24 Search Results for "Arunachalam, Srinivasan"


Document
Public-Key Pseudoentanglement and the Hardness of Learning Ground State Entanglement Structure

Authors: Adam Bouland, Bill Fefferman, Soumik Ghosh, Tony Metger, Umesh Vazirani, Chenyi Zhang, and Zixin Zhou

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
Given a local Hamiltonian, how difficult is it to determine the entanglement structure of its ground state? We show that this problem is computationally intractable even if one is only trying to decide if the ground state is volume-law vs near area-law entangled. We prove this by constructing strong forms of pseudoentanglement in a public-key setting, where the circuits used to prepare the states are public knowledge. In particular, we construct two families of quantum circuits which produce volume-law vs near area-law entangled states, but nonetheless the classical descriptions of the circuits are indistinguishable under the Learning with Errors (LWE) assumption. Indistinguishability of the circuits then allows us to translate our construction to Hamiltonians. Our work opens new directions in Hamiltonian complexity, for example whether it is difficult to learn certain phases of matter.

Cite as

Adam Bouland, Bill Fefferman, Soumik Ghosh, Tony Metger, Umesh Vazirani, Chenyi Zhang, and Zixin Zhou. Public-Key Pseudoentanglement and the Hardness of Learning Ground State Entanglement Structure. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 21:1-21:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bouland_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.21,
  author =	{Bouland, Adam and Fefferman, Bill and Ghosh, Soumik and Metger, Tony and Vazirani, Umesh and Zhang, Chenyi and Zhou, Zixin},
  title =	{{Public-Key Pseudoentanglement and the Hardness of Learning Ground State Entanglement Structure}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{21:1--21:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.21},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204175},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.21},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum computing, Quantum complexity theory, entanglement}
}
Document
The Computational Advantage of MIP^∗ Vanishes in the Presence of Noise

Authors: Yangjing Dong, Honghao Fu, Anand Natarajan, Minglong Qin, Haochen Xu, and Penghui Yao

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
The class MIP^* of quantum multiprover interactive proof systems with entanglement is much more powerful than its classical counterpart MIP [Babai et al., 1991; Zhengfeng Ji et al., 2020; Zhengfeng Ji et al., 2020]: while MIP = NEXP, the quantum class MIP^* is equal to RE, a class including the halting problem. This is because the provers in MIP^* can share unbounded quantum entanglement. However, recent works [Qin and Yao, 2021; Qin and Yao, 2023] have shown that this advantage is significantly reduced if the provers' shared state contains noise. This paper attempts to exactly characterize the effect of noise on the computational power of quantum multiprover interactive proof systems. We investigate the quantum two-prover one-round interactive system MIP^*[poly,O(1)], where the verifier sends polynomially many bits to the provers and the provers send back constantly many bits. We show noise completely destroys the computational advantage given by shared entanglement in this model. Specifically, we show that if the provers are allowed to share arbitrarily many EPR states, where each EPR state is affected by an arbitrarily small constant amount of noise, the resulting complexity class is equivalent to NEXP = MIP. This improves significantly on the previous best-known bound of NEEEXP (nondeterministic triply exponential time) [Qin and Yao, 2021]. We also show that this collapse in power is due to the noise, rather than the O(1) answer size, by showing that allowing for noiseless EPR states gives the class the full power of RE = MIP^*[poly, poly]. Along the way, we develop two technical tools of independent interest. First, we give a new, deterministic tester for the positivity of an exponentially large matrix, provided it has a low-degree Fourier decomposition in terms of Pauli matrices. Secondly, we develop a new invariance principle for smooth matrix functions having bounded third-order Fréchet derivatives or which are Lipschitz continuous.

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Yangjing Dong, Honghao Fu, Anand Natarajan, Minglong Qin, Haochen Xu, and Penghui Yao. The Computational Advantage of MIP^∗ Vanishes in the Presence of Noise. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 30:1-30:71, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{dong_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.30,
  author =	{Dong, Yangjing and Fu, Honghao and Natarajan, Anand and Qin, Minglong and Xu, Haochen and Yao, Penghui},
  title =	{{The Computational Advantage of MIP^∗ Vanishes in the Presence of Noise}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{30:1--30:71},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.30},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204263},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.30},
  annote =	{Keywords: Interactive proofs, Quantum complexity theory, Quantum entanglement, Fourier analysis, Matrix analysis, Invariance principle, Derandomization, PCP, Locally testable code, Positivity testing}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Learning Low-Degree Quantum Objects

