, pp. 42:1-42:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{pilipczuk_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.42, author = {Pilipczuk, Michal and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Approximation and Parameterized Algorithms for Geometric Independent Set with Shrinking}}, booktitle = {42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)}, pages = {42:1--42:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-046-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {83}, editor = {Larsen, Kim G. and Bodlaender, Hans L. and Raskin, Jean-Francois}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.42}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-80917}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.42}, annote = {Keywords: Combinatorial optimization, Approximation algorithms, Fixed-parameter algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 87, 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)

We study the classical scheduling problem of assigning jobs to machines in order to minimize the makespan. It is well-studied and admits an EPTAS on identical machines and a (2-1/m)-approximation algorithm on unrelated machines. In this paper we study a variation in which the input jobs are partitioned into bags and no two jobs from the same bag are allowed to be assigned on the same machine. Such a constraint can easily arise, e.g., due to system stability and redundancy considerations. Unfortunately, as we demonstrate in this paper, the techniques of the above results break down in the presence of these additional constraints.
Our first result is a PTAS for the case of identical machines. It enhances the methods from the known (E)PTASs by a finer classification of the input jobs and careful argumentations why a good schedule exists after enumerating over the large jobs. For unrelated machines, we prove that there can be no (log n)^{1/4-epsilon}-approximation algorithm for the problem for any epsilon > 0, assuming that NP nsubseteq ZPTIME(2^{(log n)^{O(1)}}). This holds even in the restricted assignment setting. However, we identify a special case of the latter in which we can do better: if the same set of machines we give an 8-approximation algorithm. It is based on rounding the LP-relaxation of the problem in phases and adjusting the residual fractional solution after each phase to order to respect the bag constraints.

Syamantak Das and Andreas Wiese. On Minimizing the Makespan When Some Jobs Cannot Be Assigned on the Same Machine. In 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 87, pp. 31:1-31:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{das_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2017.31, author = {Das, Syamantak and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{On Minimizing the Makespan When Some Jobs Cannot Be Assigned on the Same Machine}}, booktitle = {25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)}, pages = {31:1--31:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-049-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {87}, editor = {Pruhs, Kirk and Sohler, Christian}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-78453}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.31}, annote = {Keywords: approximation algorithms, scheduling, makespan minimization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

The General Scheduling Problem (GSP) generalizes scheduling problems with sum of cost objectives such as weighted flow time and weighted tardiness. Given a set of jobs with processing times, release dates, and job dependent cost functions, we seek to find a minimum cost preemptive schedule on a single machine. The best known algorithm for this problem and also for weighted flow time/tardiness is an O(loglog P)-approximation (where P denotes the range of the job processing times), while the best lower bound shows only strong NP-hardness. When release dates are identical there is also a gap: the problem remains strongly NP-hard and the best known approximation algorithm has a ratio of e+\epsilon (running in quasi-polynomial time). We reduce the latter gap by giving a QPTAS if the numbers in the input are quasi-polynomially bounded, ruling out the existence of an APX-hardness proof unless NP\subseteq DTIME(2^polylog(n)). Our techniques are based on the QPTAS known for the UFP-Cover problem, a particular case of GSP where we must pick a subset of intervals (jobs) on the real line with associated heights and costs. If an interval is selected, its height will help cover a given demand on any point contained within the interval. We reduce our problem to a generalization of UFP-Cover and use a sophisticated divide-and-conquer procedure with interdependent non-symmetric subproblems.
We also present a pseudo-polynomial time approximation scheme for two variants of UFP-Cover. For the case of agreeable intervals we give an algorithm based on a new dynamic programming approach which might be useful for other problems of this type. The second one is a resource augmentation setting where we are allowed to slightly enlarge each interval.

Antonios Antoniadis, Ruben Hoeksma, Julie Meißner, José Verschae, and Andreas Wiese. A QPTAS for the General Scheduling Problem with Identical Release Dates. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 31:1-31:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{antoniadis_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.31, author = {Antoniadis, Antonios and Hoeksma, Ruben and Mei{\ss}ner, Julie and Verschae, Jos\'{e} and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{A QPTAS for the General Scheduling Problem with Identical Release Dates}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {31:1--31:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74575}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.31}, annote = {Keywords: Generalized Scheduling, QPTAS, Unsplittable Flows} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

