Found 39 Possible Name Variants:

- Yang, C.Y. David
- Yang, Yang
- Yang, Yi-Hsun
- Yang, Yi
- Yang, Xiang
- Yang, Mohan
- Yang, Zhun
- Yang, Xiaofeng
- Yang, Fangkai
- Yang, Yuxiang
- Yang, Linji
- Yang, Lin Forrest
- Yang, Guang
- Yang, Jungwoo
- Yang, Kuan
- Yang, Yilin
- Yang, Boting
- Yang, Junxing
- Yang, Sheng
- Yang, Siyi
- Yang, Hongseok
- Yang, Greg
- Yang, Ming
- Yang, Lin F.
- Yang, Jing-Cen
- Yang, Jong Hyeon
- Yang, Liping
- Yang, Tengfei
- Yang, Bo-Yin
- Yang, Fan
- Yang, Elizabeth
- Yang, Nan
- Yang, Pengfei
- Yang, KwangSoo
- Yang, Hyeyun
- Yang, Ke
- Yang, Jun
- Yang, Jiong
- Yang, Zhongxiu

Document

**Published in:** Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 9, Issue 3 (2019)

In today's vehicles, the driving task is increasingly often shared between the driver and the vehicle. It is expected that this will become the norm rather than the exception in the foreseeable future: on some road segments the driving task will be automated, and drivers will become passengers. Thus, we need to design automotive user interfaces with partial automation, and even full automation, in mind. This was the underlying motivation to propose and run this seminar. In the Dagstuhl seminar, six inter-related key research questions were addressed: First, "how to design user interfaces to support the driver's transition back from the role of passenger to the role of driver?". Second, "how user interfaces can support work and play for drivers while the vehicle is controlled by automation?" and third "how we can support communication between all transportation users, from drivers, to pedestrians, to bicyclists?". Furthermore, we explored "how the design of automotive user interfaces affects trust in automation?" and finally discussed "how novel technologies, such as augmented reality displays or advanced spoken dialogue systems can support drivers, and others, in and around partially-, and fully-automated vehicles?". As an umbrella topic, the question "how all of these questions relate to the legal aspects of deploying automotive user interfaces?" received also high attention and lively discussions amongst participants.
Dagstuhl seminar 19132 is a follow-up of the 2016 Dagstuhl seminar 16262 "Automotive User Interfaces in the Age of Automation" and brought (again) together researchers from HCI, psychology, cognitive science, human factors, automotive industry/OEMs and people active in the standardization process to discuss critical problems on the way to automated driving.

Susanne Boll, Andrew L. Kun, Andreas Riener, and C.Y. David Yang. Users and automated driving systems: How will we interact with tomorrow's vehicles? (Dagstuhl Seminar 19132). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp. 111-178, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@Article{boll_et_al:DagRep.9.3.111, author = {Boll, Susanne and Kun, Andrew L. and Riener, Andreas and Yang, C.Y. David}, title = {{Users and automated driving systems: How will we interact with tomorrow's vehicles? (Dagstuhl Seminar 19132)}}, pages = {111--178}, journal = {Dagstuhl Reports}, ISSN = {2192-5283}, year = {2019}, volume = {9}, number = {3}, editor = {Boll, Susanne and Kun, Andrew L. and Riener, Andreas and Yang, C.Y. David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.9.3.111}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112944}, doi = {10.4230/DagRep.9.3.111}, annote = {Keywords: Automotive UIs; Driver-vehicle interaction services; UX in driving; Customization of vehicles/UIs; (Over)trust; Ethical issues} }

Document

Extended Abstract

**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 97, 3rd International Conference on Blockchain Economics, Security and Protocols (Tokenomics 2021)

We introduce systematic tests exploiting robust statistical and behavioral patterns in trading to detect fake transactions on 29 cryptocurrency exchanges. Regulated exchanges feature patterns consistently observed in financial markets and nature; abnormal first-significant-digit distributions, size rounding, and transaction tail distributions on unregulated exchanges reveal rampant manipulations unlikely driven by strategy or exchange heterogeneity. We quantify the wash trading on each unregulated exchange, which averaged over 70% of the reported volume. We further document how these fabricated volumes (trillions of dollars annually) improve exchange ranking, temporarily distort prices, and relate to exchange characteristics (e.g., age and userbase), market conditions, and regulation.

Lin William Cong, Xi Li, Ke Tang, and Yang Yang. Detecting and Quantifying Crypto Wash Trading (Extended Abstract). In 3rd International Conference on Blockchain Economics, Security and Protocols (Tokenomics 2021). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 97, pp. 10:1-10:6, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{cong_et_al:OASIcs.Tokenomics.2021.10, author = {Cong, Lin William and Li, Xi and Tang, Ke and Yang, Yang}, title = {{Detecting and Quantifying Crypto Wash Trading}}, booktitle = {3rd International Conference on Blockchain Economics, Security and Protocols (Tokenomics 2021)}, pages = {10:1--10:6}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-220-4}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2022}, volume = {97}, editor = {Gramoli, Vincent and Halaburda, Hanna and Pass, Rafael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.Tokenomics.2021.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-159072}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.Tokenomics.2021.10}, annote = {Keywords: Bitcoin, Cryptocurrency, FinTech, Forensic Finance, Fraud Detection, Regulation} }

Document

Complete Volume

**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 80, 2nd Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (Fog-IoT 2020)

OASIcs, Volume 80, Fog-IoT 2020, Complete Volume

2nd Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (Fog-IoT 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 80, pp. 1-110, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@Proceedings{cervin_et_al:OASIcs.Fog-IoT.2020, title = {{OASIcs, Volume 80, Fog-IoT 2020, Complete Volume}}, booktitle = {2nd Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (Fog-IoT 2020)}, pages = {1--110}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-144-3}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2020}, volume = {80}, editor = {Cervin, Anton and Yang, Yang}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.Fog-IoT.2020}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-119933}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.Fog-IoT.2020}, annote = {Keywords: OASIcs, Volume 80, Fog-IoT 2020, Complete Volume} }

Document

Front Matter

**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 80, 2nd Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (Fog-IoT 2020)

Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

2nd Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (Fog-IoT 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 80, pp. 0:i-0:viii, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{cervin_et_al:OASIcs.Fog-IoT.2020.0, author = {Cervin, Anton and Yang, Yang}, title = {{Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}}, booktitle = {2nd Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (Fog-IoT 2020)}, pages = {0:i--0:viii}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-144-3}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2020}, volume = {80}, editor = {Cervin, Anton and Yang, Yang}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.Fog-IoT.2020.0}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-119944}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.Fog-IoT.2020.0}, annote = {Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization} }

Document

**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 80, 2nd Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (Fog-IoT 2020)

In the Internet of Things (IoT) networks, the data traffic would be very bursty and unpredictable. It is therefore very difficult to analyze and guarantee the delay performance for delay-sensitive IoT applications in fog networks, such as emergency monitoring, intelligent manufacturing, and autonomous driving. To address this challenging problem, a Bursty Elastic Task Scheduling (BETS) algorithm is developed to best accommodate bursty task arrivals and various requirements in IoT networks, thus optimizing service experience for delay-sensitive applications with only limited communication resources in time-varying and competing environments. To better describe the stability and consistence of Quality of Service (QoS) in realistic scenarios, a new performance metric "Bursty Service Experience Index (BSEI)" is defined and quantified as delay jitter normalized by the average delay. Finally, the numeral results shows that the performance of BETS is fully evaluated, which can achieve 5-10 times lower BSEI than traditional task scheduling algorithms, e.g. Proportional Fair (PF) and the Max Carrier-to-Interference ratio (MCI), under bursty traffic conditions. These results demonstrate that BETS can effectively smooth down the bursty characteristics in IoT networks, and provide much predictable and acceptable QoS for delay-sensitive applications.

Chongchong Zhang, Fei Shen, Jiong Jin, and Yang Yang. Fog Network Task Scheduling for IoT Applications. In 2nd Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (Fog-IoT 2020). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 80, pp. 10:1-10:9, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{zhang_et_al:OASIcs.Fog-IoT.2020.10, author = {Zhang, Chongchong and Shen, Fei and Jin, Jiong and Yang, Yang}, title = {{Fog Network Task Scheduling for IoT Applications}}, booktitle = {2nd Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (Fog-IoT 2020)}, pages = {10:1--10:9}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-144-3}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2020}, volume = {80}, editor = {Cervin, Anton and Yang, Yang}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.Fog-IoT.2020.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-120049}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.Fog-IoT.2020.10}, annote = {Keywords: Task Scheduling, Internet of Things, fog network, delay sensitive} }

Document

**Published in:** Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 9, Issue 1 (2019)

In our daily lives, we are constantly surrounded by music, and we are deeply influenced by music. Making music together can create strong ties between people, while fostering communication and creativity. This is demonstrated, for example, by the large community of singers active in choirs or by the fact that music constitutes an important part of our cultural heritage. The availability of music in digital formats and its distribution over the world wide web has changed the way we consume, create, enjoy, explore, and interact with music. To cope with the increasing amount of digital music, one requires computational methods and tools that allow users to find, organize, analyze, and interact with music--topics that are central to the research field known as \emph{Music Information Retrieval} (MIR).
The Dagstuhl Seminar 19052 was devoted to a branch of MIR that is of particular importance: processing melodic voices (with a focus on singing voices) using computational methods. It is often the melody, a specific succession of musical tones, which constitutes the leading element in a piece of music. In the seminar we discussed how to detect, extract, and analyze melodic voices as they occur in recorded performances of a piece of music.
Gathering researchers from different fields, we critically reviewed the state of the art of computational approaches to various MIR tasks related to melody processing including pitch estimation, source separation, singing voice analysis and synthesis, and performance analysis (timbre, intonation, expression). This triggered interdisciplinary discussions that leveraged insights from fields as disparate as audio processing, machine learning, music perception, music theory, and information retrieval. In particular, we discussed current challenges in academic and industrial research in view of the recent advances in deep learning and data-driven models. Furthermore, we explored novel applications of these technologies in music and multimedia retrieval, content creation, musicology, education, and human-computer interaction.
In this report, we give an overview of the various contributions and results of the seminar. We start with an executive summary, which describes the main topics, goals, and group activities. Then, we present a more detailed overview of the participants' contributions (listed alphabetically by their last names) as well as of the ideas, results, and activities of the group meetings, the demo, and the music sessions.

Meinard Müller, Emilia Gómez, and Yi-Hsun Yang. Computational Methods for Melody and Voice Processing in Music Recordings (Dagstuhl Seminar 19052). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp. 125-177, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@Article{muller_et_al:DagRep.9.1.125, author = {M\"{u}ller, Meinard and G\'{o}mez, Emilia and Yang, Yi-Hsun}, title = {{Computational Methods for Melody and Voice Processing in Music Recordings (Dagstuhl Seminar 19052)}}, pages = {125--177}, journal = {Dagstuhl Reports}, ISSN = {2192-5283}, year = {2019}, volume = {9}, number = {1}, editor = {M\"{u}ller, Meinard and G\'{o}mez, Emilia and Yang, Yi-Hsun}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.9.1.125}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-105732}, doi = {10.4230/DagRep.9.1.125}, annote = {Keywords: Acoustics of singing, audio signal processing, machine learning, music composition and performance, music information retrieval, music perception and cognition, music processing, singing voice processing, sound source separation, user interaction and interfaces} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 31, 18th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2015)

In dynamic distinct counting, we want to maintain a multi-set S of integers under insertions to answer efficiently the query: how many distinct elements are there in S? In external memory, the problem admits two standard solutions. The first one maintains $S$ in a hash structure, so that the distinct count can be incrementally updated after each insertion using O(1) expected I/Os. A query is answered for free. The second one stores S in a linked list, and thus supports an insertion in O(1/B) amortized I/Os. A query can be answered in O(N/B log_{M/B} (N/B)) I/Os by sorting, where N=|S|, B is the block size, and M is the memory size.
In this paper, we show that the above two naive solutions are already optimal within a polylog factor. Specifically, for any Las Vegas structure using N^{O(1)} blocks, if its expected amortized insertion cost is o(1/log B}), then it must incur Omega(N/(B log B)) expected I/Os answering a query in the worst case, under the (realistic) condition that N is a polynomial of B. This means that the problem is repugnant to update buffering: the query cost jumps from 0 dramatically to almost linearity as soon as the insertion cost drops slightly below Omega(1).

Xiaocheng Hu, Yufei Tao, Yi Yang, Shengyu Zhang, and Shuigeng Zhou. On The I/O Complexity of Dynamic Distinct Counting. In 18th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 31, pp. 265-276, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{hu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICDT.2015.265, author = {Hu, Xiaocheng and Tao, Yufei and Yang, Yi and Zhang, Shengyu and Zhou, Shuigeng}, title = {{On The I/O Complexity of Dynamic Distinct Counting}}, booktitle = {18th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2015)}, pages = {265--276}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-79-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {31}, editor = {Arenas, Marcelo and Ugarte, Mart{\'\i}n}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2015.265}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-49895}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2015.265}, annote = {Keywords: distinct counting, lower bound, external memory} }

Document

**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 27, Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets: Applications in Geospatial Planning, Modeling and Engineering - Proceedings of IRTG 1131 Workshop 2011

The importance analysis provides a means of analyzing the contribution of potential low-level system failures to identify and assess vulnerabilities of safety-critical systems. Common approaches attempt to enhance the system safety by addressing vulnerabilities using an iterative analysis process, while considering relevant constraints, e.g., cost, for optimizing the improvements. Typically, data regarding the analysis process is presented across several views with few interactive associations among them. Consequently, this hampers the identification of meaningful information supporting the decision making process. In this paper, we propose a visualization system that visually supports engineers in identifying proper solutions. The visualization integrates a decision tree with a plot representing the cause-effect relationship between the improvement ideas of vulnerabilities and the resulting risk reduction of system. Associating a component fault tree view with the plot allows to maintain helpful context information. The introduced visualization approach enables system and safety engineers to identify and analyze optimal solutions facilitating the improvement of the overall system safety.