Authors: Srinivasan Arunachalam, Arkopal Dutt, Francisco Escudero Gutiérrez, and Carlos Palazuelos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We consider the problem of learning low-degree quantum objects up to ε-error in 𝓁₂-distance. We show the following results: (i) unknown n-qubit degree-d (in the Pauli basis) quantum channels and unitaries can be learned using O(1/ε^d) queries (which is independent of n), (ii) polynomials p:{-1,1}ⁿ → [-1,1] arising from d-query quantum algorithms can be learned from O((1/ε)^d ⋅ log n) many random examples (x,p(x)) (which implies learnability even for d = O(log n)), and (iii) degree-d polynomials p:{-1,1}ⁿ → [-1,1] can be learned through O(1/ε^d) queries to a quantum unitary U_p that block-encodes p. Our main technical contributions are new Bohnenblust-Hille inequalities for quantum channels and completely bounded polynomials.

Cite as

Srinivasan Arunachalam, Arkopal Dutt, Francisco Escudero Gutiérrez, and Carlos Palazuelos. Learning Low-Degree Quantum Objects. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 13:1-13:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{arunachalam_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.13,
  author =	{Arunachalam, Srinivasan and Dutt, Arkopal and Escudero Guti\'{e}rrez, Francisco and Palazuelos, Carlos},
  title =	{{Learning Low-Degree Quantum Objects}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201563},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: Tomography}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Towards Tight Bounds for the Graph Homomorphism Problem Parameterized by Cutwidth via Asymptotic Matrix Parameters

Authors: Carla Groenland, Isja Mannens, Jesper Nederlof, Marta Piecyk, and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
A homomorphism from a graph G to a graph H is an edge-preserving mapping from V(G) to V(H). In the graph homomorphism problem, denoted by Hom(H), the graph H is fixed and we need to determine if there exists a homomorphism from an instance graph G to H. We study the complexity of the problem parameterized by the cutwidth of G, i.e., we assume that G is given along with a linear ordering v_1,…,v_n of V(G) such that, for each i ∈ {1,…,n-1}, the number of edges with one endpoint in {v_1,…,v_i} and the other in {v_{i+1},…,v_n} is at most k. We aim, for each H, for algorithms for Hom(H) running in time c_H^k n^𝒪(1) and matching lower bounds that exclude c_H^{k⋅o(1)} n^𝒪(1) or c_H^{k(1-Ω(1))} n^𝒪(1) time algorithms under the (Strong) Exponential Time Hypothesis. In the paper we introduce a new parameter that we call mimsup(H). Our main contribution is strong evidence of a close connection between c_H and mimsup(H): - an information-theoretic argument that the number of states needed in a natural dynamic programming algorithm is at most mimsup(H)^k, - lower bounds that show that for almost all graphs H indeed we have c_H ≥ mimsup(H), assuming the (Strong) Exponential-Time Hypothesis, and - an algorithm with running time exp(𝒪(mimsup(H)⋅k log k)) n^𝒪(1). In the last result we do not need to assume that H is a fixed graph. Thus, as a consequence, we obtain that the problem of deciding whether G admits a homomorphism to H is fixed-parameter tractable, when parameterized by cutwidth of G and mimsup(H). The parameter mimsup(H) can be thought of as the p-th root of the maximum induced matching number in the graph obtained by multiplying p copies of H via a certain graph product, where p tends to infinity. It can also be defined as an asymptotic rank parameter of the adjacency matrix of H. Such parameters play a central role in, among others, algebraic complexity theory and additive combinatorics. Our results tightly link the parameterized complexity of a problem to such an asymptotic matrix parameter for the first time.

Cite as

Carla Groenland, Isja Mannens, Jesper Nederlof, Marta Piecyk, and Paweł Rzążewski. Towards Tight Bounds for the Graph Homomorphism Problem Parameterized by Cutwidth via Asymptotic Matrix Parameters. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 77:1-77:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{groenland_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.77,
  author =	{Groenland, Carla and Mannens, Isja and Nederlof, Jesper and Piecyk, Marta and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
  title =	{{Towards Tight Bounds for the Graph Homomorphism Problem Parameterized by Cutwidth via Asymptotic Matrix Parameters}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{77:1--77:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.77},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202208},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.77},
  annote =	{Keywords: graph homomorphism, cutwidth, asymptotic matrix parameters}
}
Document
Quantum Merlin-Arthur and Proofs Without Relative Phase

Authors: Roozbeh Bassirian, Bill Fefferman, and Kunal Marwaha

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
We study a variant of QMA where quantum proofs have no relative phase (i.e. non-negative amplitudes, up to a global phase). If only completeness is modified, this class is equal to QMA [Grilo et al., 2014]; but if both completeness and soundness are modified, the class (named QMA+ by Jeronimo and Wu [Jeronimo and Wu, 2023]) can be much more powerful. We show that QMA+ with some constant gap is equal to NEXP, yet QMA+ with some other constant gap is equal to QMA. One interpretation is that Merlin’s ability to "deceive" originates from relative phase at least as much as from entanglement, since QMA(2) ⊆ NEXP.