Unsplittable Flow on a Path (UFP) is a well-studied problem. It arises in many different settings such as bandwidth allocation, scheduling, and caching. We are given a path with capacities on the edges and a set of tasks, each of them is described by a start and an end vertex and a demand. The goal is to select as many tasks as possible such that the demand of the selected tasks using each edge does not exceed the capacity of this edge. The problem admits a QPTAS and the best known polynomial time result is a (2+epsilon)-approximation. As we prove in this paper, the problem is intractable for fixed-parameter algorithms since it is W[1]-hard. A PTAS seems difficult to construct.
However, we show that if we combine the paradigms of approximation algorithms and fixed-parameter tractability we can break the mentioned boundaries. We show that on instances with |OPT|=k we can compute a (1+epsilon)-approximation in time 2^O(k log k)n^O_epsilon(1) log(u_max) (where u_max is the maximum edge capacity).
To obtain this algorithm we develop new insights for UFP and enrich a recent dynamic programming framework for the problem. Our results yield a PTAS for (unweighted) UFP instances where |OPT| is at most O(log n/log log n) and they imply that the problem does not admit an EPTAS, unless W[1]=FPT.

Andreas Wiese. A (1+epsilon)-Approximation for Unsplittable Flow on a Path in Fixed-Parameter Running Time. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 67:1-67:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{wiese:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.67, author = {Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{A (1+epsilon)-Approximation for Unsplittable Flow on a Path in Fixed-Parameter Running Time}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {67:1--67:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.67}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74154}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.67}, annote = {Keywords: Combinatorial optimization, Approximation algorithms, Fixed-parameter algorithms, Unsplittable Flow on a Path} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 49, 8th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2016)

During the last twenty years, a lot of research was conducted on the sport elimination problem: Given a sports league and its remaining matches, we have to decide whether a given team can still possibly win the competition, i.e., place first in the league at the end. Previously, the computational complexity of this problem was investigated only for games with two participating teams per game. In this paper we consider Debating Tournaments and Debating Leagues in the British Parliamentary format, where four teams are participating in each game. We prove that it is NP-hard to decide whether a given team can win a Debating League, even if at most two matches are remaining for each team. This contrasts settings like football where two teams play in each game since there this case is still polynomial time solvable. We prove our result even for a fictitious restricted setting with only three teams per game. On the other hand, for the common setting of Debating Tournaments we show that this problem is fixed parameter tractable if the parameter is the number of remaining rounds k. This also holds for the practically very important question of whether a team can still qualify for the knock-out phase of the tournament and the combined parameter k+b where b denotes the threshold rank for qualifying. Finally, we show that the latter problem is polynomial time solvable for any constant k and arbitrary values b that are part of the input.

Stefan Neumann and Andreas Wiese. This House Proves That Debating is Harder Than Soccer. In 8th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 49, pp. 25:1-25:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{neumann_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2016.25, author = {Neumann, Stefan and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{This House Proves That Debating is Harder Than Soccer}}, booktitle = {8th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2016)}, pages = {25:1--25:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-005-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {49}, editor = {Demaine, Erik D. and Grandoni, Fabrizio}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2016.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58716}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2016.25}, annote = {Keywords: complexity, elimination games, soccer, debating} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 40, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)

Imagine a wooden plate with a set of non-overlapping geometric objects painted on it. How many of them can a carpenter cut out using a panel saw making guillotine cuts, i.e., only moving forward through the material along a straight line until it is split into two pieces? Already fifteen years ago, Pach and Tardos investigated whether one can always cut out a constant fraction if all objects are axis-parallel rectangles. However, even for the case of axis-parallel squares this question is still open. In this paper, we answer the latter affirmatively. Our result is constructive and holds even in a more general setting where the squares have weights and the goal is to save as much weight as possible. We further show that when solving the more general question for rectangles affirmatively with only axis-parallel cuts, this would yield a combinatorial O(1)-approximation algorithm for the Maximum Independent Set of Rectangles problem, and would thus solve a long-standing open problem. In practical applications, like the mentioned carpentry and many other settings, we can usually place the items freely that we want to cut out, which gives rise to the two-dimensional guillotine knapsack problem: Given a collection of axis-parallel rectangles without presumed coordinates, our goal is to place as many of them as possible in a square-shaped knapsack respecting the constraint that the placed objects can be separated by a sequence of guillotine cuts. Our main result for this problem is a quasi-PTAS, assuming the input data to be quasi-polynomially bounded integers. This factor matches the best known (quasi-polynomial time) result for (non-guillotine) two-dimensional knapsack.