Yi Yang, Patric Keller, Yarden Livnat, and Peter Liggesmeyer. Improving Safety-Critical Systems by Visual Analysis. In Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets: Applications in Geospatial Planning, Modeling and Engineering - Proceedings of IRTG 1131 Workshop 2011. Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 27, pp. 43-58, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2012)

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@InProceedings{yang_et_al:OASIcs.VLUDS.2011.43, author = {Yang, Yi and Keller, Patric and Livnat, Yarden and Liggesmeyer, Peter}, title = {{Improving Safety-Critical Systems by Visual Analysis}}, booktitle = {Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets: Applications in Geospatial Planning, Modeling and Engineering - Proceedings of IRTG 1131 Workshop 2011}, pages = {43--58}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-46-0}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2012}, volume = {27}, editor = {Garth, Christoph and Middel, Ariane and Hagen, Hans}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.VLUDS.2011.43}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-37406}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.VLUDS.2011.43}, annote = {Keywords: fault tree analysis, importance and sensitivity analysis, information vi- sualization, decision tree, safety analysis} }

Document

**Published in:** Dagstuhl Follow-Ups, Volume 2, Scientific Visualization: Interactions, Features, Metaphors (2011)

Safety of technical systems are becoming more and more important nowadays. Fault trees and minimal cut sets are usually used to attack the problems of assessing safety-critical systems. A visualization system named ViSSaAn, consisting of a matrix view, is proposed that supports an efficient safety analysis based on the information from these techniques. Interactions such as zooming and grouping are provided to support the task of finding the safety problems from the analysis information. An example based on real data shows the usefulness of ViSSaAn.

Yi Yang, Dirk Zeckzer, Peter Liggesmeyer, and Hans Hagen. ViSSaAn: Visual Support for Safety Analysis. In Scientific Visualization: Interactions, Features, Metaphors. Dagstuhl Follow-Ups, Volume 2, pp. 378-395, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2011)

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@InCollection{yang_et_al:DFU.Vol2.SciViz.2011.378, author = {Yang, Yi and Zeckzer, Dirk and Liggesmeyer, Peter and Hagen, Hans}, title = {{ViSSaAn: Visual Support for Safety Analysis}}, booktitle = {Scientific Visualization: Interactions, Features, Metaphors}, pages = {378--395}, series = {Dagstuhl Follow-Ups}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-26-2}, ISSN = {1868-8977}, year = {2011}, volume = {2}, editor = {Hagen, Hans}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DFU.Vol2.SciViz.2011.378}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-33073}, doi = {10.4230/DFU.Vol2.SciViz.2011.378}, annote = {Keywords: Safety Analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, Minimal Cut Sets, Safety Visualization, Information Visualization} }

Document

**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 27, Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets: Applications in Geospatial Planning, Modeling and Engineering - Proceedings of IRTG 1131 Workshop 2011

Virtual Reality (VR) provides users advanced visualization and interaction technology for designing, analyzing and exploring complex data. To address the issue of noise in manufacturing environments, we developed a VR-supported method allowing users to explore noise behavior. This method consists of an implementation of acoustic simulation and visualization for both desktop and Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) based VR systems. It enables user-oriented, interactive analysis of simulated data, where there capability to immerse oneself in the data is especially valuable. In a real-world factory, the acoustic measurements obtained essential input data for simulation settings and validation data for simulation results. Furthermore, some political and legal aspects are addressed to enhance the evaluation of results and the visualization. By using the implemented software tool, users are able to understand and investigate the noise issue in manufacturing straightforwardly.

Xiang Yang, Bernd Hamann, and Jan C. Aurich. Virtual Reality supported Visualization and Evaluation of Noise Levels in Manufacturing Environments. In Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets: Applications in Geospatial Planning, Modeling and Engineering - Proceedings of IRTG 1131 Workshop 2011. Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 27, pp. 1-12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2012)

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@InProceedings{yang_et_al:OASIcs.VLUDS.2011.1, author = {Yang, Xiang and Hamann, Bernd and Aurich, Jan C.}, title = {{Virtual Reality supported Visualization and Evaluation of Noise Levels in Manufacturing Environments}}, booktitle = {Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets: Applications in Geospatial Planning, Modeling and Engineering - Proceedings of IRTG 1131 Workshop 2011}, pages = {1--12}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-46-0}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2012}, volume = {27}, editor = {Garth, Christoph and Middel, Ariane and Hagen, Hans}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.VLUDS.2011.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-37370}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.VLUDS.2011.1}, annote = {Keywords: virtual reality, acoustic simulation, visualization, manufacturing} }

Document

**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 19, Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets - Applications in Geospatial Planning, Modeling and Engineering (IRTG 1131 Workshop) (2011)

In a manufacturing system (MS), a wide range of human activities are applied in production processes. The human factor plays a core role and should be incorporated into the design, planning and decision making processes. In this work we describe different definitions, developments and existing concepts of a Virtual Factory (VF) and discuss VFs from the human oriented point of view. Furthermore, we analyze the potential need and use of visualization methods in VF study and propose a human-centered VF concept. Following this concept we introduce an example implementation and describe how our model facilitates the decision making and design process in MS. In addition, we show an example of a noise analysis of working environment, which is based on our virtual factory model.

Xiang Yang, Eduard Deines, and Jan C. Aurich. Visualization in Human-Centered Virtual Factories. In Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets - Applications in Geospatial Planning, Modeling and Engineering (IRTG 1131 Workshop). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 19, pp. 111-119, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2011)

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@InProceedings{yang_et_al:OASIcs.VLUDS.2010.111, author = {Yang, Xiang and Deines, Eduard and Aurich, Jan C.}, title = {{Visualization in Human-Centered Virtual Factories}}, booktitle = {Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets - Applications in Geospatial Planning, Modeling and Engineering (IRTG 1131 Workshop)}, pages = {111--119}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-29-3}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2011}, volume = {19}, editor = {Middel, Ariane and Scheler, Inga and Hagen, Hans}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.VLUDS.2010.111}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-31031}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.VLUDS.2010.111}, annote = {Keywords: Visualization, Virtual Reality, Virtual Factory, Sound Simulation} }

Document

**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 64, Technical Communications of the 34th International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP 2018)

Recent advances are making possible the use of aggregates in recursive queries thus enabling the declarative expression classic algorithms and their efficient and scalable implementation. These advances rely the notion of Pre-Mappability (PreM) of constraints that, along with the seminaive-fixpoint operational semantics, guarantees formal non-monotonic semantics for recursive programs with min and max constraints. In this extended abstract, we introduce basic templates to simplify and automate task of proving PreM.

Carlo Zaniolo, Mohan Yang, Matteo Interlandi, Ariyam Das, Alexander Shkapsky, and Tyson Condie. Declarative Algorithms in Datalog with Extrema: Their Formal Semantics Simplified. In Technical Communications of the 34th International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP 2018). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 64, pp. 9:1-9:3, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{zaniolo_et_al:OASIcs.ICLP.2018.9, author = {Zaniolo, Carlo and Yang, Mohan and Interlandi, Matteo and Das, Ariyam and Shkapsky, Alexander and Condie, Tyson}, title = {{Declarative Algorithms in Datalog with Extrema: Their Formal Semantics Simplified}}, booktitle = {Technical Communications of the 34th International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP 2018)}, pages = {9:1--9:3}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-090-3}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2018}, volume = {64}, editor = {Dal Palu', Alessandro and Tarau, Paul and Saeedloei, Neda and Fodor, Paul}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.ICLP.2018.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-98758}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.ICLP.2018.9}, annote = {Keywords: Recursive Queries} }

Document

**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 64, Technical Communications of the 34th International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP 2018)

Answer set programming (ASP) is a particularly useful approach for nonmonotonic reasoning in knowledge representation. In order to handle quantitative and qualitative reasoning, a number of different extensions of ASP have been invented, such as quantitative extensions LP^{MLN} and P-log, and qualitative extensions LPOD, and CR-Prolog_2.
Although each of these formalisms introduced some new and unique concepts, we present reductions of each of these languages into the standard ASP language, which not only gives us an alternative insight into the semantics of these extensions in terms of the standard ASP language, but also shows that the standard ASP is capable of representing quantitative uncertainty and qualitative uncertainty. What's more, our translations yield a way to tune the semantics of LPOD and CR-Prolog_2. Since the semantics of each formalism is represented in ASP rules, we can modify their semantics by modifying the corresponding ASP rules.
For future work, we plan to create a new formalism that is capable of representing quantitative and qualitative uncertainty at the same time. Since LPOD rules are simple and informative, we will first try to include quantitative preference into LPOD by adding the concept of weight and tune the semantics of LPOD by modifying the translated standard ASP rules.

Zhun Yang. Translating P-log, LPMLN, LPOD, and CR-Prolog2 into Standard Answer Set Programs. In Technical Communications of the 34th International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP 2018). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 64, pp. 17:1-17:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{yang:OASIcs.ICLP.2018.17, author = {Yang, Zhun}, title = {{Translating P-log, LPMLN, LPOD, and CR-Prolog2 into Standard Answer Set Programs}}, booktitle = {Technical Communications of the 34th International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP 2018)}, pages = {17:1--17:11}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-090-3}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2018}, volume = {64}, editor = {Dal Palu', Alessandro and Tarau, Paul and Saeedloei, Neda and Fodor, Paul}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.ICLP.2018.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-98836}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.ICLP.2018.17}, annote = {Keywords: answer set programming, preference, LPOD, CR-Prolog} }

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**Published in:** Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 8131, Ontologies and Text Mining for Life Sciences : Current Status and Future Perspectives (2008)

Motivation: Coreference resolution, the process of identifying different
mentions of an entity, is a very important component in a
text-mining system. Compared with the work in news articles, the
existing study of coreference resolution in biomedical texts is quite
preliminary by only focusing on specific types of anaphors like pronouns
or definite noun phrases, using heuristic methods, and running
on small data sets. Therefore, there is a need for an in-depth
exploration of this task in the biomedical domain.
Results: In this article, we presented a learning-based approach
to coreference resolution in the biomedical domain. We made three
contributions in our study. Firstly, we annotated a large scale coreference
corpus, MedCo, which consists of 1,999 medline abstracts
in the GENIA data set. Secondly, we proposed a detailed framework
for the coreference resolution task, in which we augmented the traditional
learning model by incorporating non-anaphors into training.
Lastly, we explored various sources of knowledge for coreference
resolution, particularly, those that can deal with the complexity of
biomedical texts. The evaluation on the MedCo corpus showed promising
results. Our coreference resolution system achieved a high
precision of 85.2% with a reasonable recall of 65.3%, obtaining an
F-measure of 73.9%. The results also suggested that our augmented
learning model significantly boosted precision (up to 24.0%) without
much loss in recall (less than 5%), and brought a gain of over 8% in
F-measure.

Jian Su, Xiaofeng Yang, Huaqing Hong, Yuka Tateisi, and Jun'ichi Tsujii. Coreference Resolution in Biomedical Texts: a Machine Learning Approach. In Ontologies and Text Mining for Life Sciences : Current Status and Future Perspectives. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 8131, p. 1, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2008)

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@InProceedings{su_et_al:DagSemProc.08131.4, author = {Su, Jian and Yang, Xiaofeng and Hong, Huaqing and Tateisi, Yuka and Tsujii, Jun'ichi}, title = {{Coreference Resolution in Biomedical Texts: a Machine Learning Approach}}, booktitle = {Ontologies and Text Mining for Life Sciences : Current Status and Future Perspectives}, pages = {1--1}, series = {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)}, ISSN = {1862-4405}, year = {2008}, volume = {8131}, editor = {Michael Ashburner and Ulf Leser and Dietrich Rebholz-Schuhmann}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.08131.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-15220}, doi = {10.4230/DagSemProc.08131.4}, annote = {Keywords: Coreference resolution, biomedical text} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 17, Technical Communications of the 28th International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP'12) (2012)

This paper extends action language C+ by introducing composite actions as sequential execution of other actions, leading to a more intuitive and flexible way to represent action domains, better exploit a general-purpose formalization, and improve the reasoning efficiency for large domains. Our experiments show that the composite actions can be seen as a method of knowledge acquisition for intelligent robots.

Xiaoping Chen, Guoqiang Jin, and Fangkai Yang. Extending C+ with Composite Actions for Robotic Task Planning. In Technical Communications of the 28th International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP'12). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 17, pp. 404-414, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2012)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICLP.2012.404, author = {Chen, Xiaoping and Jin, Guoqiang and Yang, Fangkai}, title = {{Extending C+ with Composite Actions for Robotic Task Planning}}, booktitle = {Technical Communications of the 28th International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP'12)}, pages = {404--414}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-43-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2012}, volume = {17}, editor = {Dovier, Agostino and Santos Costa, V{\'\i}tor}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICLP.2012.404}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-36404}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICLP.2012.404}, annote = {Keywords: Reasoning about Actions, Action Languages, Robotic Task Planning} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 22, 8th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2013)

We investigate the asymptotic relationship between quantum cloning and quantum estimation from the global point of view where all the copies produced by the cloner are considered jointly. For an N-to-M cloner, we consider the overall fidelity between the state of the M output systems and the state of M ideal copies, and we ask whether the optimal fidelity is attained by a measure and-prepare protocol in the limit M -> \infty. In order to gain intuition into the general problem, we analyze two concrete examples: i) cloning qubit states on the equator of the Bloch sphere and ii) cloning two-qubit maximally entangled states. In the first case, we show that the optimal measure-and-prepare fidelity converges to the fidelity of the optimal cloner in the limit M -> \infty. In the second case, we restrict our attention to economical covariant cloners, and again, we exhibit a measure-and-prepare protocol that achieves asymptotically the optimal fidelity. Quite counterintuitively, in both cases the optimal states that have to be prepared in order to maximize the overall fidelity are not product states corresponding to M identical copies, but instead suitable M-partite entangled states.