Cite as

Roozbeh Bassirian, Bill Fefferman, and Kunal Marwaha. Quantum Merlin-Arthur and Proofs Without Relative Phase. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 9:1-9:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bassirian_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.9,
  author =	{Bassirian, Roozbeh and Fefferman, Bill and Marwaha, Kunal},
  title =	{{Quantum Merlin-Arthur and Proofs Without Relative Phase}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195370},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum complexity, QMA(2), PCPs}
}
Document
Classical Verification of Quantum Learning

Authors: Matthias C. Caro, Marcel Hinsche, Marios Ioannou, Alexander Nietner, and Ryan Sweke

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
Quantum data access and quantum processing can make certain classically intractable learning tasks feasible. However, quantum capabilities will only be available to a select few in the near future. Thus, reliable schemes that allow classical clients to delegate learning to untrusted quantum servers are required to facilitate widespread access to quantum learning advantages. Building on a recently introduced framework of interactive proof systems for classical machine learning, we develop a framework for classical verification of quantum learning. We exhibit learning problems that a classical learner cannot efficiently solve on their own, but that they can efficiently and reliably solve when interacting with an untrusted quantum prover. Concretely, we consider the problems of agnostic learning parities and Fourier-sparse functions with respect to distributions with uniform input marginal. We propose a new quantum data access model that we call "mixture-of-superpositions" quantum examples, based on which we give efficient quantum learning algorithms for these tasks. Moreover, we prove that agnostic quantum parity and Fourier-sparse learning can be efficiently verified by a classical verifier with only random example or statistical query access. Finally, we showcase two general scenarios in learning and verification in which quantum mixture-of-superpositions examples do not lead to sample complexity improvements over classical data. Our results demonstrate that the potential power of quantum data for learning tasks, while not unlimited, can be utilized by classical agents through interaction with untrusted quantum entities.

Cite as

Matthias C. Caro, Marcel Hinsche, Marios Ioannou, Alexander Nietner, and Ryan Sweke. Classical Verification of Quantum Learning. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 24:1-24:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{caro_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.24,
  author =	{Caro, Matthias C. and Hinsche, Marcel and Ioannou, Marios and Nietner, Alexander and Sweke, Ryan},
  title =	{{Classical Verification of Quantum Learning}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{24:1--24:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.24},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195524},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.24},
  annote =	{Keywords: computational learning theory, quantum learning theory, interactive proofs, quantum oracles, agnostic learning}
}
Document
Improved Quantum Boosting

Authors: Adam Izdebski and Ronald de Wolf

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
Boosting is a general method to convert a weak learner (which generates hypotheses that are just slightly better than random) into a strong learner (which generates hypotheses that are much better than random). Recently, Arunachalam and Maity [Srinivasan Arunachalam and Reevu Maity, 2020] gave the first quantum improvement for boosting, by combining Freund and Schapire’s AdaBoost algorithm with a quantum algorithm for approximate counting. Their booster is faster than classical boosting as a function of the VC-dimension of the weak learner’s hypothesis class, but worse as a function of the quality of the weak learner. In this paper we give a substantially faster and simpler quantum boosting algorithm, based on Servedio’s SmoothBoost algorithm [Servedio, 2003].

