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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

Transaction fee mechanism design is a new decentralized mechanism design problem where users bid for space on the blockchain. Several recent works showed that the transaction fee mechanism design fundamentally departs from classical mechanism design. They then systematically explored the mathematical landscape of this new decentralized mechanism design problem in two settings: in the plain setting where no cryptography is employed, and in a cryptography-assisted setting where the rules of the mechanism are enforced by a multi-party computation protocol. Unfortunately, in both settings, prior works showed that if we want the mechanism to incentivize honest behavior for both users as well as miners (possibly colluding with users), then the miner revenue has to be zero. Although adopting a relaxed, approximate notion of incentive compatibility gets around this zero miner-revenue limitation, the scaling of the miner revenue is nonetheless poor.
In this paper, we show that if we make a mild reasonable-world assumption that there are sufficiently many honest users, we can circumvent the known limitations on miner revenue, and design auctions that generate asymptotically optimal miner revenue. We also systematically explore the mathematical landscape of transaction fee mechanism design under the new reasonable-world assumptions, and demonstrate how such assumptions can alter the feasibility and infeasibility landscape.

Ke Wu, Elaine Shi, and Hao Chung. Maximizing Miner Revenue in Transaction Fee Mechanism Design. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 98:1-98:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{wu_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.98, author = {Wu, Ke and Shi, Elaine and Chung, Hao}, title = {{Maximizing Miner Revenue in Transaction Fee Mechanism Design}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {98:1--98:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.98}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-196266}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.98}, annote = {Keywords: Blockchain, Mechanism Design, Transaction Fee} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

Recent works of Roughgarden (EC'21) and Chung and Shi (SODA'23) initiate the study of a new decentralized mechanism design problem called transaction fee mechanism design (TFM). Unlike the classical mechanism design literature, in the decentralized environment, even the auctioneer (i.e., the miner) can be a strategic player, and it can even collude with a subset of the users facilitated by binding side contracts. Chung and Shi showed two main impossibility results that rule out the existence of a dream TFM. First, any TFM that provides incentive compatibility for individual users and miner-user coalitions must always have zero miner revenue, no matter whether the block size is finite or infinite. Second, assuming finite block size, no non-trivial TFM can simultaneously provide incentive compatibility for any individual user and for any miner-user coalition.
In this work, we explore what new models and meaningful relaxations can allow us to circumvent the impossibility results of Chung and Shi. Besides today’s model that does not employ cryptography, we introduce a new MPC-assisted model where the TFM is implemented by a joint multi-party computation (MPC) protocol among the miners. We prove several feasibility and infeasibility results for achieving strict and approximate incentive compatibility, respectively, in the plain model as well as the MPC-assisted model. We show that while cryptography is not a panacea, it indeed allows us to overcome some impossibility results pertaining to the plain model, leading to non-trivial mechanisms with useful guarantees that are otherwise impossible in the plain model. Our work is also the first to characterize the mathematical landscape of transaction fee mechanism design under approximate incentive compatibility, as well as in a cryptography-assisted model.

Elaine Shi, Hao Chung, and Ke Wu. What Can Cryptography Do for Decentralized Mechanism Design?. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 97:1-97:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{shi_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.97, author = {Shi, Elaine and Chung, Hao and Wu, Ke}, title = {{What Can Cryptography Do for Decentralized Mechanism Design?}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {97:1--97:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.97}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-176005}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.97}, annote = {Keywords: Transaction Fee Mechanism Design} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

We consider the problem of designing low-redundancy codes in settings where one must correct deletions in conjunction with substitutions or adjacent transpositions; a combination of errors that is usually observed in DNA-based data storage. One of the most basic versions of this problem was settled more than 50 years ago by Levenshtein, who proved that binary Varshamov-Tenengolts codes correct one arbitrary edit error, i.e., one deletion or one substitution, with nearly optimal redundancy. However, this approach fails to extend to many simple and natural variations of the binary single-edit error setting. In this work, we make progress on the code design problem above in three such variations:
- We construct linear-time encodable and decodable length-n non-binary codes correcting a single edit error with nearly optimal redundancy log n+O(log log n), providing an alternative simpler proof of a result by Cai, Chee, Gabrys, Kiah, and Nguyen (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 2021). This is achieved by employing what we call weighted VT sketches, a new notion that may be of independent interest.
- We show the existence of a binary code correcting one deletion or one adjacent transposition with nearly optimal redundancy log n+O(log log n).
- We construct linear-time encodable and list-decodable binary codes with list-size 2 for one deletion and one substitution with redundancy 4log n+O(log log n). This matches the existential bound up to an O(log log n) additive term.