Yuxiang Yang and Giulio Chiribella. Is Global Asymptotic Cloning State Estimation?. In 8th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2013). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 22, pp. 220-234, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2013)

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@InProceedings{yang_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2013.220, author = {Yang, Yuxiang and Chiribella, Giulio}, title = {{Is Global Asymptotic Cloning State Estimation?}}, booktitle = {8th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2013)}, pages = {220--234}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-55-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2013}, volume = {22}, editor = {Severini, Simone and Brandao, Fernando}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2013.220}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-43100}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2013.220}, annote = {Keywords: quantum cloning, quantum estimation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 28, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)

Recent results establish for the hard-core model (and more generally for 2-spin antiferromagnetic systems) that the computational complexity of approximating the partition function on graphs of maximum degree D undergoes a phase transition that coincides with the uniqueness/non-uniqueness phase transition on the infinite D-regular tree. For the ferromagnetic Potts model we investigate whether analogous hardness results hold. Goldberg and Jerrum showed that approximating the partition function of the ferromagnetic Potts model is at least as hard as approximating the number of independent sets in bipartite graphs, so-called #BIS-hardness. We improve this hardness result by establishing it for bipartite graphs of maximum degree D. To this end, we first present a detailed picture for the phase diagram for the infinite D-regular tree, giving a refined picture of its first-order phase transition and establishing the critical temperature for the coexistence of the disordered and ordered phases. We then prove for all temperatures below this critical temperature (corresponding to the region where the ordered phase "dominates") that it is #BIS-hard to approximate the partition function on bipartite graphs of maximum degree D.
The #BIS-hardness result uses random bipartite regular graphs as a gadget in the reduction. The analysis of these random graphs relies on recent results establishing connections between the maxima of the expectation of their partition function, attractive fixpoints of the associated tree recursions, and induced matrix norms. In this paper we extend these connections to random regular graphs for all ferromagnetic models. Using these connections, we establish the Bethe prediction for every ferromagnetic spin system on random regular graphs, which says roughly that the expectation of the log of the partition function Z is the same as the log of the expectation of Z. As a further consequence of our results, we prove for the ferromagnetic Potts model that the Swendsen-Wang algorithm is torpidly mixing (i.e., exponentially slow convergence to its stationary distribution) on random D-regular graphs at the critical temperature for sufficiently large q.

Andreas Galanis, Daniel Stefankovic, Eric Vigoda, and Linji Yang. Ferromagnetic Potts Model: Refined #BIS-hardness and Related Results. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 28, pp. 677-691, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{galanis_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.677, author = {Galanis, Andreas and Stefankovic, Daniel and Vigoda, Eric and Yang, Linji}, title = {{Ferromagnetic Potts Model: Refined #BIS-hardness and Related Results}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)}, pages = {677--691}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-74-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {28}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Devanur, Nikhil R. and Moore, Cristopher}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.677}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-47319}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.677}, annote = {Keywords: Ferromagnetic Potts model, approximate counting, spin systems, phase transition, random regular graphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 29, 34th International Conference on Foundation of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2014)

We obtain the following new simultaneous time-space upper bounds for the directed reachability problem. (1) A polynomial-time, O(n^{2/3} * g^{1/3})-space algorithm for directed graphs embedded on orientable surfaces of genus g. (2) A polynomial-time, O(n^{2/3})-space algorithm for all H-minor-free graphs given the tree decomposition, and (3) for K_{3,3}-free and K_5-free graphs, a polynomial-time, O(n^{1/2 + epsilon})-space algorithm, for every epsilon > 0.
For the general directed reachability problem, the best known simultaneous time-space upper bound is the BBRS bound, due to Barnes, Buss, Ruzzo, and Schieber, which achieves a space bound of O(n/2^{k * sqrt(log(n))}) with polynomial running time, for any constant k. It is a significant open question to improve this bound for reachability over general directed graphs. Our algorithms beat the BBRS bound for graphs embedded on surfaces of genus n/2^{omega(sqrt(log(n))}, and for all H-minor-free graphs. This significantly broadens the class of directed graphs for which the BBRS bound can be improved.

Diptarka Chakraborty, A. Pavan, Raghunath Tewari, N. V. Vinodchandran, and Lin Forrest Yang. New Time-Space Upperbounds for Directed Reachability in High-genus and H-minor-free Graphs. In 34th International Conference on Foundation of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 29, pp. 585-595, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2014.585, author = {Chakraborty, Diptarka and Pavan, A. and Tewari, Raghunath and Vinodchandran, N. V. and Yang, Lin Forrest}, title = {{New Time-Space Upperbounds for Directed Reachability in High-genus and H-minor-free Graphs}}, booktitle = {34th International Conference on Foundation of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2014)}, pages = {585--595}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-77-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {29}, editor = {Raman, Venkatesh and Suresh, S. P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2014.585}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-48730}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2014.585}, annote = {Keywords: Reachability, Space complexity, Time-Space Efficient Algorithms, Graphs on Surfaces, Minor Free Graphs, Savitch's Algorithm, BBRS Bound} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We consider algorithms with access to an unknown matrix M in F^{n x d} via matrix-vector products, namely, the algorithm chooses vectors v^1, ..., v^q, and observes Mv^1, ..., Mv^q. Here the v^i can be randomized as well as chosen adaptively as a function of Mv^1, ..., Mv^{i-1}. Motivated by applications of sketching in distributed computation, linear algebra, and streaming models, as well as connections to areas such as communication complexity and property testing, we initiate the study of the number q of queries needed to solve various fundamental problems. We study problems in three broad categories, including linear algebra, statistics problems, and graph problems. For example, we consider the number of queries required to approximate the rank, trace, maximum eigenvalue, and norms of a matrix M; to compute the AND/OR/Parity of each column or row of M, to decide whether there are identical columns or rows in M or whether M is symmetric, diagonal, or unitary; or to compute whether a graph defined by M is connected or triangle-free. We also show separations for algorithms that are allowed to obtain matrix-vector products only by querying vectors on the right, versus algorithms that can query vectors on both the left and the right. We also show separations depending on the underlying field the matrix-vector product occurs in. For graph problems, we show separations depending on the form of the matrix (bipartite adjacency versus signed edge-vertex incidence matrix) to represent the graph.
Surprisingly, this fundamental model does not appear to have been studied on its own, and we believe a thorough investigation of problems in this model would be beneficial to a number of different application areas.

Xiaoming Sun, David P. Woodruff, Guang Yang, and Jialin Zhang. Querying a Matrix Through Matrix-Vector Products. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 94:1-94:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{sun_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.94, author = {Sun, Xiaoming and Woodruff, David P. and Yang, Guang and Zhang, Jialin}, title = {{Querying a Matrix Through Matrix-Vector Products}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {94:1--94:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.94}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106709}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.94}, annote = {Keywords: Communication complexity, linear algebra, sketching} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

In a k-party communication problem, the k players with inputs x_1, x_2, ..., x_k, respectively, want to evaluate a function f(x_1, x_2, ..., x_k) using as little communication as possible. We consider the message-passing model, in which the inputs are partitioned in an arbitrary, possibly worst-case manner, among a smaller number t of players (t<k). The t-player communication cost of computing f can only be smaller than the k-player communication cost, since the t players can trivially simulate the k-player protocol. But how much smaller can it be? We study deterministic and randomized protocols in the one-way model, and provide separations for product input distributions, which are optimal for low error probability protocols. We also provide much stronger separations when the input distribution is non-product.
A key application of our results is in proving lower bounds for data stream algorithms. In particular, we give an optimal Omega(epsilon^{-2}log(N) log log(mM)) bits of space lower bound for the fundamental problem of (1 +/-{epsilon})-approximating the number |x |_0 of non-zero entries of an n-dimensional vector x after m updates each of magnitude M, and with success probability >= 2/3, in a strict turnstile stream. Our result matches the best known upper bound when epsilon >= 1/polylog(mM). It also improves on the prior Omega({epsilon}^{-2}log(mM)) lower bound and separates the complexity of approximating L_0 from approximating the p-norm L_p for p bounded away from 0, since the latter has an O(epsilon^{-2}log(mM)) bit upper bound.

David P. Woodruff and Guang Yang. Separating k-Player from t-Player One-Way Communication, with Applications to Data Streams. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 97:1-97:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{woodruff_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.97, author = {Woodruff, David P. and Yang, Guang}, title = {{Separating k-Player from t-Player One-Way Communication, with Applications to Data Streams}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {97:1--97:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.97}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106733}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.97}, annote = {Keywords: Communication complexity, multi-player communication, one-way communication, streaming complexity} }

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Extended Abstract

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 33, 30th Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2015)

A circuit C compresses a function f:{0,1}^n -> {0,1}^m if given an input x in {0,1}^n the circuit C can shrink x to a shorter l-bit string x' such that later, a computationally-unbounded solver D will be able to compute f(x) based on x'. In this paper we study the existence of functions which are incompressible by circuits of some fixed polynomial size s=n^c. Motivated by cryptographic applications, we focus on average-case (l,epsilon) incompressibility, which guarantees that on a random input x in {0,1}^n, for every size s circuit C:{0,1}^n -> {0,1}^l and any unbounded solver D, the success probability Pr_x[D(C(x))=f(x)] is upper-bounded by 2^(-m)+epsilon. While this notion of incompressibility appeared in several works (e.g., Dubrov and Ishai, STOC 06), so far no explicit constructions of efficiently computable incompressible functions were known. In this work we present the following results:
1. Assuming that E is hard for exponential size nondeterministic circuits, we construct a polynomial time computable boolean function f:{0,1}^n -> {0,1} which is incompressible by size n^c circuits with communication l=(1-o(1)) * n and error epsilon=n^(-c). Our technique generalizes to the case of PRGs against nonboolean circuits, improving and simplifying the previous construction of Shaltiel and Artemenko (STOC 14).
2. We show that it is possible to achieve negligible error parameter epsilon=n^(-omega(1)) for nonboolean functions. Specifically, assuming that E is hard for exponential size Sigma_3-circuits, we construct a nonboolean function f:{0,1}^n -> {0,1}^m which is incompressible by size n^c circuits with l=Omega(n) and extremely small epsilon=n^(-c) * 2^(-m). Our construction combines the techniques of Trevisan and Vadhan (FOCS 00) with a new notion of relative error deterministic extractor which may be of independent interest.
3. We show that the task of constructing an incompressible boolean function f:{0,1}^n -> {0,1} with negligible error parameter epsilon cannot be achieved by "existing proof techniques". Namely, nondeterministic reductions (or even Sigma_i reductions) cannot get epsilon=n^(-omega(1)) for boolean incompressible functions. Our results also apply to constructions of standard Nisan-Wigderson type PRGs and (standard) boolean functions that are hard on average, explaining, in retrospective, the limitations of existing constructions. Our impossibility result builds on an approach of Shaltiel and Viola (SIAM J. Comp., 2010).

Benny Applebaum, Sergei Artemenko, Ronen Shaltiel, and Guang Yang. Incompressible Functions, Relative-Error Extractors, and the Power of Nondeterministic Reductions (Extended Abstract). In 30th Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 33, pp. 582-600, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{applebaum_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2015.582, author = {Applebaum, Benny and Artemenko, Sergei and Shaltiel, Ronen and Yang, Guang}, title = {{Incompressible Functions, Relative-Error Extractors, and the Power of Nondeterministic Reductions}}, booktitle = {30th Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2015)}, pages = {582--600}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-81-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {33}, editor = {Zuckerman, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2015.582}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-50567}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2015.582}, annote = {Keywords: compression, pseudorandomness, extractors, nondeterministic reductions} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 162, 17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020)

Predicting floods caused by storm surges is a crucial task. Since the rise of ocean water can create floods that extend far onto land, the flood damage can be severe. By developing efficient flood prediction algorithms that use very detailed terrain models and accurate sea-level forecasts, users can plan mitigations such as flood walls and gates to minimize the damage from storm surge flooding.
In this paper we present a data structure for predicting floods from dynamic sea-level forecast data on dynamic massive terrains. The forecast data is dynamic in the sense that new forecasts are released several times per day; the terrain is dynamic in the sense that the terrain model may be updated to plan flood mitigations.
Since accurate flood risk computations require using very detailed terrain models, and such terrain models can easily exceed the size of the main memory in a regular computer, our data structure is I/O-efficient, that is, it minimizes the number of I/Os (i.e. block transfers) between main memory and disk. For a terrain represented as a raster of N cells, it can be constructed using O(N/B log_M/B N/B) I/Os, it can compute the flood risk in a given small region using O(log_B N) I/Os, and it can handle updating the terrain elevation in a given small region using O(log²_B N) I/Os, where B is the block size and M is the capacity of main memory.

Lars Arge, Mathias Rav, Morten Revsbæk, Yujin Shin, and Jungwoo Yang. Sea-Rise Flooding on Massive Dynamic Terrains. In 17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 162, pp. 6:1-6:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{arge_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.6, author = {Arge, Lars and Rav, Mathias and Revsb{\ae}k, Morten and Shin, Yujin and Yang, Jungwoo}, title = {{Sea-Rise Flooding on Massive Dynamic Terrains}}, booktitle = {17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020)}, pages = {6:1--6:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-150-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {162}, editor = {Albers, Susanne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-122539}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.6}, annote = {Keywords: Computational geometry, I/O-algorithms, merge tree, dynamic terrain} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 34, 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)

We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present a kinetic data structure (KDS) for maintaining T efficiently. It maintains certificates that fail, i.e., an event occurs, only when the heights of two adjacent vertices become equal or two saddle vertices appear on the same contour. Assuming that the heights of two vertices of Sigma become equal only O(1) times and these instances can be computed in O(1) time, the KDS processes O(kappa + n) events, where n is the number of vertices in Sigma and kappa is the number of events at which the combinatorial structure of T changes, and processes each event in O(log n) time. The KDS can be extended to maintain an augmented contour tree and a join/split tree.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Thomas Mølhave, Morten Revsbæk, Issam Safa, Yusu Wang, and Jungwoo Yang. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains. In 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 34, pp. 796-811, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.796, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and M{\o}lhave, Thomas and Revsb{\ae}k, Morten and Safa, Issam and Wang, Yusu and Yang, Jungwoo}, title = {{Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)}, pages = {796--811}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-83-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {34}, editor = {Arge, Lars and Pach, J\'{a}nos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.796}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-51406}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.796}, annote = {Keywords: Contour tree, dynamic terrain, kinetic data structure} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

We give the first efficient algorithm to approximately count the number of solutions in the random k-SAT model when the density of the formula scales exponentially with k. The best previous counting algorithm was due to Montanari and Shah and was based on the correlation decay method, which works up to densities (1+o_k(1))(2log k)/k, the Gibbs uniqueness threshold for the model. Instead, our algorithm harnesses a recent technique by Moitra to work for random formulas with much higher densities. The main challenge in our setting is to account for the presence of high-degree variables whose marginal distributions are hard to control and which cause significant correlations within the formula.