Cite as

Adam Izdebski and Ronald de Wolf. Improved Quantum Boosting. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 64:1-64:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{izdebski_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.64,
  author =	{Izdebski, Adam and de Wolf, Ronald},
  title =	{{Improved Quantum Boosting}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{64:1--64:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.64},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187178},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.64},
  annote =	{Keywords: Learning theory, Boosting algorithms, Quantum computing}
}
Document
Optimal Algorithms for Learning Quantum Phase States

Authors: Srinivasan Arunachalam, Sergey Bravyi, Arkopal Dutt, and Theodore J. Yoder

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 266, 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)


Abstract
We analyze the complexity of learning n-qubit quantum phase states. A degree-d phase state is defined as a superposition of all 2ⁿ basis vectors x with amplitudes proportional to (-1)^{f(x)}, where f is a degree-d Boolean polynomial over n variables. We show that the sample complexity of learning an unknown degree-d phase state is Θ(n^d) if we allow separable measurements and Θ(n^{d-1}) if we allow entangled measurements. Our learning algorithm based on separable measurements has runtime poly(n) (for constant d) and is well-suited for near-term demonstrations as it requires only single-qubit measurements in the Pauli X and Z bases. We show similar bounds on the sample complexity for learning generalized phase states with complex-valued amplitudes. We further consider learning phase states when f has sparsity-s, degree-d in its 𝔽₂ representation (with sample complexity O(2^d sn)), f has Fourier-degree-t (with sample complexity O(2^{2t})), and learning quadratic phase states with ε-global depolarizing noise (with sample complexity O(n^{1+ε})). These learning algorithms give us a procedure to learn the diagonal unitaries of the Clifford hierarchy and IQP circuits.

Cite as

Srinivasan Arunachalam, Sergey Bravyi, Arkopal Dutt, and Theodore J. Yoder. Optimal Algorithms for Learning Quantum Phase States. In 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 266, pp. 3:1-3:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{arunachalam_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2023.3,
  author =	{Arunachalam, Srinivasan and Bravyi, Sergey and Dutt, Arkopal and Yoder, Theodore J.},
  title =	{{Optimal Algorithms for Learning Quantum Phase States}},
  booktitle =	{18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-283-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{266},
  editor =	{Fawzi, Omar and Walter, Michael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183139},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: Tomography, binary phase states, generalized phase states, IQP circuits}
}
Document
A Distribution Testing Oracle Separating QMA and QCMA

Authors: Anand Natarajan and Chinmay Nirkhe

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)


Abstract
It is a long-standing open question in quantum complexity theory whether the definition of non-deterministic quantum computation requires quantum witnesses (QMA) or if classical witnesses suffice (QCMA). We make progress on this question by constructing a randomized classical oracle separating the respective computational complexity classes. Previous separations [Aaronson and Kuperberg, 2007; Bill Fefferman and Shelby Kimmel, 2018] required a quantum unitary oracle. The separating problem is deciding whether a distribution supported on regular un-directed graphs either consists of multiple connected components (yes instances) or consists of one expanding connected component (no instances) where the graph is given in an adjacency-list format by the oracle. Therefore, the oracle is a distribution over n-bit boolean functions.

Cite as

Anand Natarajan and Chinmay Nirkhe. A Distribution Testing Oracle Separating QMA and QCMA. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 22:1-22:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{natarajan_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.22,
  author =	{Natarajan, Anand and Nirkhe, Chinmay},
  title =	{{A Distribution Testing Oracle Separating QMA and QCMA}},
  booktitle =	{38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)},
  pages =	{22:1--22:27},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-282-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{264},
  editor =	{Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.22},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182928},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.22},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum non-determinism, complexity theory}
}
Document
Trade-Offs Between Entanglement and Communication

Authors: Srinivasan Arunachalam and Uma Girish

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)


Abstract
We study the advantages of quantum communication models over classical communication models that are equipped with a limited number of qubits of entanglement. In this direction, we give explicit partial functions on n bits for which reducing the entanglement increases the classical communication complexity exponentially. Our separations are as follows. For every k ≥ ~1: Q‖^* versus R2^*: We show that quantum simultaneous protocols with Θ̃(k⁵log³n) qubits of entanglement can exponentially outperform two-way randomized protocols with O(k) qubits of entanglement. This resolves an open problem from [Dmitry Gavinsky, 2008] and improves the state-of-the-art separations between quantum simultaneous protocols with entanglement and two-way randomized protocols without entanglement [Gavinsky, 2019; Girish et al., 2022]. R‖^* versus Q‖^*: We show that classical simultaneous protocols with Θ̃(k log n) qubits of entanglement can exponentially outperform quantum simultaneous protocols with O(k) qubits of entanglement, resolving an open question from [Gavinsky et al., 2006; Gavinsky, 2019]. The best result prior to our work was a relational separation against protocols without entanglement [Gavinsky et al., 2006]. R‖^* versus R1^*: We show that classical simultaneous protocols with Θ̃(k log n) qubits of entanglement can exponentially outperform randomized one-way protocols with O(k) qubits of entanglement. Prior to our work, only a relational separation was known [Dmitry Gavinsky, 2008].