Ryan Gabrys, Venkatesan Guruswami, João Ribeiro, and Ke Wu. Beyond Single-Deletion Correcting Codes: Substitutions and Transpositions. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 8:1-8:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{gabrys_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.8, author = {Gabrys, Ryan and Guruswami, Venkatesan and Ribeiro, Jo\~{a}o and Wu, Ke}, title = {{Beyond Single-Deletion Correcting Codes: Substitutions and Transpositions}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {8:1--8:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171302}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.8}, annote = {Keywords: Synchronization errors, Optimal redundancy, Explicit codes} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

Document exchange and error correcting codes are two fundamental problems regarding communications. In the first problem, Alice and Bob each holds a string, and the goal is for Alice to send a short sketch to Bob, so that Bob can recover Alice’s string. In the second problem, Alice sends a message with some redundant information to Bob through a channel that can add adversarial errors, and the goal is for Bob to correctly recover the message despite the errors. In both problems, an upper bound is placed on the number of errors between the two strings or that the channel can add, and a major goal is to minimize the size of the sketch or the redundant information. In this paper we focus on deterministic document exchange protocols and binary error correcting codes.
Both problems have been studied extensively. In the case of Hamming errors (i.e., bit substitutions) and bit erasures, we have explicit constructions with asymptotically optimal parameters. However, other error types are still rather poorly understood. In a recent work [Kuan Cheng et al., 2018], the authors constructed explicit deterministic document exchange protocols and binary error correcting codes for edit errors with almost optimal parameters. Unfortunately, the constructions in [Kuan Cheng et al., 2018] do not work for other common errors such as block transpositions.
In this paper, we generalize the constructions in [Kuan Cheng et al., 2018] to handle a much larger class of errors. These include bursts of insertions and deletions, as well as block transpositions. Specifically, we consider document exchange and error correcting codes where the total number of block insertions, block deletions, and block transpositions is at most k <= alpha n/log n for some constant 0<alpha<1. In addition, the total number of bits inserted and deleted by the first two kinds of operations is at most t <= beta n for some constant 0<beta<1, where n is the length of Alice’s string or message. We construct explicit, deterministic document exchange protocols with sketch size O((k log n +t) log^2 n/{k log n + t}) and explicit binary error correcting code with O(k log n log log log n+t) redundant bits. As a comparison, the information-theoretic optimum for both problems is Theta(k log n+t). As far as we know, previously there are no known explicit deterministic document exchange protocols in this case, and the best known binary code needs Omega(n) redundant bits even to correct just one block transposition [L. J. Schulman and D. Zuckerman, 1999].

Kuan Cheng, Zhengzhong Jin, Xin Li, and Ke Wu. Block Edit Errors with Transpositions: Deterministic Document Exchange Protocols and Almost Optimal Binary Codes. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 37:1-37:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{cheng_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.37, author = {Cheng, Kuan and Jin, Zhengzhong and Li, Xin and Wu, Ke}, title = {{Block Edit Errors with Transpositions: Deterministic Document Exchange Protocols and Almost Optimal Binary Codes}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {37:1--37:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.37}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106137}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.37}, annote = {Keywords: Deterministic document exchange, error correcting code, block edit error} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

We study the problem of performing counting queries at different levels in hierarchical structures while preserving individuals' privacy. Motivated by applications, we propose a new error measure for this problem by considering a combination of multiplicative and additive approximation to the query results. We examine known mechanisms in differential privacy (DP) and prove their optimality, under this measure, in the pure-DP setting. In the approximate-DP setting, we design new algorithms achieving significant improvements over known ones.

Badih Ghazi, Pritish Kamath, Ravi Kumar, Pasin Manurangsi, and Kewen Wu. On Differentially Private Counting on Trees. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 66:1-66:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{ghazi_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.66, author = {Ghazi, Badih and Kamath, Pritish and Kumar, Ravi and Manurangsi, Pasin and Wu, Kewen}, title = {{On Differentially Private Counting on Trees}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {66:1--66:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.66}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181186}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.66}, annote = {Keywords: Differential Privacy, Algorithms, Trees, Hierarchies} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 200, 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)