Andreas Galanis, Leslie Ann Goldberg, Heng Guo, and Kuan Yang. Counting Solutions to Random CNF Formulas. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 53:1-53:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{galanis_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.53, author = {Galanis, Andreas and Goldberg, Leslie Ann and Guo, Heng and Yang, Kuan}, title = {{Counting Solutions to Random CNF Formulas}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {53:1--53:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124603}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.53}, annote = {Keywords: random CNF formulas, approximate counting} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 116, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)

We consider the problem of sampling from the Potts model on random regular graphs. It is conjectured that sampling is possible when the temperature of the model is in the so-called uniqueness regime of the regular tree, but positive algorithmic results have been for the most part elusive. In this paper, for all integers q >= 3 and Delta >= 3, we develop algorithms that produce samples within error o(1) from the q-state Potts model on random Delta-regular graphs, whenever the temperature is in uniqueness, for both the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic cases.
The algorithm for the antiferromagnetic Potts model is based on iteratively adding the edges of the graph and resampling a bichromatic class that contains the endpoints of the newly added edge. Key to the algorithm is how to perform the resampling step efficiently since bichromatic classes can potentially induce linear-sized components. To this end, we exploit the tree uniqueness to show that the average growth of bichromatic components is typically small, which allows us to use correlation decay algorithms for the resampling step. While the precise uniqueness threshold on the tree is not known for general values of q and Delta in the antiferromagnetic case, our algorithm works throughout uniqueness regardless of its value.
In the case of the ferromagnetic Potts model, we are able to simplify the algorithm significantly by utilising the random-cluster representation of the model. In particular, we demonstrate that a percolation-type algorithm succeeds in sampling from the random-cluster model with parameters p,q on random Delta-regular graphs for all values of q >= 1 and p<p_c(q,Delta), where p_c(q,Delta) corresponds to a uniqueness threshold for the model on the Delta-regular tree. When restricted to integer values of q, this yields a simplified algorithm for the ferromagnetic Potts model on random Delta-regular graphs.

Antonio Blanca, Andreas Galanis, Leslie Ann Goldberg, Daniel Stefankovic, Eric Vigoda, and Kuan Yang. Sampling in Uniqueness from the Potts and Random-Cluster Models on Random Regular Graphs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 116, pp. 33:1-33:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{blanca_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.33, author = {Blanca, Antonio and Galanis, Andreas and Goldberg, Leslie Ann and Stefankovic, Daniel and Vigoda, Eric and Yang, Kuan}, title = {{Sampling in Uniqueness from the Potts and Random-Cluster Models on Random Regular Graphs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)}, pages = {33:1--33:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-085-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {116}, editor = {Blais, Eric and Jansen, Klaus and D. P. Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Steurer, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94371}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.33}, annote = {Keywords: sampling, Potts model, random regular graphs, phase transitions} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We study the complexity of approximate counting Constraint Satisfaction Problems (#CSPs) in a bounded degree setting. Specifically, given a Boolean constraint language Gamma and a degree bound Delta, we study the complexity of #CSP_Delta(Gamma), which is the problem of counting satisfying assignments to CSP instances with constraints from Gamma and whose variables can appear at most Delta times. Our main result shows that: (i) if every function in Gamma is affine, then #CSP_Delta(Gamma) is in FP for all Delta, (ii) otherwise, if every function in Gamma is in a class called IM_2, then for all sufficiently large Delta, #CSP_Delta(Gamma) is equivalent under approximation-preserving (AP) reductions to the counting problem #BIS (the problem of counting independent sets in bipartite graphs) (iii) otherwise, for all sufficiently large Delta, it is NP-hard to approximate the number of satisfying assignments of an instance of #CSP_Delta(Gamma), even within an exponential factor. Our result extends previous results, which apply only in the so-called "conservative" case.

Andreas Galanis, Leslie Ann Goldberg, and Kuan Yang. Approximating Partition Functions of Bounded-Degree Boolean Counting Constraint Satisfaction Problems. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 27:1-27:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{galanis_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.27, author = {Galanis, Andreas and Goldberg, Leslie Ann and Yang, Kuan}, title = {{Approximating Partition Functions of Bounded-Degree Boolean Counting Constraint Satisfaction Problems}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {27:1--27:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74099}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.27}, annote = {Keywords: Constraint Satisfaction, Approximate Counting} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 47, 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)

Hardcore and Ising models are two most important families of two state spin systems in statistic physics. Partition function of spin systems is the center concept in statistic physics which connects microscopic particles and their interactions with their macroscopic and statistical properties of materials such as energy, entropy, ferromagnetism, etc. If each local interaction of the system involves only two particles, the system can be described by a graph. In this case, fully polynomial-time approximation scheme (FPTAS) for computing the partition function of both hardcore and anti-ferromagnetic Ising model was designed up to the uniqueness condition of the system. These result are the best possible since approximately computing the partition function beyond this threshold is NP-hard. In this paper, we generalize these results to general physics systems, where each local interaction may involves multiple particles. Such systems are described by hypergraphs. For hardcore model, we also provide FPTAS up to the uniqueness condition, and for anti-ferromagnetic Ising model, we obtain FPTAS under a slightly stronger condition.

Pinyan Lu, Kuan Yang, and Chihao Zhang. FPTAS for Hardcore and Ising Models on Hypergraphs. In 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 47, pp. 51:1-51:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{lu_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2016.51, author = {Lu, Pinyan and Yang, Kuan and Zhang, Chihao}, title = {{FPTAS for Hardcore and Ising Models on Hypergraphs}}, booktitle = {33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)}, pages = {51:1--51:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-001-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {47}, editor = {Ollinger, Nicolas and Vollmer, Heribert}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.51}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-57526}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.51}, annote = {Keywords: hard-core model, ising model, hypergraph, spatial mixing, correlation decay} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 54, 27th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2016)

Let S and S' be two strings of the same length.We consider the following two variants of string matching.
* Parameterized Matching: The characters of S and S' are partitioned into static characters and parameterized characters.
The strings are parameterized match iff the static characters match exactly and there exists a one-to-one function which renames the parameterized characters in S to those in S'.
* Order-Preserving Matching: The strings are order-preserving match iff for any two integers i,j in [1,|S|], S[i] <= S[j] iff S'[i] <= S'[j].
Let P be a collection of d patterns {P_1, P_2, ..., P_d} of total length n characters, which are chosen from an alphabet Sigma.
Given a text T, also over Sigma, we consider the dictionary indexing problem under the above definitions of string matching.
Specifically, the task is to index P, such that we can report all positions j where at least one of the patterns P_i in P is a parameterized-match (resp. order-preserving match) with the same-length substring of $T$ starting at j. Previous best-known indexes occupy O(n * log(n)) bits and can report all occ positions in O(|T| * log(|Sigma|) + occ) time. We present space-efficient indexes that occupy O(n * log(|Sigma|+d) * log(n)) bits and reports all occ positions in O(|T| * (log(|Sigma|) + log_{|Sigma|}(n)) + occ) time for parameterized matching and in O(|T| * log(n) + occ) time for order-preserving matching.

Arnab Ganguly, Wing-Kai Hon, Kunihiko Sadakane, Rahul Shah, Sharma V. Thankachan, and Yilin Yang. Space-Efficient Dictionaries for Parameterized and Order-Preserving Pattern Matching. In 27th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 54, pp. 2:1-2:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{ganguly_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2016.2, author = {Ganguly, Arnab and Hon, Wing-Kai and Sadakane, Kunihiko and Shah, Rahul and Thankachan, Sharma V. and Yang, Yilin}, title = {{Space-Efficient Dictionaries for Parameterized and Order-Preserving Pattern Matching}}, booktitle = {27th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2016)}, pages = {2:1--2:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-012-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {54}, editor = {Grossi, Roberto and Lewenstein, Moshe}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2016.2}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-60736}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2016.2}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized Matching, Order-preserving Matching, Dictionary Indexing, Aho-Corasick Automaton, Sparsification} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 54, 27th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2016)

The genomic scaffold filling problem has attracted a lot of attention recently. The problem is on filling an incomplete sequence (scaffold) I into I', with respect to a complete reference genome G, such that the number of adjacencies between G and I' is maximized. The problem is NP-complete and APX-hard, and admits a 1.2-approximation. However, the sequence input I is not quite practical and does not fit most of the real datasets (where a scaffold is more often given as a list of contigs). In this paper, we revisit the genomic scaffold filling problem by considering this important case when, (1) a scaffold S is given, the missing genes X = c(G) - c(S) can only be inserted in between the contigs, and the objective is to maximize the number of adjacencies between G and the filled S' and (2) a scaffold S is given, a subset of the missing genes X' subset X = c(G) - c(S) can only be inserted in between the contigs, and the objective is still to maximize the number of adjacencies between G and the filled S''. For problem (1), we present a simple NP-completeness proof, we then present a factor-2 greedy approximation algorithm, and finally we show that the problem is FPT when each gene appears at most d times in G. For problem (2), we prove that the problem is W[1]-hard and then we present a factor-2 FPT-approximation for the case when each gene appears at most d times in G.

Haitao Jiang, Chenglin Fan, Boting Yang, Farong Zhong, Daming Zhu, and Binhai Zhu. Genomic Scaffold Filling Revisited. In 27th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 54, pp. 15:1-15:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{jiang_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2016.15, author = {Jiang, Haitao and Fan, Chenglin and Yang, Boting and Zhong, Farong and Zhu, Daming and Zhu, Binhai}, title = {{Genomic Scaffold Filling Revisited}}, booktitle = {27th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2016)}, pages = {15:1--15:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-012-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {54}, editor = {Grossi, Roberto and Lewenstein, Moshe}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2016.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-60791}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2016.15}, annote = {Keywords: Computational biology, Approximation algorithms, FPT algorithms, NP- completeness} }

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Invited Paper

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 59, 27th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2016)

We present a new formulation of the V-formation problem for migrating birds in terms of model predictive control (MPC). In our approach, to drive a collection of birds towards a desired formation, an optimal velocity adjustment (acceleration) is performed at each time-step on each bird's current velocity using a model-based prediction window of $T$ time-steps. We present both centralized and distributed versions of this approach. The optimization criteria we consider are based on fitness metrics of candidate accelerations that birds in a V-formations are known to benefit from, including velocity matching, clear view, and upwash benefit. We validate our MPC-based approach by showing that for a significant majority of simulation runs, the flock succeeds in forming the desired formation. Our results help to better understand the emergent behavior of formation flight, and provide a control strategy for flocks of autonomous aerial vehicles.

Junxing Yang, Radu Grosu, Scott A. Smolka, and Ashish Tiwari. Love Thy Neighbor: V-Formation as a Problem of Model Predictive Control (Invited Paper). In 27th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 59, pp. 4:1-4:5, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{yang_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2016.4, author = {Yang, Junxing and Grosu, Radu and Smolka, Scott A. and Tiwari, Ashish}, title = {{Love Thy Neighbor: V-Formation as a Problem of Model Predictive Control}}, booktitle = {27th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2016)}, pages = {4:1--4:5}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-017-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {59}, editor = {Desharnais, Jos\'{e}e and Jagadeesan, Radha}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2016.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-61896}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2016.4}, annote = {Keywords: bird flocking, v-formation, model predictive control, particle swarm optimization} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

We study the problem of scheduling precedence-constrained jobs on heterogenous machines in the presence of non-uniform job and machine communication delays. We are given a set of n unit size precedence-ordered jobs, and a set of m related machines each with size m_i (machine i can execute at most m_i jobs at any time). Each machine i has an associated in-delay ρ^{in}_i and out-delay ρ^{out}_i. Each job v also has an associated in-delay ρ^{in}_v and out-delay ρ^{out}_v. In a schedule, job v may be executed on machine i at time t if each predecessor u of v is completed on i before time t or on any machine j before time t - (ρ^{in}_i + ρ^{out}_j + ρ^{out}_u + ρ^{in}_v). The objective is to construct a schedule that minimizes makespan, which is the maximum completion time over all jobs.
We consider schedules which allow duplication of jobs as well as schedules which do not. When duplication is allowed, we provide an asymptotic polylog(n)-approximation algorithm. This approximation is further improved in the setting with uniform machine speeds and sizes. Our best approximation for non-uniform delays is provided for the setting with uniform speeds, uniform sizes, and no job delays. For schedules with no duplication, we obtain an asymptotic polylog(n)-approximation for the above model, and a true polylog(n)-approximation for symmetric machine and job delays. These results represent the first polylogarithmic approximation algorithms for scheduling with non-uniform communication delays.
Finally, we consider a more general model, where the delay can be an arbitrary function of the job and the machine executing it: job v can be executed on machine i at time t if all of v’s predecessors are executed on i by time t-1 or on any machine by time t - ρ_{v,i}. We present an approximation-preserving reduction from the Unique Machines Precedence-constrained Scheduling (umps) problem, first defined in [Sami Davies et al., 2022], to this job-machine delay model. The reduction entails logarithmic hardness for this delay setting, as well as polynomial hardness if the conjectured hardness of umps holds.
This set of results is among the first steps toward cataloging the rich landscape of problems in non-uniform delay scheduling.

Rajmohan Rajaraman, David Stalfa, and Sheng Yang. Scheduling Under Non-Uniform Job and Machine Delays. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 98:1-98:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{rajaraman_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.98, author = {Rajaraman, Rajmohan and Stalfa, David and Yang, Sheng}, title = {{Scheduling Under Non-Uniform Job and Machine Delays}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {98:1--98:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.98}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181502}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.98}, annote = {Keywords: Scheduling, Approximation Algorithms, Precedence Constraints, Communication Delay, Non-Uniform Delays} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

We study the correlated stochastic knapsack problem of a submodular target function, with optional additional constraints. We utilize the multilinear extension of submodular function, and bundle it with an adaptation of the relaxed linear constraints from Ma [Mathematics of Operations Research, Volume 43(3), 2018] on correlated stochastic knapsack problem. The relaxation is then solved by the stochastic continuous greedy algorithm, and rounded by a novel method to fit the contention resolution scheme (Feldman et al. [FOCS 2011]). We obtain a pseudo-polynomial time (1 - 1/√e)/2 ≃ 0.1967 approximation algorithm with or without those additional constraints, eliminating the need of a key assumption and improving on the (1 - 1/∜e)/2 ≃ 0.1106 approximation by Fukunaga et al. [AAAI 2019].