Cite as

Srinivasan Arunachalam and Uma Girish. Trade-Offs Between Entanglement and Communication. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 25:1-25:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{arunachalam_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.25,
  author =	{Arunachalam, Srinivasan and Girish, Uma},
  title =	{{Trade-Offs Between Entanglement and Communication}},
  booktitle =	{38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)},
  pages =	{25:1--25:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-282-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{264},
  editor =	{Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.25},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182957},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.25},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum, communication complexity, exponential separation, boolean hidden matching, forrelation, xor lemma}
}
Document
Influence in Completely Bounded Block-Multilinear Forms and Classical Simulation of Quantum Algorithms

Authors: Nikhil Bansal, Makrand Sinha, and Ronald de Wolf

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)


Abstract
The Aaronson-Ambainis conjecture (Theory of Computing '14) says that every low-degree bounded polynomial on the Boolean hypercube has an influential variable. This conjecture, if true, would imply that the acceptance probability of every d-query quantum algorithm can be well-approximated almost everywhere (i.e., on almost all inputs) by a poly(d)-query classical algorithm. We prove a special case of the conjecture: in every completely bounded degree-d block-multilinear form with constant variance, there always exists a variable with influence at least 1/poly(d). In a certain sense, such polynomials characterize the acceptance probability of quantum query algorithms, as shown by Arunachalam, Briët and Palazuelos (SICOMP '19). As a corollary we obtain efficient classical almost-everywhere simulation for a particular class of quantum algorithms that includes for instance k-fold Forrelation. Our main technical result relies on connections to free probability theory.

Cite as

Nikhil Bansal, Makrand Sinha, and Ronald de Wolf. Influence in Completely Bounded Block-Multilinear Forms and Classical Simulation of Quantum Algorithms. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 28:1-28:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{bansal_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.28,
  author =	{Bansal, Nikhil and Sinha, Makrand and de Wolf, Ronald},
  title =	{{Influence in Completely Bounded Block-Multilinear Forms and Classical Simulation of Quantum Algorithms}},
  booktitle =	{37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)},
  pages =	{28:1--28:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-241-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{234},
  editor =	{Lovett, Shachar},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.28},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165908},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.28},
  annote =	{Keywords: Aaronson-Ambainis conjecture, Quantum query complexity, Classical query complexity, Free probability, Completely bounded norm, Analysis of Boolean functions, Influence}
}
Document
The Parametrized Complexity of Quantum Verification

Authors: Srinivasan Arunachalam, Sergey Bravyi, Chinmay Nirkhe, and Bryan O'Gorman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 232, 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)


Abstract
We initiate the study of parameterized complexity of QMA problems in terms of the number of non-Clifford gates in the problem description. We show that for the problem of parameterized quantum circuit satisfiability, there exists a classical algorithm solving the problem with a runtime scaling exponentially in the number of non-Clifford gates but only polynomially with the system size. This result follows from our main result, that for any Clifford + t T-gate quantum circuit satisfiability problem, the search space of optimal witnesses can be reduced to a stabilizer subspace isomorphic to at most t qubits (independent of the system size). Furthermore, we derive new lower bounds on the T-count of circuit satisfiability instances and the T-count of the W-state assuming the classical exponential time hypothesis (ETH). Lastly, we explore the parameterized complexity of the quantum non-identity check problem.

Cite as

Srinivasan Arunachalam, Sergey Bravyi, Chinmay Nirkhe, and Bryan O'Gorman. The Parametrized Complexity of Quantum Verification. In 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 232, pp. 3:1-3:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{arunachalam_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2022.3,
  author =	{Arunachalam, Srinivasan and Bravyi, Sergey and Nirkhe, Chinmay and O'Gorman, Bryan},
  title =	{{The Parametrized Complexity of Quantum Verification}},
  booktitle =	{17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-237-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{232},
  editor =	{Le Gall, Fran\c{c}ois and Morimae, Tomoyuki},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165104},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: parametrized complexity, quantum verification, QMA}
}
Document
On Converses to the Polynomial Method

Authors: Jop Briët and Francisco Escudero Gutiérrez

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 232, 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)


Abstract
A surprising "converse to the polynomial method" of Aaronson et al. (CCC'16) shows that any bounded quadratic polynomial can be computed exactly in expectation by a 1-query algorithm up to a universal multiplicative factor related to the famous Grothendieck constant. A natural question posed there asks if bounded quartic polynomials can be approximated by 2-query quantum algorithms. Arunachalam, Palazuelos and the first author showed that there is no direct analogue of the result of Aaronson et al. in this case. We improve on this result in the following ways: First, we point out and fix a small error in the construction that has to do with a translation from cubic to quartic polynomials. Second, we give a completely explicit example based on techniques from additive combinatorics. Third, we show that the result still holds when we allow for a small additive error. For this, we apply an SDP characterization of Gribling and Laurent (QIP'19) for the completely-bounded approximate degree.

