5 Search Results for "Hassan, Mohamed"


Document
A Tight Holistic Memory Latency Bound Through Coordinated Management of Memory Resources

Authors: Shorouk Abdelhalim, Danesh Germchi, Mohamed Hossam, Rodolfo Pellizzoni, and Mohamed Hassan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 262, 35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023)


Abstract
To facilitate the safe adoption of multi-core platforms in real-time systems, a plethora of recent research efforts aim at bounding the delays induced by interference upon accessing the shared memory resources in these platforms. These efforts, despite their value, are scattered, with each one focusing solely on only one of these resources with the premise that latency bounds separately driven for each resource can be added all together to provide a safe end-to-end memory bound. In this work, we put this assumption to the test for the first time by 1) considering a realistic multi-core memory hierarchy system, 2) deriving the bounds for accessing the shared resources in this system, and 3) highlighting the limitations of this widely-adopted approach. In particular, we show that this approach leads to not only excessively pessimistic but also unsafe bounds. Motivated by these findings, we propose GRROF: a novel approach to predictably and efficiently schedule memory requests while traversing the entire memory hierarchy through coordination among arbiters managing all the resources in this hierarchy. By virtue of this novel mechanism, we managed to exploit pipelining upon analyzing the latency of the memory requests for tightly bounding the worst-case latency. We prove in the paper that GRROF enables us to derive a drastically tighter bound compared to the common additive latency approach with more than 18× reduction in the end-to-end memory latency bound for a modern Out-of-Order quad-core platform. The reduction is further improved significantly with the increase in the number of cores. The proposed solution is fully prototyped and tested in a cycle-accurate simulation. We also compare it with real-time competitive state-of-the-art and performance-oriented solutions existing in modern Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) platforms.

Cite as

Shorouk Abdelhalim, Danesh Germchi, Mohamed Hossam, Rodolfo Pellizzoni, and Mohamed Hassan. A Tight Holistic Memory Latency Bound Through Coordinated Management of Memory Resources. In 35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 262, pp. 17:1-17:25, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{abdelhalim_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2023.17,
  author =	{Abdelhalim, Shorouk and Germchi, Danesh and Hossam, Mohamed and Pellizzoni, Rodolfo and Hassan, Mohamed},
  title =	{{A Tight Holistic Memory Latency Bound Through Coordinated Management of Memory Resources}},
  booktitle =	{35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023)},
  pages =	{17:1--17:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-280-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{262},
  editor =	{Papadopoulos, Alessandro V.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2023.17},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180463},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2023.17},
  annote =	{Keywords: Predictability, Main Memory, Caches, Real-time}
}
Document
Parallelism-Aware High-Performance Cache Coherence with Tight Latency Bounds

Authors: Reza Mirosanlou, Mohamed Hassan, and Rodolfo Pellizzoni

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 231, 34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022)


Abstract
In Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) systems-on-chip, processing elements communicate data through a shared memory hierarchy, and a coherent high-performance interconnect, where the de facto standard to handle shared data is through a coherence protocol. Driven by the extraordinary demands from modern real-time embedded system applications to generate, process, and communicate massive amounts of data, recent efforts aim to ensure timing predictability while integrating cache coherence in multi-core real-time systems. However, we observe that most of these efforts compromise system average performance upon offering predictability guarantees. Motivated by this observation, this work proposes an arbiter aimed at providing a predictable, coherent shared cache hierarchy solution, yet with a negligible performance degradation compared to COTS solutions. We achieve this goal by adopting a high-performance-driven architecture including a split-transaction bus and bankized shared cache. In addition, all accesses are arbitrated through a global ordering mechanism. Our proposed arbiter operates alongside conventional coherence protocols without requiring any protocol modifications. Furthermore, we leverage the Duetto reference model by pairing the proposed arbiter and a high-performance arbiter. We evaluate our solution based on both synthetic and SPLASH-3 benchmarks, showing that we can significantly outperform the state-of-the-art in predictable cache coherence, while offering a COTS-level performance.

Cite as

Reza Mirosanlou, Mohamed Hassan, and Rodolfo Pellizzoni. Parallelism-Aware High-Performance Cache Coherence with Tight Latency Bounds. In 34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 231, pp. 16:1-16:27, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{mirosanlou_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2022.16,
  author =	{Mirosanlou, Reza and Hassan, Mohamed and Pellizzoni, Rodolfo},
  title =	{{Parallelism-Aware High-Performance Cache Coherence with Tight Latency Bounds}},
  booktitle =	{34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:27},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-239-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{231},
  editor =	{Maggio, Martina},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2022.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163330},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2022.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Predictability, Cache, COTS, Arbitration, Real-time system}
}
Document
Predictably and Efficiently Integrating COTS Cache Coherence in Real-Time Systems

Authors: Mohamed Hossam and Mohamed Hassan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 231, 34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022)


Abstract
The adoption of multi-core platforms in embedded real-time systems mandates predictable system components. Such components must guarantee the satisfaction of the timing constraints of various applications running on the system. One of the components that can break the system predictability is cache coherence, which ensures the correctness of shared data. This paper proposes a solution towards the enablement of predictable cache coherent real-time systems. The solution uses existing COTS coherence protocols and proposes a methodology to integrate them with legacy real-time arbiters without imposing any required modification to either of them. Doing so, the paper also works as an exploratory study of the integration of various coherence protocols with various predictable arbitration schemes leading to a total of 12 different architecture configurations. Evaluation against four state-of-the-art predictable coherence solutions as well as COTS-based solutions show that the proposed approach achieves the tightest existing latency bounds among predictable solutions with minimal performance degradation over the COTS ones.