Sheng Yang, Samir Khuller, Sunav Choudhary, Subrata Mitra, and Kanak Mahadik. Correlated Stochastic Knapsack with a Submodular Objective. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 91:1-91:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{yang_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.91, author = {Yang, Sheng and Khuller, Samir and Choudhary, Sunav and Mitra, Subrata and Mahadik, Kanak}, title = {{Correlated Stochastic Knapsack with a Submodular Objective}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {91:1--91:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.91}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-170296}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.91}, annote = {Keywords: Stochastic Knapsack, Submodular Optimization, Stochastic Optimization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 60, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)

In this paper we consider the classical Connected Dominating Set (CDS) problem. Twenty years ago, Guha and Khuller developed two algorithms for this problem - a centralized greedy approach with an approximation guarantee of H(D) +2, and a local greedy approach with an approximation guarantee of 2(H(D)+1) (where H() is the harmonic function, and D is the maximum degree in the graph). A local greedy algorithm uses significantly less information about the graph, and can be useful in a variety of contexts. However, a fundamental question remained - can we get a local greedy algorithm with the same performance guarantee as the global greedy algorithm without the penalty of the multiplicative factor of "2" in the approximation factor? In this paper, we answer that question in the affirmative.

Samir Khuller and Sheng Yang. Revisiting Connected Dominating Sets: An Optimal Local Algorithm?. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 60, pp. 11:1-11:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{khuller_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.11, author = {Khuller, Samir and Yang, Sheng}, title = {{Revisiting Connected Dominating Sets: An Optimal Local Algorithm?}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)}, pages = {11:1--11:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-018-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {60}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Mathieu, Claire and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Umans, Chris}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66340}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.11}, annote = {Keywords: graph algorithms, approximation algorithms, dominating sets, local information algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 79, 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)

The complexity class PPA consists of NP-search problems which are reducible to the parity principle in undirected graphs. It contains a wide variety of interesting problems from graph theory, combinatorics, algebra and number theory, but only a few of these are known to be complete in the class. Before this work, the known complete problems were all discretizations or combinatorial analogues of topological fixed point theorems.
Here we prove the PPA-completeness of two problems of radically different style. They are PPA-Circuit CNSS and PPA-Circuit Chevalley, related respectively to the Combinatorial Nullstellensatz and to the Chevalley-Warning Theorem over the two elements field GF(2). The input of these problems contain PPA-circuits which are arithmetic circuits with special symmetric properties that assure that the polynomials computed by them have always an even number of zeros. In the proof of the result we relate the multilinear degree of the polynomials to the parity of the maximal parse subcircuits that compute monomials with maximal multilinear degree, and we show that the maximal parse subcircuits of a PPA-circuit can be paired in polynomial time.

Aleksandrs Belovs, Gábor Ivanyos, Youming Qiao, Miklos Santha, and Siyi Yang. On the Polynomial Parity Argument Complexity of the Combinatorial Nullstellensatz. In 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 79, pp. 30:1-30:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{belovs_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2017.30, author = {Belovs, Aleksandrs and Ivanyos, G\'{a}bor and Qiao, Youming and Santha, Miklos and Yang, Siyi}, title = {{On the Polynomial Parity Argument Complexity of the Combinatorial Nullstellensatz}}, booktitle = {32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)}, pages = {30:1--30:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-040-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {79}, editor = {O'Donnell, Ryan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.30}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75260}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.30}, annote = {Keywords: Chevalley-Warning Theorem, Combinatorail Nullstellensatz, Polynomial Parity Argument, arithmetic circuit} }

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Invited Talk

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 131, 4th International Conference on Formal Structures for Computation and Deduction (FSCD 2019)

This is a slightly extended abstract of my talk at FSCD'19 about probabilistic programming and a few semantic issues on it. The main purpose of this abstract is to provide keywords and references on the work mentioned in my talk, and help interested audience to do follow-up study.

Hongseok Yang. Some Semantic Issues in Probabilistic Programming Languages (Invited Talk). In 4th International Conference on Formal Structures for Computation and Deduction (FSCD 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 131, pp. 4:1-4:6, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{yang:LIPIcs.FSCD.2019.4, author = {Yang, Hongseok}, title = {{Some Semantic Issues in Probabilistic Programming Languages}}, booktitle = {4th International Conference on Formal Structures for Computation and Deduction (FSCD 2019)}, pages = {4:1--4:6}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-107-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {131}, editor = {Geuvers, Herman}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSCD.2019.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-105118}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSCD.2019.4}, annote = {Keywords: Probabilistic Programming, Denotational Semantics, Non-differentiable Models, Bayesian Nonparametrics, Exchangeability} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

In this paper we use the framework of algebraic effects from programming language theory to analyze the Beta-Bernoulli process, a standard building block in Bayesian models. Our analysis reveals the importance of abstract data types, and two types of program equations, called commutativity and discardability. We develop an equational theory of terms that use the Beta-Bernoulli process, and show that the theory is complete with respect to the measure-theoretic semantics, and also in the syntactic sense of Post. Our analysis has a potential for being generalized to other stochastic processes relevant to Bayesian modelling, yielding new understanding of these processes from the perspective of programming.

Sam Staton, Dario Stein, Hongseok Yang, Nathanael L. Ackerman, Cameron E. Freer, and Daniel M. Roy. The Beta-Bernoulli process and algebraic effects. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 141:1-141:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{staton_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.141, author = {Staton, Sam and Stein, Dario and Yang, Hongseok and Ackerman, Nathanael L. and Freer, Cameron E. and Roy, Daniel M.}, title = {{The Beta-Bernoulli process and algebraic effects}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {141:1--141:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.141}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-91456}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.141}, annote = {Keywords: Beta-Bernoulli process, Algebraic effects, Probabilistic programming, Exchangeability} }

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Invited Talk

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 85, 28th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2017)

Probabilistic programming refers to the idea of using standard programming constructs for specifying probabilistic models from machine learning and statistics, and employing generic inference algorithms for answering various queries on these models, such as posterior inference and estimation of model evidence. Although this idea itself is not new and was, in fact, explored by several programming-language and statistics researchers in the early 2000, it is only in the last few years that probabilistic programming has gained a large amount of attention among researchers in machine learning and programming languages, and that expressive and efficient probabilistic programming systems (such as Anglican, Church, Figaro, Infer.net, PSI, PyMC, Stan, and Venture) started to appear and have been taken up by a nontrivial number of users.
The primary goal of my talk is to introduce probabilistic programming to the CONCUR/QUEST/FORMATS audience. At the end of my talk, I want the audience to understand basic results and techniques in probabilistic programming and to feel that these results and techniques are relevant or at least related to what she or he studies, although they typically come from foreign research areas, such as machine learning and statistics. My talk will contain both technical materials and lessons that I learnt from my machine-learning colleagues in Oxford, who are developing a highly-expressive higher-order probabilistic programming language, called Anglican. It will also include my work on the denotational semantics of higher-order probabilistic programming languages and their inference algorithms, which are jointly pursued with colleagues in Cambridge, Edinburgh, Oxford and Tubingen.

Hongseok Yang. Probabilistic Programming (Invited Talk). In 28th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 85, p. 3:1, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{yang:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.3, author = {Yang, Hongseok}, title = {{Probabilistic Programming}}, booktitle = {28th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2017)}, pages = {3:1--3:1}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-048-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {85}, editor = {Meyer, Roland and Nestmann, Uwe}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-78088}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.3}, annote = {Keywords: Probabilistic programming, Machine learning, Denotational semantics} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 85, 28th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2017)

Modern distributed systems often rely on so called weakly consistent databases, which achieve scalability by weakening consistency guarantees of distributed transaction processing. The semantics of such databases have been formalised in two different styles, one based on abstract executions and the other based on dependency graphs. The choice between these styles has been made according to intended applications. The former has been used for specifying and verifying the implementation of the databases, while the latter for proving properties of client programs of the databases.
In this paper, we present a set of novel algebraic laws (inequalities) that connect these two styles of specifications. The laws relate binary relations used in a specification based on abstract executions to those used in a specification based on dependency graphs. We then show that this algebraic connection gives rise to so called robustness criteria: conditions which ensure that a client program of a weakly consistent database does not exhibit anomalous behaviours due to weak consistency. These criteria make it easy to reason about these client programs, and may become a basis for dynamic or static program analyses.
For a certain class of consistency models specifications, we prove a full
abstraction result that connects the two styles of specifications.

Andrea Cerone, Alexey Gotsman, and Hongseok Yang. Algebraic Laws for Weak Consistency. In 28th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 85, pp. 26:1-26:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{cerone_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.26, author = {Cerone, Andrea and Gotsman, Alexey and Yang, Hongseok}, title = {{Algebraic Laws for Weak Consistency}}, booktitle = {28th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2017)}, pages = {26:1--26:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-048-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {85}, editor = {Meyer, Roland and Nestmann, Uwe}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77946}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.26}, annote = {Keywords: Weak Consistency Models, Distributed Databases, Dependency Graphs} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 94, 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)

In computational complexity, a complexity class is given by a set of problems or functions, and a basic challenge is to show separations of complexity classes A != B especially when A is known to be a subset of B. In this paper we introduce a homological theory of functions that can be used to establish complexity separations, while also providing other interesting consequences.
We propose to associate a topological space S_A to each class of functions A, such that,
to separate complexity classes A from a superclass B', it suffices to observe a change in "the number of holes", i.e. homology, in S_A as a subclass B of B' is added to A. In other words, if the homologies of S_A and S_{A union B} are different, then A != B'.
We develop the underlying theory of functions based on homological commutative algebra and Stanley-Reisner theory, and prove a "maximal principle" for polynomial threshold functions that is used to recover Aspnes, Beigel, Furst, and Rudich's characterization of the polynomial threshold degree of symmetric functions.
A surprising coincidence is demonstrated, where, roughly speaking, the maximal dimension of "holes" in S_A upper bounds the VC dimension of A, with equality for common computational cases such as the class of polynomial threshold functions or the class of linear functionals over the finite field of 2 elements, or common algebraic cases such as when the Stanley-Reisner ring of S_A is Cohen-Macaulay. As another interesting application of our theory, we prove a result that a priori has nothing to do with complexity separation: it characterizes when a vector subspace intersects the positive cone, in terms of homological conditions. By analogy to Farkas' result doing the same with linear conditions, we call our theorem the Homological Farkas Lemma.

Greg Yang. A Homological Theory of Functions: Nonuniform Boolean Complexity Separation and VC Dimension Bound Via Algebraic Topology, and a Homological Farkas Lemma. In 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 94, pp. 56:1-56:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{yang:LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.56, author = {Yang, Greg}, title = {{A Homological Theory of Functions: Nonuniform Boolean Complexity Separation and VC Dimension Bound Via Algebraic Topology, and a Homological Farkas Lemma}}, booktitle = {9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)}, pages = {56:1--56:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-060-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {94}, editor = {Karlin, Anna R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.56}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83436}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.56}, annote = {Keywords: Homology, Stanley-Reisner, Cellular resolution, VC dimension, Homological Farkas} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 298, 36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024)

Machine-learning (ML) technology has been a key enabler in the push towards realizing ever more sophisticated autonomous-driving features. In deploying such technology, the automotive industry has relied heavily on using "black-box" software and hardware components that were originally intended for non-safety-critical contexts, without a full understanding of their real-time capabilities. A prime example of such a component is CUDA, which is fundamental to the acceleration of ML algorithms using NVIDIA GPUs. In this paper, evidence is presented demonstrating that CUDA can cause unbounded task delays. Such delays are the result of CUDA’s usage of synchronization mechanisms in the POSIX thread (pthread) library, so the latter is implicated as a delay-prone component as well. Such synchronization delays are shown to be the source of a system failure that occurred in an actual autonomous vehicle system during testing at WeRide. Motivated by these findings, a broader experimental study is presented that demonstrates several real-time deficiencies in CUDA, the glibc pthread library, Linux, and the POSIX interface of the safety-certified QNX Operating System for Safety. Partial mitigations for these deficiencies are presented and further actions are proposed for real-time researchers and developers to integrate more complete mitigations.

Sizhe Liu, Rohan Wagle, James H. Anderson, Ming Yang, Chi Zhang, and Yunhua Li. Autonomy Today: Many Delay-Prone Black Boxes. In 36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 298, pp. 12:1-12:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{liu_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2024.12, author = {Liu, Sizhe and Wagle, Rohan and Anderson, James H. and Yang, Ming and Zhang, Chi and Li, Yunhua}, title = {{Autonomy Today: Many Delay-Prone Black Boxes}}, booktitle = {36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024)}, pages = {12:1--12:27}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-324-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {298}, editor = {Pellizzoni, Rodolfo}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2024.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203152}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2024.12}, annote = {Keywords: autonomous driving, CUDA programming, locking protocols, POSIX thread, operating systems, machine learning systems, real-time systems} }

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Artifact

**Published in:** DARTS, Volume 10, Issue 1, Special Issue of the 36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024)

Machine-learning (ML) technology has been a key enabler in the push towards realizing ever more sophisticated autonomous-driving features. In deploying such technology, the automotive industry has relied heavily on using "black-box" software and hardware components that were originally intended for non-safety-critical contexts, without a full understanding of their real-time capabilities. A prime example of such a component is CUDA, which is fundamental to the acceleration of ML algorithms using NVIDIA GPUs. In this paper, evidence is presented demonstrating that CUDA can cause unbounded task delays. Such delays are the result of CUDA’s usage of synchronization mechanisms in the POSIX thread (pthread) library, so the latter is implicated as a delay-prone component as well. Such synchronization delays are shown to be the source of a system failure that occurred in an actual autonomous vehicle system during testing at WeRide. Motivated by these findings, a broader experimental study is presented that demonstrates several real-time deficiencies in CUDA, the glibc pthread library, Linux, and the POSIX interface of the safety-certified QNX Operating System for Safety. Partial mitigations for these deficiencies are presented and further actions are proposed for real-time researchers and developers to integrate more complete mitigations.