We prove that for every parity decision tree of depth d on n variables, the sum of absolute values of Fourier coefficients at level 𝓁 is at most d^{𝓁/2} ⋅ O(𝓁 ⋅ log(n))^𝓁. Our result is nearly tight for small values of 𝓁 and extends a previous Fourier bound for standard decision trees by Sherstov, Storozhenko, and Wu (STOC, 2021).
As an application of our Fourier bounds, using the results of Bansal and Sinha (STOC, 2021), we show that the k-fold Forrelation problem has (randomized) parity decision tree complexity Ω̃(n^{1-1/k}), while having quantum query complexity ⌈ k/2⌉.
Our proof follows a random-walk approach, analyzing the contribution of a random path in the decision tree to the level-𝓁 Fourier expression. To carry the argument, we apply a careful cleanup procedure to the parity decision tree, ensuring that the value of the random walk is bounded with high probability. We observe that step sizes for the level-𝓁 walks can be computed by the intermediate values of level ≤ 𝓁-1 walks, which calls for an inductive argument. Our approach differs from previous proofs of Tal (FOCS, 2020) and Sherstov, Storozhenko, and Wu (STOC, 2021) that relied on decompositions of the tree. In particular, for the special case of standard decision trees we view our proof as slightly simpler and more intuitive.
In addition, we prove a similar bound for noisy decision trees of cost at most d - a model that was recently introduced by Ben-David and Blais (FOCS, 2020).

Uma Girish, Avishay Tal, and Kewen Wu. Fourier Growth of Parity Decision Trees. In 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 200, pp. 39:1-39:36, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{girish_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2021.39, author = {Girish, Uma and Tal, Avishay and Wu, Kewen}, title = {{Fourier Growth of Parity Decision Trees}}, booktitle = {36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)}, pages = {39:1--39:36}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-193-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {200}, editor = {Kabanets, Valentine}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-143137}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.39}, annote = {Keywords: Fourier analysis of Boolean functions, noisy decision tree, parity decision tree, query complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

We provide improved upper bounds for the simultaneous sketching complexity of edit distance. Consider two parties, Alice with input x ∈ Σⁿ and Bob with input y ∈ Σⁿ, that share public randomness and are given a promise that the edit distance ed(x,y) between their two strings is at most some given value k. Alice must send a message sx and Bob must send sy to a third party Charlie, who does not know the inputs but shares the same public randomness and also knows k. Charlie must output ed(x,y) precisely as well as a sequence of ed(x,y) edits required to transform x into y. The goal is to minimize the lengths |sx|, |sy| of the messages sent.
The protocol of Belazzougui and Zhang (FOCS 2016), building upon the random walk method of Chakraborty, Goldenberg, and Koucký (STOC 2016), achieves a maximum message length of Õ(k⁸) bits, where Õ(⋅) hides poly(log n) factors. In this work we build upon Belazzougui and Zhang’s protocol and provide an improved analysis demonstrating that a slight modification of their construction achieves a bound of Õ(k³).

Ce Jin, Jelani Nelson, and Kewen Wu. An Improved Sketching Algorithm for Edit Distance. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 45:1-45:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{jin_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.45, author = {Jin, Ce and Nelson, Jelani and Wu, Kewen}, title = {{An Improved Sketching Algorithm for Edit Distance}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {45:1--45:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.45}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136905}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.45}, annote = {Keywords: edit distance, sketching} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

Polynomial representations of Boolean functions over various rings such as ℤ and ℤ_m have been studied since Minsky and Papert (1969). From then on, they have been employed in a large variety of areas including communication complexity, circuit complexity, learning theory, coding theory and so on. For any integer m ≥ 2, each Boolean function has a unique multilinear polynomial representation over ring ℤ_m. The degree of such polynomial is called modulo-m degree, denoted as deg_m(⋅).
In this paper, we investigate the lower bound of modulo-m degree of Boolean functions. When m = p^k (k ≥ 1) for some prime p, we give a tight lower bound deg_m(f) ≥ k(p-1) for any non-degenerate function f:{0,1}ⁿ → {0,1}, provided that n is sufficient large. When m contains two different prime factors p and q, we give a nearly optimal lower bound for any symmetric function f:{0,1}ⁿ → {0,1} that deg_m(f) ≥ n/{2+1/(p-1)+1/(q-1)}.

Xiaoming Sun, Yuan Sun, Jiaheng Wang, Kewen Wu, Zhiyu Xia, and Yufan Zheng. On the Degree of Boolean Functions as Polynomials over ℤ_m. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 100:1-100:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{sun_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.100, author = {Sun, Xiaoming and Sun, Yuan and Wang, Jiaheng and Wu, Kewen and Xia, Zhiyu and Zheng, Yufan}, title = {{On the Degree of Boolean Functions as Polynomials over \mathbb{Z}\underlinem}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {100:1--100:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.100}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125070}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.100}, annote = {Keywords: Boolean function, polynomial, modular degree, Ramsey theory} }