Cite as

Jop Briët and Francisco Escudero Gutiérrez. On Converses to the Polynomial Method. In 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 232, pp. 6:1-6:10, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{briet_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2022.6,
  author =	{Bri\"{e}t, Jop and Escudero Guti\'{e}rrez, Francisco},
  title =	{{On Converses to the Polynomial Method}},
  booktitle =	{17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:10},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-237-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{232},
  editor =	{Le Gall, Fran\c{c}ois and Morimae, Tomoyuki},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165139},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum query complexity, polynomial method, completely bounded polynomials}
}
Document
Quantum Probability Oracles & Multidimensional Amplitude Estimation

Authors: Joran van Apeldoorn

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 197, 16th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2021)


Abstract
We give a multidimensional version of amplitude estimation. Let p be an n-dimensional probability distribution which can be sampled from using a quantum circuit U_p. We show that all coordinates of p can be estimated up to error ε per coordinate using Õ(1/(ε)) applications of U_p and its inverse. This generalizes the normal amplitude estimation algorithm, which solves the problem for n = 2. Our results also imply a Õ(n/ε) query algorithm for 𝓁₁-norm (the total variation distance) estimation and a Õ(√n/ε) query algorithm for 𝓁₂-norm. We also show that these results are optimal up to logarithmic factors.

Cite as

Joran van Apeldoorn. Quantum Probability Oracles & Multidimensional Amplitude Estimation. In 16th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 197, pp. 9:1-9:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{vanapeldoorn:LIPIcs.TQC.2021.9,
  author =	{van Apeldoorn, Joran},
  title =	{{Quantum Probability Oracles \& Multidimensional Amplitude Estimation}},
  booktitle =	{16th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2021)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:11},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-198-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{197},
  editor =	{Hsieh, Min-Hsiu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2021.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-140046},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2021.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum algorithms, amplitude estimation, monte carlo}
}
Document
Bounds on the QAC^0 Complexity of Approximating Parity

Authors: Gregory Rosenthal

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)


Abstract
QAC circuits are quantum circuits with one-qubit gates and Toffoli gates of arbitrary arity. QAC^0 circuits are QAC circuits of constant depth, and are quantum analogues of AC^0 circuits. We prove the following: - For all d ≥ 7 and ε > 0 there is a depth-d QAC circuit of size exp(poly(n^{1/d}) log(n/ε)) that approximates the n-qubit parity function to within error ε on worst-case quantum inputs. Previously it was unknown whether QAC circuits of sublogarithmic depth could approximate parity regardless of size. - We introduce a class of "mostly classical" QAC circuits, including a major component of our circuit from the above upper bound, and prove a tight lower bound on the size of low-depth, mostly classical QAC circuits that approximate this component. - Arbitrary depth-d QAC circuits require at least Ω(n/d) multi-qubit gates to achieve a 1/2 + exp(-o(n/d)) approximation of parity. When d = Θ(log n) this nearly matches an easy O(n) size upper bound for computing parity exactly. - QAC circuits with at most two layers of multi-qubit gates cannot achieve a 1/2 + exp(-o(n)) approximation of parity, even non-cleanly. Previously it was known only that such circuits could not cleanly compute parity exactly for sufficiently large n. The proofs use a new normal form for quantum circuits which may be of independent interest, and are based on reductions to the problem of constructing certain generalizations of the cat state which we name "nekomata" after an analogous cat yōkai.

Cite as

Gregory Rosenthal. Bounds on the QAC^0 Complexity of Approximating Parity. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 32:1-32:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{rosenthal:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.32,
  author =	{Rosenthal, Gregory},
  title =	{{Bounds on the QAC^0 Complexity of Approximating Parity}},
  booktitle =	{12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)},
  pages =	{32:1--32:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-177-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{185},
  editor =	{Lee, James R.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.32},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135713},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.32},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum circuit complexity, QAC^0, fanout, parity, nekomata}
}
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