Sizhe Liu, Rohan Wagle, James H. Anderson, Ming Yang, Chi Zhang, and Yunhua Li. Autonomy Today: Many Delay-Prone Black Boxes (Artifact). In Special Issue of the 36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024). Dagstuhl Artifacts Series (DARTS), Volume 10, Issue 1, pp. 3:1-3:3, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@Article{liu_et_al:DARTS.10.1.3, author = {Liu, Sizhe and Wagle, Rohan and Anderson, James H. and Yang, Ming and Zhang, Chi and Li, Yunhua}, title = {{Autonomy Today: Many Delay-Prone Black Boxes (Artifact)}}, pages = {3:1--3:3}, journal = {Dagstuhl Artifacts Series}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-327-0}, ISSN = {2509-8195}, year = {2024}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, editor = {Liu, Sizhe and Wagle, Rohan and Anderson, James H. and Yang, Ming and Zhang, Chi and Li, Yunhua}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DARTS.10.1.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203259}, doi = {10.4230/DARTS.10.1.3}, annote = {Keywords: autonomous driving, CUDA programming, locking protocols, POSIX thread, operating systems, machine learning systems, real-time systems} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 106, 30th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2018)

NVIDIA's CUDA API has enabled GPUs to be used as computing accelerators across a wide range of applications. This has resulted in performance gains in many application domains, but the underlying GPU hardware and software are subject to many non-obvious pitfalls. This is particularly problematic for safety-critical systems, where worst-case behaviors must be taken into account. While such behaviors were not a key concern for earlier CUDA users, the usage of GPUs in autonomous vehicles has taken CUDA programs out of the sole domain of computer-vision and machine-learning experts and into safety-critical processing pipelines. Certification is necessary in this new domain, which is problematic because GPU software may have been developed without any regard for worst-case behaviors. Pitfalls when using CUDA in real-time autonomous systems can result from the lack of specifics in official documentation, and developers of GPU software not being aware of the implications of their design choices with regards to real-time requirements. This paper focuses on the particular challenges facing the real-time community when utilizing CUDA-enabled GPUs for autonomous applications, and best practices for applying real-time safety-critical principles.

Ming Yang, Nathan Otterness, Tanya Amert, Joshua Bakita, James H. Anderson, and F. Donelson Smith. Avoiding Pitfalls when Using NVIDIA GPUs for Real-Time Tasks in Autonomous Systems. In 30th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 106, pp. 20:1-20:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{yang_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2018.20, author = {Yang, Ming and Otterness, Nathan and Amert, Tanya and Bakita, Joshua and Anderson, James H. and Smith, F. Donelson}, title = {{Avoiding Pitfalls when Using NVIDIA GPUs for Real-Time Tasks in Autonomous Systems}}, booktitle = {30th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2018)}, pages = {20:1--20:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-075-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {106}, editor = {Altmeyer, Sebastian}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2018.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-89845}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2018.20}, annote = {Keywords: real-time systems, graphics processing units, scheduling algorithms, parallel computing, embedded software} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 129, 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)

We resolve the randomized one-way communication complexity of Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance. We show that there is an efficient one-way communication protocol using O~(n/alpha) bits for the problem of computing an alpha-approximation for DTW between strings x and y of length n, and we prove a lower bound of Omega(n / alpha) bits for the same problem. Our communication protocol works for strings over an arbitrary metric of polynomial size and aspect ratio, and we optimize the logarithmic factors depending on properties of the underlying metric, such as when the points are low-dimensional integer vectors equipped with various metrics or have bounded doubling dimension. We also consider linear sketches of DTW, showing that such sketches must have size Omega(n).

Vladimir Braverman, Moses Charikar, William Kuszmaul, David P. Woodruff, and Lin F. Yang. The One-Way Communication Complexity of Dynamic Time Warping Distance. In 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 129, pp. 16:1-16:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.16, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Charikar, Moses and Kuszmaul, William and Woodruff, David P. and Yang, Lin F.}, title = {{The One-Way Communication Complexity of Dynamic Time Warping Distance}}, booktitle = {35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)}, pages = {16:1--16:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-104-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {129}, editor = {Barequet, Gill and Wang, Yusu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-104203}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.16}, annote = {Keywords: dynamic time warping, one-way communication complexity, tree metrics} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

Given a finite set of points P subseteq R^d, we would like to find a small subset S subseteq P such that the convex hull of S approximately contains P. More formally, every point in P is within distance epsilon from the convex hull of S. Such a subset S is called an epsilon-hull. Computing an epsilon-hull is an important problem in computational geometry, machine learning, and approximation algorithms.
In many applications, the set P is too large to fit in memory. We consider the streaming model where the algorithm receives the points of P sequentially and strives to use a minimal amount of memory. Existing streaming algorithms for computing an epsilon-hull require O(epsilon^{(1-d)/2}) space, which is optimal for a worst-case input. However, this ignores the structure of the data. The minimal size of an epsilon-hull of P, which we denote by OPT, can be much smaller. A natural question is whether a streaming algorithm can compute an epsilon-hull using only O(OPT) space.
We begin with lower bounds that show, under a reasonable streaming model, that it is not possible to have a single-pass streaming algorithm that computes an epsilon-hull with O(OPT) space. We instead propose three relaxations of the problem for which we can compute epsilon-hulls using space near-linear to the optimal size. Our first algorithm for points in R^2 that arrive in random-order uses O(log n * OPT) space. Our second algorithm for points in R^2 makes O(log(epsilon^{-1})) passes before outputting the epsilon-hull and requires O(OPT) space. Our third algorithm, for points in R^d for any fixed dimension d, outputs, with high probability, an epsilon-hull for all but delta-fraction of directions and requires O(OPT * log OPT) space.

Avrim Blum, Vladimir Braverman, Ananya Kumar, Harry Lang, and Lin F. Yang. Approximate Convex Hull of Data Streams. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 21:1-21:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{blum_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.21, author = {Blum, Avrim and Braverman, Vladimir and Kumar, Ananya and Lang, Harry and Yang, Lin F.}, title = {{Approximate Convex Hull of Data Streams}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {21:1--21:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-90254}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.21}, annote = {Keywords: Convex Hulls, Streaming Algorithms, Epsilon Kernels, Sparse Coding} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

We revisit one of the classic problems in the data stream literature, namely, that of estimating the frequency moments F_p for 0 < p < 2 of an underlying n-dimensional vector presented as a sequence of additive updates in a stream. It is well-known that using p-stable distributions one can approximate any of these moments up to a multiplicative (1+epsilon)-factor using O(epsilon^{-2} log n) bits of space, and this space bound is optimal up to a constant factor in the turnstile streaming model. We show that surprisingly, if one instead considers the popular random-order model of insertion-only streams, in which the updates to the underlying vector arrive in a random order, then one can beat this space bound and achieve O~(epsilon^{-2} + log n) bits of space, where the O~ hides poly(log(1/epsilon) + log log n) factors. If epsilon^{-2} ~~ log n, this represents a roughly quadratic improvement in the space achievable in turnstile streams. Our algorithm is in fact deterministic, and we show our space bound is optimal up to poly(log(1/epsilon) + log log n) factors for deterministic algorithms in the random order model. We also obtain a similar improvement in space for p = 2 whenever F_2 >~ log n * F_1.

Vladimir Braverman, Emanuele Viola, David P. Woodruff, and Lin F. Yang. Revisiting Frequency Moment Estimation in Random Order Streams. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 25:1-25:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.25, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Viola, Emanuele and Woodruff, David P. and Yang, Lin F.}, title = {{Revisiting Frequency Moment Estimation in Random Order Streams}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {25:1--25:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-90294}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.25}, annote = {Keywords: Data Stream, Frequency Moments, Random Order, Space Complexity, Insertion Only Stream} }

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Short Paper

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 114, 10th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2018)

In the big data era, the successful sharing and integration of data from various resources becomes an essential requirement. As statistical data serves as the foundation for professional domains to report the phenomena in the reality according to the selected administration units, its importance has been well recognized. However, statistical data is typically collected and published by different responsible agencies, hence the heterogeneity of how the data is designed, prepared and disseminated becomes an obstacle impeding the automatic and interoperable use in multidisciplinary applications. From a standardization perspective, this research proposes an identifier-based framework for modeling the spatial, temporal and thematic aspects of cross-domain statistical data, such that any piece of distributed statistical information can be correctly and automatically interpreted without any ambiguity for further analysis and exploration. The results indicate the proposed mechanism successfully enables a comprehensive management of indicators from different resources and enhances the easier data retrieval and correct use across different domains. Meanwhile, the interface design exemplifies an innovated improvement on the presentation and interpretation of statistical information. The proposed solution can be readily implemented for building a transparent sharing environment for the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI).

Jung-Hong Hong and Jing-Cen Yang. Facilitating the Interoperable Use of Cross-Domain Statistical Data Based on Standardized Identifiers (Short Paper). In 10th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 114, pp. 31:1-31:7, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{hong_et_al:LIPIcs.GISCIENCE.2018.31, author = {Hong, Jung-Hong and Yang, Jing-Cen}, title = {{Facilitating the Interoperable Use of Cross-Domain Statistical Data Based on Standardized Identifiers}}, booktitle = {10th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2018)}, pages = {31:1--31:7}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-083-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {114}, editor = {Winter, Stephan and Griffin, Amy and Sester, Monika}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.GISCIENCE.2018.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-93595}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.GISCIENCE.2018.31}, annote = {Keywords: Cross-Domain, Statistical Data, Standardized Codes, Visualization} }

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Short Paper

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 114, 10th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2018)

Recently, indoor space construction information has been actively carried out primarily in large buildings and in underground facilities. However, the building of this data was done by only a handful of people, and it was a time- and money-intensive task. Therefore, the technology of automatically extracting a wall and constructing a 3D model from architectural floor plans was developed. Complete automation is still limited by accuracy issues, and only a few sets of floor plan data to which the technology can be applied exist. In addition, it is difficult to extract complicated walls and their thickness to build the wall-junction structure of indoor spatial information, which requires significant topological information in the automation process. In this paper, we propose an automatic method of extracting the wall from an architectural floor plan suitable for the restoration of the indoor spatial information according to the indoor spatial information standard.

Hanme Jang, Jong Hyeon Yang, and Yu Kiyun. Automatic Wall Detection and Building Topology and Property of 2D Floor Plan (Short Paper). In 10th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 114, pp. 33:1-33:5, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{jang_et_al:LIPIcs.GISCIENCE.2018.33, author = {Jang, Hanme and Yang, Jong Hyeon and Kiyun, Yu}, title = {{Automatic Wall Detection and Building Topology and Property of 2D Floor Plan}}, booktitle = {10th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2018)}, pages = {33:1--33:5}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-083-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {114}, editor = {Winter, Stephan and Griffin, Amy and Sester, Monika}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.GISCIENCE.2018.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-93616}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.GISCIENCE.2018.33}, annote = {Keywords: Image Segmentation, Indoor space, Adjacency matrix, Wall thickness} }

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Short Paper

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 114, 10th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2018)

Text often includes references to places by name; in prior work, more than 20% of a sample of event-related tweets were found to include place names. Research has addressed the challenge of leveraging the geographic data reflected in text statements, with well-developed methods to recognize location mentions in text and related work on automated toponym resolution (deciding which place in the world is meant by a place name). A core issue that remains is to distinguish between text that mentions a place or places and text that is about a place or places. This paper presents the first step in research to address this challenge. The research reported here sets the conceptual and practical groundwork for subsequent supervised machine learning research; that research will leverage human-produced training data, for which a judgment is made about whether a statement is or is not about a place (or places), to train computational methods to do this classification for large volumes of text. The research step presented here focuses on three questions: (1) what kinds of entities are typically conceptualized as places, (2) what features of a statement prompt the reader to judge a statement to be about a place (or not about a place) and (3) how do judgments of whether or not a statement is about a place compare between a group of experts who have studied the concept of "place" from a geographic perspective and a cross-section of individuals recruited through a crowdsourcing platform to make these judgments.

Alan M. MacEachren, Richard Caneba, Hanzhou Chen, Harrison Cole, Emily Domanico, Nicholas Triozzi, Fangcao Xu, and Liping Yang. Is This Statement About A Place? Comparing two perspectives (Short Paper). In 10th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 114, pp. 44:1-44:6, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{maceachren_et_al:LIPIcs.GISCIENCE.2018.44, author = {MacEachren, Alan M. and Caneba, Richard and Chen, Hanzhou and Cole, Harrison and Domanico, Emily and Triozzi, Nicholas and Xu, Fangcao and Yang, Liping}, title = {{Is This Statement About A Place? Comparing two perspectives}}, booktitle = {10th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2018)}, pages = {44:1--44:6}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-083-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {114}, editor = {Winter, Stephan and Griffin, Amy and Sester, Monika}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.GISCIENCE.2018.44}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-93720}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.GISCIENCE.2018.44}, annote = {Keywords: geographic information retrieval, spatial language, crowdsourcing} }

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Short Paper

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 114, 10th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2018)

With social media widely used for interpersonal communication, it has served as one important channel for information creation and propagation especially during hazard events. Users of social media in hazard-affected area can capture and upload hazard information more timely by portable and internet-connected electric devices such as smart phones or tablet computers equipped with (Global Positioning System) GPS devices and cameras. The information from social media(e.g. Twitter, facebook, sina-weibo, WebChat, etc.) contains a lot of hazard related information including texts, pictures, and videos. Most important thing is that a fair proportion of these crowd-sourcing information is valuable for the geospatial analysis in Geographic information system (GIS) during the hazard mitigation process. The geospatial information (position of observer, hazard-affected region, status of damages, etc) can be acquired and extracted from social media data. And hazard related information could also be used as the GIS attributes. But social media data obtained from crowd-sourcing is quite complex and fragmented on format or semantics. In this paper, we introduced the method how to acquire and extract fine-grained hazard damage geospatial information. According to the need of hazard relief, we classified the extracted information into eleven hazard loss categories and we also analyzed the public's sentiment to the hazard. The 2017 typhoon "Hato" was selected as the case study to test the method introduced.

Jibo Xie, Tengfei Yang, and Guoqing Li. Extracting Geospatial Information from Social Media Data for Hazard Mitigation, Typhoon Hato as Case Study (Short Paper). In 10th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 114, pp. 65:1-65:6, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{xie_et_al:LIPIcs.GISCIENCE.2018.65, author = {Xie, Jibo and Yang, Tengfei and Li, Guoqing}, title = {{Extracting Geospatial Information from Social Media Data for Hazard Mitigation, Typhoon Hato as Case Study}}, booktitle = {10th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2018)}, pages = {65:1--65:6}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-083-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {114}, editor = {Winter, Stephan and Griffin, Amy and Sester, Monika}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.GISCIENCE.2018.65}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-93930}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.GISCIENCE.2018.65}, annote = {Keywords: Social media, hazard mitigation, GIS, information extraction, typhoon} }

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Invited Talk

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 118, 29th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2018)

Arithmetic over large finite fields is indispensable in modern cryptography. For efficienty, these operations are often implemented in manually optimized assembly programs. Since these arithmetic assembly programs necessarily perform lots of non-linear computation, checking their correctness is a challenging verification problem. We develop techniques to verify such programs automatically in this paper. Using our techniques, we have successfully verified a number of assembly programs in OpenSSL. Moreover, our tool verifies the boringSSL Montgomery Ladderstep (about 1400 assembly instructions) in 1 hour. This is by far the fastest verification technique for such programs.