Cite as

Mohamed Hossam and Mohamed Hassan. Predictably and Efficiently Integrating COTS Cache Coherence in Real-Time Systems. In 34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 231, pp. 17:1-17:23, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{hossam_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2022.17,
  author =	{Hossam, Mohamed and Hassan, Mohamed},
  title =	{{Predictably and Efficiently Integrating COTS Cache Coherence in Real-Time Systems}},
  booktitle =	{34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022)},
  pages =	{17:1--17:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-239-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{231},
  editor =	{Maggio, Martina},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2022.17},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163345},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2022.17},
  annote =	{Keywords: Coherence, Shared Data, Caches, Multi-Core, Real-Time, Memory}
}
Document
Discriminative Coherence: Balancing Performance and Latency Bounds in Data-Sharing Multi-Core Real-Time Systems

Authors: Mohamed Hassan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 165, 32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020)


Abstract
Tasks in modern multi-core real-time systems share data and communicate among each other. Nonetheless, the majority of published research in real-time systems either assumes that tasks do not share data or prohibits data sharing by design. Only recently, some works investigated solutions to address this limitation and enable data sharing; however, we find these works to suffer from severe limitations. In particular, approaches that bypass private caches to avoid coherence interference altogether suffer from significant average-case performance degradation. On the other hand, proposed predictable cache coherence protocols increase the worst-case memory latency (WCL) quadratically due to coherence interference. In this paper, by carefully analyzing the scenarios that lead to high coherence interference, we make the following observation. A protocol that distinguishes between non-modifying (read) and modifying (write) memory accesses is key towards reducing the effects of coherence interference on WCL. Accordingly, we propose DISCO, a discriminative coherence solution that capitalizes on this observation to balance average-case performance and WCL. This is achieved by disallowing modified data in private caches, and hence, the significant coherence delays resulting from them are avoided. In addition, DISCO achieves high average performance by allowing tasks to simultaneously read shared data in the private caches. Moreover, if the system supports the distinction between private and shared data, DISCO further improves average performance by allowing for the caching of private data in cores' private caches regardless of whether it is modified or not. Our evaluation shows that DISCO achieves 7.2× lower latency bounds compared to the state-of-the-art predictable coherence protocol. DISCO also achieves up to 11.4× (5.3× on average) better performance than private cache bypassing for the SPLASH-3 benchmarks.

Cite as

Mohamed Hassan. Discriminative Coherence: Balancing Performance and Latency Bounds in Data-Sharing Multi-Core Real-Time Systems. In 32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 165, pp. 16:1-16:24, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{hassan:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.16,
  author =	{Hassan, Mohamed},
  title =	{{Discriminative Coherence: Balancing Performance and Latency Bounds in Data-Sharing Multi-Core Real-Time Systems}},
  booktitle =	{32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-152-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{165},
  editor =	{V\"{o}lp, Marcus},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-123795},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Coherence, Shared Data, Caches, Multi-Core, Real-Time, Memory}
}
Document
Analysis of Memory-Contention in Heterogeneous COTS MPSoCs

Authors: Mohamed Hassan and Rodolfo Pellizzoni

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 165, 32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020)


Abstract
Multiple-Processors Systems-on-Chip (MPSoCs) provide an appealing platform to execute Mixed Criticality Systems (MCS) with both time-sensitive critical tasks and performance-oriented non-critical tasks. Their heterogeneity with a variety of processing elements can address the conflicting requirements of those tasks. Nonetheless, the complex (and hence hard-to-analyze) architecture of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) MPSoCs presents a challenge encumbering their adoption for MCS. In this paper, we propose a framework to analyze the memory contention in COTS MPSoCs and provide safe and tight bounds to the delays suffered by any critical task due to this contention. Unlike existing analyses, our solution is based on two main novel approaches. 1) It conducts a hybrid analysis that blends both request-level and task-level analyses into the same framework. 2) It leverages available knowledge about the types of memory requests of the task under analysis as well as contending tasks; specifically, we consider information that is already obtainable by applying existing static analysis tools to each task in isolation. Thanks to these novel techniques, our comparisons with the state-of-the art approaches show that the proposed analysis provides the tightest bounds across all evaluated access scenarios.

Cite as

Mohamed Hassan and Rodolfo Pellizzoni. Analysis of Memory-Contention in Heterogeneous COTS MPSoCs. In 32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 165, pp. 23:1-23:24, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{hassan_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.23,
  author =	{Hassan, Mohamed and Pellizzoni, Rodolfo},
  title =	{{Analysis of Memory-Contention in Heterogeneous COTS MPSoCs}},
  booktitle =	{32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020)},
  pages =	{23:1--23:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-152-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{165},
  editor =	{V\"{o}lp, Marcus},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.23},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-123861},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.23},
  annote =	{Keywords: DRAM, Memory, COTS, Multi-core, Real-Time, Embedded Systems, Analysis}
}
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