Fidaa Abed, Parinya Chalermsook, José Correa, Andreas Karrenbauer, Pablo Pérez-Lantero, José A. Soto, and Andreas Wiese. On Guillotine Cutting Sequences. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 40, pp. 1-19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{abed_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.1, author = {Abed, Fidaa and Chalermsook, Parinya and Correa, Jos\'{e} and Karrenbauer, Andreas and P\'{e}rez-Lantero, Pablo and Soto, Jos\'{e} A. and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{On Guillotine Cutting Sequences}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)}, pages = {1--19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-89-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {40}, editor = {Garg, Naveen and Jansen, Klaus and Rao, Anup and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-52917}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.1}, annote = {Keywords: Guillotine cuts, Rectangles, Squares, Independent Sets, Packing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 40, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)

In the Maximum Weight Independent Set of Rectangles (MWISR) problem, we are given a collection of weighted axis-parallel rectangles in the plane. Our goal is to compute a maximum weight subset of pairwise non-overlapping rectangles. Due to its various applications, as well as connections to many other problems in computer science, MWISR has received a lot of attention from the computational geometry and the approximation algorithms community. However, despite being extensively studied, MWISR remains not very well understood in terms of polynomial time approximation algorithms, as there is a large gap between the upper and lower bounds, i.e., O(log n\ loglog n) v.s. NP-hardness. Another important, poorly understood question is whether one can color rectangles with at most O(omega(R)) colors where omega(R) is the size of a maximum clique in the intersection graph of a set of input rectangles R. Asplund and Grünbaum obtained an upper bound of O(omega(R)^2) about 50 years ago, and the result has remained asymptotically best. This question is strongly related to the integrality gap of the canonical LP for MWISR.
In this paper, we settle above three open problems in a relaxed model where we are allowed to shrink the rectangles by a tiny bit (rescaling them by a factor of 1-delta for an arbitrarily small constant delta > 0. Namely, in this model, we show (i) a PTAS for MWISR and (ii) a coloring with O(omega(R)) colors which implies a constant upper bound on the integrality gap of the canonical LP.
For some applications of MWISR the possibility to shrink the rectangles has a natural, well-motivated meaning. Our results can be seen as an evidence that the shrinking model is a promising way to relax a geometric problem for the purpose of better algorithmic results.

Anna Adamaszek, Parinya Chalermsook, and Andreas Wiese. How to Tame Rectangles: Solving Independent Set and Coloring of Rectangles via Shrinking. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 40, pp. 43-60, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{adamaszek_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.43, author = {Adamaszek, Anna and Chalermsook, Parinya and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{How to Tame Rectangles: Solving Independent Set and Coloring of Rectangles via Shrinking}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)}, pages = {43--60}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-89-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {40}, editor = {Garg, Naveen and Jansen, Klaus and Rao, Anup and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.43}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-52936}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.43}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation algorithms, independent set, resource augmentation, rectangle intersection graphs, PTAS} }

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**Published in:** Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 10071, Scheduling (2010)

We consider a real-time scheduling problem that occurs in the design
of software-based aircraft control. The goal is to distribute tasks
$ au_i=(c_i,p_i)$ on a minimum number of identical machines and to
compute offsets $a_i$ for the tasks such that no collision occurs. A
task $ au_i$ releases a job of running time $c_i$ at each time $a_i +
kcdot p_i, , k in mathbb{N}_0$ and a collision occurs if two jobs are
simultaneously active on the same machine.
We shed some light on the complexity and approximability landscape of this problem.
Although the problem cannot be approximated
within a factor of $n^{1-varepsilon}$ for any $varepsilon>0$, an interesting restriction
is much more tractable: If the periods are dividing (for each $i,j$ one has $p_i |
p_j$ or $p_j | p_i$), the problem allows for a better structured representation of solutions, which leads
to a 2-approximation. This result is tight, even asymptotically.

Friedrich Eisenbrand, Nicolai Hähnle, Martin Niemeier, Martin Skutella, Jose Verschae, and Andreas Wiese. Scheduling periodic tasks in a hard real-time environment. In Scheduling. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 10071, pp. 1-3, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2010)

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@InProceedings{eisenbrand_et_al:DagSemProc.10071.13, author = {Eisenbrand, Friedrich and H\"{a}hnle, Nicolai and Niemeier, Martin and Skutella, Martin and Verschae, Jose and Wiese, Andreas}, title = {{Scheduling periodic tasks in a hard real-time environment}}, booktitle = {Scheduling}, pages = {1--3}, series = {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)}, ISSN = {1862-4405}, year = {2010}, volume = {10071}, editor = {Susanne Albers and Sanjoy K. Baruah and Rolf H. M\"{o}hring and Kirk Pruhs}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.10071.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-25348}, doi = {10.4230/DagSemProc.10071.13}, annote = {Keywords: Real-Time Scheduling, Periodic scheduling problem, Periodic maintenance problem, Approximation hardness, Approximation algorithm} }

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