Andy Polyakov, Ming-Hsien Tsai, Bow-Yaw Wang, and Bo-Yin Yang. Verifying Arithmetic Assembly Programs in Cryptographic Primitives (Invited Talk). In 29th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 118, pp. 4:1-4:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{polyakov_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2018.4, author = {Polyakov, Andy and Tsai, Ming-Hsien and Wang, Bow-Yaw and Yang, Bo-Yin}, title = {{Verifying Arithmetic Assembly Programs in Cryptographic Primitives}}, booktitle = {29th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2018)}, pages = {4:1--4:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-087-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {118}, editor = {Schewe, Sven and Zhang, Lijun}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2018.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-95425}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2018.4}, annote = {Keywords: Formal verification, Cryptography, Assembly Programs} }

Document

**Published in:** Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 14, Issue 3 (2024)

This report documents the programme and outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar "Logics for Dependence and Independence: Expressivity and Complexity" (24111). This seminar served as a follow-up seminar to the highly successful seminars "Dependence Logic: Theory and Applications" (13071), "Logics for Dependence and Independence" (15261) and "Logics for Dependence and Independence" (19031). A key objective of the seminar was to bring together researchers working in dependence logic and in application areas (for this edition with a particular emphasis on the areas of hyperproperties and formal linguistics), so that they can communicate state-of-the-art advances and embark on a systematic interaction. The goal was especially to reach those researchers who have recently started working in this thriving area, as well as researchers working on several aspects of complexity studies of team-based logics as well as expressivity issues, in particular in the just mentioned application areas. In particular, bringing together researchers from areas of theoretical studies with the application areas aimed at enhancing the synergy between the different communities working on dependence logic.

Juha Kontinen, Jonni Virtema, Heribert Vollmer, Fan Yang, and Nicolas Fröhlich. Logics for Dependence and Independence: Expressivity and Complexity (Dagstuhl Seminar 24111). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp. 31-51, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@Article{kontinen_et_al:DagRep.14.3.31, author = {Kontinen, Juha and Virtema, Jonni and Vollmer, Heribert and Yang, Fan and Fr\"{o}hlich, Nicolas}, title = {{Logics for Dependence and Independence: Expressivity and Complexity (Dagstuhl Seminar 24111)}}, pages = {31--51}, journal = {Dagstuhl Reports}, ISSN = {2192-5283}, year = {2024}, volume = {14}, number = {3}, editor = {Kontinen, Juha and Virtema, Jonni and Vollmer, Heribert and Yang, Fan and Fr\"{o}hlich, Nicolas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.14.3.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-211827}, doi = {10.4230/DagRep.14.3.31}, annote = {Keywords: finite model theory, formal linguistics, hyperproperties, information theory, team semantics} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)

We study the expressivity and complexity of model checking of linear temporal logic with team semantics (TeamLTL). TeamLTL, despite being a purely modal logic, is capable of defining hyperproperties, i.e., properties which relate multiple execution traces. TeamLTL has been introduced quite recently and only few results are known regarding its expressivity and its model checking problem. We relate the expressivity of TeamLTL to logics for hyperproperties obtained by extending LTL with trace and propositional quantifiers (HyperLTL and HyperQPTL). By doing so, we obtain a number of model checking results for TeamLTL and identify its undecidability frontier. In particular, we show decidability of model checking of the so-called left-flat fragment of any downward closed TeamLTL -extension. Moreover, we establish that the model checking problem of TeamLTL with Boolean disjunction and inclusion atoms is undecidable.

Jonni Virtema, Jana Hofmann, Bernd Finkbeiner, Juha Kontinen, and Fan Yang. Linear-Time Temporal Logic with Team Semantics: Expressivity and Complexity. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 52:1-52:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{virtema_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.52, author = {Virtema, Jonni and Hofmann, Jana and Finkbeiner, Bernd and Kontinen, Juha and Yang, Fan}, title = {{Linear-Time Temporal Logic with Team Semantics: Expressivity and Complexity}}, booktitle = {41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)}, pages = {52:1--52:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-215-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {213}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.52}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155634}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.52}, annote = {Keywords: Linear temporal logic, Hyperproperties, Model Checking, Expressivity} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 138, 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)

We study descriptive complexity of counting complexity classes in the range from #P to #*NP. A corollary of Fagin’s characterization of NP by existential second-order logic is that #P can be logically described as the class of functions counting satisfying assignments to free relation variables in first-order formulae. In this paper we extend this study to classes beyond #P and extensions of first-order logic with team semantics. These team-based logics are closely related to existential second-order logic and its fragments, hence our results also shed light on the complexity of counting for extensions of first-order logic in Tarski’s semantics. Our results show that the class #*NP can be logically characterized by independence logic and existential second-order logic, whereas dependence logic and inclusion logic give rise to subclasses of #*NP and #P, respectively. We also study the function class generated by inclusion logic and relate it to the complexity class TotP, which is a subclass of #P. Our main technical result shows that the problem of counting satisfying assignments for monotone Boolean Sigma_1-formulae is #*NP-complete with respect to Turing reductions as well as complete for the function class generated by dependence logic with respect to first-order reductions.

Anselm Haak, Juha Kontinen, Fabian Müller, Heribert Vollmer, and Fan Yang. Counting of Teams in First-Order Team Logics. In 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 138, pp. 19:1-19:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{haak_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.19, author = {Haak, Anselm and Kontinen, Juha and M\"{u}ller, Fabian and Vollmer, Heribert and Yang, Fan}, title = {{Counting of Teams in First-Order Team Logics}}, booktitle = {44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)}, pages = {19:1--19:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-117-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {138}, editor = {Rossmanith, Peter and Heggernes, Pinar and Katoen, Joost-Pieter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-109634}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.19}, annote = {Keywords: team-based logics, counting classes, finite model theory, descriptive complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

We present a framework for speeding up the time it takes to sample from discrete distributions μ defined over subsets of size k of a ground set of n elements, in the regime where k is much smaller than n. We show that if one has access to estimates of marginals P_{S∼ μ} {i ∈ S}, then the task of sampling from μ can be reduced to sampling from related distributions ν supported on size k subsets of a ground set of only n^{1-α}⋅ poly(k) elements. Here, 1/α ∈ [1, k] is the parameter of entropic independence for μ. Further, our algorithm only requires sparsified distributions ν that are obtained by applying a sparse (mostly 0) external field to μ, an operation that for many distributions μ of interest, retains algorithmic tractability of sampling from ν. This phenomenon, which we dub domain sparsification, allows us to pay a one-time cost of estimating the marginals of μ, and in return reduce the amortized cost needed to produce many samples from the distribution μ, as is often needed in upstream tasks such as counting and inference.
For a wide range of distributions where α = Ω(1), our result reduces the domain size, and as a corollary, the cost-per-sample, by a poly(n) factor. Examples include monomers in a monomer-dimer system, non-symmetric determinantal point processes, and partition-constrained Strongly Rayleigh measures. Our work significantly extends the reach of prior work of Anari and Dereziński who obtained domain sparsification for distributions with a log-concave generating polynomial (corresponding to α = 1). As a corollary of our new analysis techniques, we also obtain a less stringent requirement on the accuracy of marginal estimates even for the case of log-concave polynomials; roughly speaking, we show that constant-factor approximation is enough for domain sparsification, improving over O(1/k) relative error established in prior work.

Nima Anari, Michał Dereziński, Thuy-Duong Vuong, and Elizabeth Yang. Domain Sparsification of Discrete Distributions Using Entropic Independence. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 5:1-5:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{anari_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.5, author = {Anari, Nima and Derezi\'{n}ski, Micha{\l} and Vuong, Thuy-Duong and Yang, Elizabeth}, title = {{Domain Sparsification of Discrete Distributions Using Entropic Independence}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {5:1--5:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156013}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.5}, annote = {Keywords: Domain Sparsification, Markov Chains, Sampling, Entropic Independence} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

We present an elementary way to transform an expander graph into a simplicial complex where all high order random walks have a constant spectral gap, i.e., they converge rapidly to the stationary distribution. As an upshot, we obtain new constructions, as well as a natural probabilistic model to sample constant degree high-dimensional expanders.
In particular, we show that given an expander graph G, adding self loops to G and taking the tensor product of the modified graph with a high-dimensional expander produces a new high-dimensional expander. Our proof of rapid mixing of high order random walks is based on the decomposable Markov chains framework introduced by [Jerrum et al., 2004].

Siqi Liu, Sidhanth Mohanty, and Elizabeth Yang. High-Dimensional Expanders from Expanders. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 12:1-12:32, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{liu_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.12, author = {Liu, Siqi and Mohanty, Sidhanth and Yang, Elizabeth}, title = {{High-Dimensional Expanders from Expanders}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {12:1--12:32}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-116974}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.12}, annote = {Keywords: High-Dimensional Expanders, Markov Chains} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 163, 1st Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2020)

In a Multi-Prover environment, how little spatial separation is sufficient to assert the validity of an NP statement in Perfect Zero-Knowledge ? We exhibit a set of two novel Zero-Knowledge protocols for the 3-COLorability problem that use two (local) provers or three (entangled) provers and only require exchanging one edge and two bits with two trits per prover. This greatly improves the ability to prove Zero-Knowledge statements on very short distances with very basic communication gear.

Claude Crépeau, Arnaud Y. Massenet, Louis Salvail, Lucas Shigeru Stinchcombe, and Nan Yang. Practical Relativistic Zero-Knowledge for NP. In 1st Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 163, pp. 4:1-4:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{crepeau_et_al:LIPIcs.ITC.2020.4, author = {Cr\'{e}peau, Claude and Massenet, Arnaud Y. and Salvail, Louis and Stinchcombe, Lucas Shigeru and Yang, Nan}, title = {{Practical Relativistic Zero-Knowledge for NP}}, booktitle = {1st Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2020)}, pages = {4:1--4:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-151-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {163}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael and Smith, Adam D. and Wichs, Daniel}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITC.2020.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-121091}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITC.2020.4}, annote = {Keywords: Multi-Prover Interactive Proofs, Relativistic Commitments, 3-COLorability, Quantum Entanglement, Non-Locality} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 171, 31st International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2020)

This article improves the time bound for calculating the weak/branching bisimulation minimisation quotient on state-labelled discrete-time Markov chains from O(m n) to an expected-time O(m log⁴ n), where n is the number of states and m the number of transitions. For these results we assume that the set of state labels AP is small (|AP| ∈ O(m/n log⁴ n)). It follows the ideas of Groote et al. (ACM ToCL 2017) in combination with an efficient algorithm to handle decremental strongly connected components (Bernstein et al., STOC 2019).

David N. Jansen, Jan Friso Groote, Ferry Timmers, and Pengfei Yang. A Near-Linear-Time Algorithm for Weak Bisimilarity on Markov Chains. In 31st International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 171, pp. 8:1-8:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{jansen_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2020.8, author = {Jansen, David N. and Groote, Jan Friso and Timmers, Ferry and Yang, Pengfei}, title = {{A Near-Linear-Time Algorithm for Weak Bisimilarity on Markov Chains}}, booktitle = {31st International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2020)}, pages = {8:1--8:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-160-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {171}, editor = {Konnov, Igor and Kov\'{a}cs, Laura}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2020.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-128209}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2020.8}, annote = {Keywords: Behavioural Equivalence, weak Bisimulation, Markov Chain} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 177, 11th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2021) - Part I (2020)

Given a spatial network and a set of service center nodes from k different resource types, a Multiple Resource-Network Voronoi Diagram (MRNVD) partitions the spatial network into a set of Service Areas that can minimize the total cycle distances of graph-nodes to allotted k service center nodes with different resource types. The MRNVD problem is important for critical societal applications such as assigning essential survival supplies (e.g., food, water, gas, and medical assistance) to residents impacted by man-made or natural disasters. The MRNVD problem is NP-hard; it is computationally challenging due to the large size of the transportation network. Previous work is limited to a single or two different types of service centers, but cannot be generalized to deal with k different resource types. We propose a novel approach for MRNVD that can efficiently identify the best routes to obtain the k different resources. Experiments and a case study using real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach creates MRNVD and significantly reduces the computational cost.

Ahmad Qutbuddin and KwangSoo Yang. Multiple Resource Network Voronoi Diagram. In 11th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2021) - Part I. Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 177, pp. 11:1-11:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{qutbuddin_et_al:LIPIcs.GIScience.2021.I.11, author = {Qutbuddin, Ahmad and Yang, KwangSoo}, title = {{Multiple Resource Network Voronoi Diagram}}, booktitle = {11th International Conference on Geographic Information Science (GIScience 2021) - Part I}, pages = {11:1--11:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-166-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {177}, editor = {Janowicz, Krzysztof and Verstegen, Judith A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.GIScience.2021.I.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-130463}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.GIScience.2021.I.11}, annote = {Keywords: Network Voronoi Diagram, Resource Allocation, Route Optimization} }

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CG Challenge

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 189, 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)

The third computational geometry challenge was on a coordinated motion planning problem in which a collection of square robots need to move on the integer grid, from their given starting points to their target points, and without collision between robots, or between robots and a set of input obstacles. We designed and implemented an algorithm for this problem, which consists of three parts. First, we computed a feasible solution by placing middle-points outside of the minimum bounding box of the input positions of the robots and the obstacles, and moving each robot from its starting point to its target point through a middle-point. Second, we applied a simple local search approach where we repeatedly delete and insert again a random robot through an optimal path. It improves the quality of the solution, as the robots no longer need to go through the middle-points. Finally, we used simulated annealing to further improve this feasible solution. We used two different types of moves: We either tightened the whole trajectory of a robot, or we stretched it between two points by making the robot move through a third intermediate point generated at random.

Hyeyun Yang and Antoine Vigneron. A Simulated Annealing Approach to Coordinated Motion Planning (CG Challenge). In 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 189, pp. 65:1-65:9, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{yang_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.65, author = {Yang, Hyeyun and Vigneron, Antoine}, title = {{A Simulated Annealing Approach to Coordinated Motion Planning}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)}, pages = {65:1--65:9}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-184-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {189}, editor = {Buchin, Kevin and Colin de Verdi\`{e}re, \'{E}ric}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.65}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-138649}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.65}, annote = {Keywords: Path planning, simulated annealing, local search} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 192, 2nd Symposium on Foundations of Responsible Computing (FORC 2021)

In this paper we propose a causal modeling approach to intersectional fairness, and a flexible, task-specific method for computing intersectionally fair rankings. Rankings are used in many contexts, ranging from Web search to college admissions, but causal inference for fair rankings has received limited attention. Additionally, the growing literature on causal fairness has directed little attention to intersectionality. By bringing these issues together in a formal causal framework we make the application of intersectionality in algorithmic fairness explicit, connected to important real world effects and domain knowledge, and transparent about technical limitations. We experimentally evaluate our approach on real and synthetic datasets, exploring its behavior under different structural assumptions.

Ke Yang, Joshua R. Loftus, and Julia Stoyanovich. Causal Intersectionality and Fair Ranking. In 2nd Symposium on Foundations of Responsible Computing (FORC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 192, pp. 7:1-7:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{yang_et_al:LIPIcs.FORC.2021.7, author = {Yang, Ke and Loftus, Joshua R. and Stoyanovich, Julia}, title = {{Causal Intersectionality and Fair Ranking}}, booktitle = {2nd Symposium on Foundations of Responsible Computing (FORC 2021)}, pages = {7:1--7:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-187-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {192}, editor = {Ligett, Katrina and Gupta, Swati}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FORC.2021.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-138756}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FORC.2021.7}, annote = {Keywords: fairness, intersectionality, ranking, causality} }

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Invited Talk

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 290, 27th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2024)

Data analytics skills have become an indispensable part of any education that seeks to prepare its students for the modern workforce. Essential in this skill set is the ability to work with structured relational data. Relational queries are based on logic and may be declarative in nature, posing new challenges to novices and students. Manual teaching resources being limited and enrollment growing rapidly, automated tools that help students debug queries and explain errors are potential game-changers in database education. We present a suite of tools built on the foundations of database theory that has been used by over 1600 students in database classes at Duke University, showcasing a high-impact application of database theory in database education.

Sudeepa Roy, Amir Gilad, Yihao Hu, Hanze Meng, Zhengjie Miao, Kristin Stephens-Martinez, and Jun Yang. How Database Theory Helps Teach Relational Queries in Database Education (Invited Talk). In 27th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 290, pp. 2:1-2:9, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{roy_et_al:LIPIcs.ICDT.2024.2, author = {Roy, Sudeepa and Gilad, Amir and Hu, Yihao and Meng, Hanze and Miao, Zhengjie and Stephens-Martinez, Kristin and Yang, Jun}, title = {{How Database Theory Helps Teach Relational Queries in Database Education}}, booktitle = {27th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2024)}, pages = {2:1--2:9}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-312-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {290}, editor = {Cormode, Graham and Shekelyan, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2024.2}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-197841}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2024.2}, annote = {Keywords: Query Debugging, SQL, Relational Algebra, Relational Calculus, Database Education, Boolean Provenance} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 290, 27th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2024)

We are given a set 𝒵 = {(R_1,s_1), …, (R_n,s_n)}, where each R_i is a range in ℝ^d, such as rectangle or ball, and s_i ∈ [0,1] denotes its selectivity. The goal is to compute a small-size discrete data distribution 𝒟 = {(q₁,w₁),…, (q_m,w_m)}, where q_j ∈ ℝ^d and w_j ∈ [0,1] for each 1 ≤ j ≤ m, and ∑_{1≤j≤m} w_j = 1, such that 𝒟 is the most consistent with 𝒵, i.e., err_p(𝒟,𝒵) = 1/n ∑_{i = 1}ⁿ |s_i - ∑_{j=1}^m w_j⋅1(q_j ∈ R_i)|^p is minimized. In a database setting, 𝒵 corresponds to a workload of range queries over some table, together with their observed selectivities (i.e., fraction of tuples returned), and 𝒟 can be used as compact model for approximating the data distribution within the table without accessing the underlying contents.
In this paper, we obtain both upper and lower bounds for this problem. In particular, we show that the problem of finding the best data distribution from selectivity queries is NP-complete. On the positive side, we describe a Monte Carlo algorithm that constructs, in time O((n+δ^{-d}) δ^{-2} polylog n), a discrete distribution 𝒟̃ of size O(δ^{-2}), such that err_p(𝒟̃,𝒵) ≤ min_𝒟 err_p(𝒟,𝒵)+δ (for p = 1,2,∞) where the minimum is taken over all discrete distributions. We also establish conditional lower bounds, which strongly indicate the infeasibility of relative approximations as well as removal of the exponential dependency on the dimension for additive approximations. This suggests that significant improvements to our algorithm are unlikely.

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Rahul Raychaudhury, Stavros Sintos, and Jun Yang. Computing Data Distribution from Query Selectivities. In 27th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 290, pp. 18:1-18:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICDT.2024.18, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Raychaudhury, Rahul and Sintos, Stavros and Yang, Jun}, title = {{Computing Data Distribution from Query Selectivities}}, booktitle = {27th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2024)}, pages = {18:1--18:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-312-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {290}, editor = {Cormode, Graham and Shekelyan, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2024.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-198007}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2024.18}, annote = {Keywords: selectivity queries, discrete distributions, Multiplicative Weights Update, eps-approximation, learnable functions, depth problem, arrangement} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

This paper considers enumerating answers to similarity-join queries under dynamic updates: Given two sets of n points A,B in ℝ^d, a metric ϕ(⋅), and a distance threshold r > 0, report all pairs of points (a, b) ∈ A × B with ϕ(a,b) ≤ r. Our goal is to store A,B into a dynamic data structure that, whenever asked, can enumerate all result pairs with worst-case delay guarantee, i.e., the time between enumerating two consecutive pairs is bounded. Furthermore, the data structure can be efficiently updated when a point is inserted into or deleted from A or B.
We propose several efficient data structures for answering similarity-join queries in low dimension. For exact enumeration of similarity join, we present near-linear-size data structures for 𝓁₁, 𝓁_∞ metrics with log^{O(1)} n update time and delay. We show that such a data structure is not feasible for the 𝓁₂ metric for d ≥ 4. For approximate enumeration of similarity join, where the distance threshold is a soft constraint, we obtain a unified linear-size data structure for 𝓁_p metric, with log^{O(1)} n delay and update time. In high dimensions, we present an efficient data structure with worst-case delay-guarantee using locality sensitive hashing (LSH).

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Xiao Hu, Stavros Sintos, and Jun Yang. Dynamic Enumeration of Similarity Joins. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 11:1-11:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.11, author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Hu, Xiao and Sintos, Stavros and Yang, Jun}, title = {{Dynamic Enumeration of Similarity Joins}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {11:1--11:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-140803}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.11}, annote = {Keywords: dynamic enumeration, similarity joins, worst-case delay guarantee} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 305, 27th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2024)

Quantum Computing (QC) is a new computational paradigm that promises significant speedup over classical computing in various domains. However, near-term QC faces numerous challenges, including limited qubit connectivity and noisy quantum operations. To address the qubit connectivity constraint, circuit mapping is required for executing quantum circuits on quantum computers. This process involves performing initial qubit placement and using the quantum SWAP operations to relocate non-adjacent qubits for nearest-neighbor interaction. Reducing the SWAP count in circuit mapping is essential for improving the success rate of quantum circuit execution as SWAPs are costly and error-prone. In this work, we introduce a novel circuit mapping method by combining incremental and parallel solving for Boolean Satisfiability (SAT). We present an innovative SAT encoding for circuit mapping problems, which significantly improves solver-based mapping methods and provides a smooth trade-off between compilation quality and compilation time. Through comprehensive benchmarking of 78 instances covering 3 quantum algorithms on 2 distinct quantum computer topologies, we demonstrate that our method is 26× faster than state-of-the-art solver-based methods, reducing the compilation time from hours to minutes for important quantum applications. Our method also surpasses the existing heuristics algorithm by 26% in SWAP count.

Jiong Yang, Yaroslav A. Kharkov, Yunong Shi, Marijn J. H. Heule, and Bruno Dutertre. Quantum Circuit Mapping Based on Incremental and Parallel SAT Solving. In 27th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 305, pp. 29:1-29:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{yang_et_al:LIPIcs.SAT.2024.29, author = {Yang, Jiong and Kharkov, Yaroslav A. and Shi, Yunong and Heule, Marijn J. H. and Dutertre, Bruno}, title = {{Quantum Circuit Mapping Based on Incremental and Parallel SAT Solving}}, booktitle = {27th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2024)}, pages = {29:1--29:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-334-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {305}, editor = {Chakraborty, Supratik and Jiang, Jie-Hong Roland}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2024.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-205517}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2024.29}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum computing, Quantum compilation, SAT solving, Incremental solving, Parallel solving} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 271, 26th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2023)

The past three decades have witnessed notable success in designing efficient SAT solvers, with modern solvers capable of solving industrial benchmarks containing millions of variables in just a few seconds. The success of modern SAT solvers owes to the widely-used CDCL algorithm, which lacks comprehensive theoretical investigation. Furthermore, it has been observed that CDCL solvers still struggle to deal with specific classes of benchmarks comprising only hundreds of variables, which contrasts with their widespread use in real-world applications. Consequently, there is an urgent need to uncover the inner workings of these seemingly weak yet powerful black boxes.
In this paper, we present a first step towards this goal by introducing an approach called {CausalSAT}, which employs causal reasoning to gain insights into the functioning of modern SAT solvers. {CausalSAT} initially generates observational data from the execution of SAT solvers and learns a structured graph representing the causal relationships between the components of a SAT solver. Subsequently, given a query such as whether a clause with low literals blocks distance (LBD) has a higher clause utility, {CausalSAT} calculates the causal effect of LBD on clause utility and provides an answer to the question. We use {CausalSAT} to quantitatively verify hypotheses previously regarded as "rules of thumb" or empirical findings, such as the query above or the notion that clauses with high LBD experience a rapid drop in utility over time. Moreover, {CausalSAT} can address previously unexplored questions, like which branching heuristic leads to greater clause utility in order to study the relationship between branching and clause management. Experimental evaluations using practical benchmarks demonstrate that {CausalSAT} effectively fits the data, verifies four "rules of thumb", and provides answers to three questions closely related to implementing modern solvers.

Jiong Yang, Arijit Shaw, Teodora Baluta, Mate Soos, and Kuldeep S. Meel. Explaining SAT Solving Using Causal Reasoning. In 26th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 271, pp. 28:1-28:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{yang_et_al:LIPIcs.SAT.2023.28, author = {Yang, Jiong and Shaw, Arijit and Baluta, Teodora and Soos, Mate and Meel, Kuldeep S.}, title = {{Explaining SAT Solving Using Causal Reasoning}}, booktitle = {26th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2023)}, pages = {28:1--28:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-286-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {271}, editor = {Mahajan, Meena and Slivovsky, Friedrich}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2023.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-184909}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2023.28}, annote = {Keywords: Satisfiability, Causality, SAT solver, Clause management} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 210, 27th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2021)

Despite the NP-completeness of Boolean satisfiability, modern SAT solvers are routinely able to handle large practical instances, and consequently have found wide ranging applications. The primary workhorse behind the success of SAT solvers is the widely acclaimed Conflict Driven Clause Learning (CDCL) paradigm, which was originally proposed in the context of Boolean formulas in CNF. The wide ranging applications of SAT solvers have highlighted that for several domains, CNF is not a natural representation and the reliance of modern SAT solvers on resolution proof system limit their ability to efficiently solve several families of constraints. Consequently, the past decade has witnessed the design of solvers with native support for constraints such as Pseudo-Boolean (PB) and CNF-XOR.
The primary contribution of our work is an efficient solver engineered for PB-XOR formulas, i.e., formulas consisting of a conjunction of PB and XOR constraints. We first observe that a simple adaption of CNF-XOR architecture does not provide an improvement over baseline; our analysis highlights the need for careful engineering of the order of propagations. To this end, we propose three different tactics, all of which achieve significant performance improvements over the baseline. Our work is motivated by applications arising from binarized neural network verification where the verification of properties such as robustness, fairness, trojan attacks can be reduced to model counting queries; the state of the art model counters reduce counting to polynomially many SAT queries over the original formula conjuncted with randomly generated XOR constraints. To this end, we augment ApproxMC with LinPB and we call the resulting counter as ApproxMCPB. In an extensive empirical comparison over 1076 benchmarks, we observe that ApproxMCPB can solve 912 instances while the baseline version of ApproxMC4 (augmented with CryptoMiniSat) can solve only 802 instances.

Jiong Yang and Kuldeep S. Meel. Engineering an Efficient PB-XOR Solver. In 27th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 210, pp. 58:1-58:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{yang_et_al:LIPIcs.CP.2021.58, author = {Yang, Jiong and Meel, Kuldeep S.}, title = {{Engineering an Efficient PB-XOR Solver}}, booktitle = {27th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2021)}, pages = {58:1--58:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-211-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {210}, editor = {Michel, Laurent D.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2021.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-153499}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2021.58}, annote = {Keywords: PB-XOR Solving, Pseudo-Boolean, XOR, Gauss Jordan Elimination, SAT-Solving, Model Counting} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 212, 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)

Visibility problems are fundamental to computational geometry, and many versions of geometric set cover where coverage is based on visibility have been considered. In most settings, points can see "infinitely far" so long as visibility is not "blocked" by some obstacle. In many applications, this may be an unreasonable assumption. In this paper, we consider a new model of visibility where no point can see any other point beyond a sight radius ρ. In particular, we consider this visibility model in the context of terrains. We show that the VC-dimension of limited visibility terrains is exactly 7. We give lower bound construction that shatters a set of 7 points, and we prove that shattering 8 points is not possible.

Matt Gibson-Lopez and Zhongxiu Yang. The VC-Dimension of Limited Visibility Terrains. In 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 212, pp. 5:1-5:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{gibsonlopez_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.5, author = {Gibson-Lopez, Matt and Yang, Zhongxiu}, title = {{The VC-Dimension of Limited Visibility Terrains}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)}, pages = {5:1--5:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-214-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {212}, editor = {Ahn, Hee-Kap and Sadakane, Kunihiko}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-154386}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.5}, annote = {Keywords: VC-dimension, Terrain Guarding, Limited Visibility} }

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