71 Search Results for "Jansen, Bart M. P."


Volume

LIPIcs, Volume 148

14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)

IPEC 2019, September 11-13, 2019, Munich, Germany

Editors: Bart M. P. Jansen and Jan Arne Telle

Document
Accelerating ILP Solvers for Minimum Flow Decompositions Through Search Space and Dimensionality Reductions

Authors: Andreas Grigorjew, Fernando H. C. Dias, Andrea Cracco, Romeo Rizzi, and Alexandru I. Tomescu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 301, 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)


Abstract
Given a flow network, the Minimum Flow Decomposition (MFD) problem is finding the smallest possible set of weighted paths whose superposition equals the flow. It is a classical, strongly NP-hard problem that is proven to be useful in RNA transcript assembly and applications outside of Bioinformatics. We improve an existing ILP (Integer Linear Programming) model by Dias et al. [RECOMB 2022] for DAGs by decreasing the solver’s search space using solution safety and several other optimizations. This results in a significant speedup compared to the original ILP, of up to 34× on average on the hardest instances. Moreover, we show that our optimizations apply also to MFD problem variants, resulting in speedups that go up to 219× on the hardest instances. We also developed an ILP model of reduced dimensionality for an MFD variant in which the solution path weights are restricted to a given set. This model can find an optimal MFD solution for most instances, and overall, its accuracy significantly outperforms that of previous greedy algorithms while being up to an order of magnitude faster than our optimized ILP.

Cite as

Andreas Grigorjew, Fernando H. C. Dias, Andrea Cracco, Romeo Rizzi, and Alexandru I. Tomescu. Accelerating ILP Solvers for Minimum Flow Decompositions Through Search Space and Dimensionality Reductions. In 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 301, pp. 14:1-14:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{grigorjew_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2024.14,
  author =	{Grigorjew, Andreas and Dias, Fernando H. C. and Cracco, Andrea and Rizzi, Romeo and Tomescu, Alexandru I.},
  title =	{{Accelerating ILP Solvers for Minimum Flow Decompositions Through Search Space and Dimensionality Reductions}},
  booktitle =	{22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)},
  pages =	{14:1--14:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-325-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{301},
  editor =	{Liberti, Leo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.14},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203792},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.14},
  annote =	{Keywords: Flow decomposition, Integer Linear Programming, Safety, RNA-seq, RNA transcript assembly, isoform}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Exponential Lower Bounds via Exponential Sums

Authors: Somnath Bhattacharjee, Markus Bläser, Pranjal Dutta, and Saswata Mukherjee

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Valiant’s famous VP vs. VNP conjecture states that the symbolic permanent polynomial does not have polynomial-size algebraic circuits. However, the best upper bound on the size of the circuits computing the permanent is exponential. Informally, VNP is an exponential sum of VP-circuits. In this paper we study whether, in general, exponential sums (of algebraic circuits) require exponential-size algebraic circuits. We show that the famous Shub-Smale τ-conjecture indeed implies such an exponential lower bound for an exponential sum. Our main tools come from parameterized complexity. Along the way, we also prove an exponential fpt (fixed-parameter tractable) lower bound for the parameterized algebraic complexity class VW⁰_{nb}[𝖯], assuming the same conjecture. VW⁰_{nb}[𝖯] can be thought of as the weighted sums of (unbounded-degree) circuits, where only ± 1 constants are cost-free. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the Shub-Smale τ-conjecture has been applied to prove explicit exponential lower bounds. Furthermore, we prove that when this class is fpt, then a variant of the counting hierarchy, namely the linear counting hierarchy collapses. Moreover, if a certain type of parameterized exponential sums is fpt, then integers, as well as polynomials with coefficients being definable in the linear counting hierarchy have subpolynomial τ-complexity. Finally, we characterize a related class VW[𝖥], in terms of permanents, where we consider an exponential sum of algebraic formulas instead of circuits. We show that when we sum over cycle covers that have one long cycle and all other cycles have constant length, then the resulting family of polynomials is complete for VW[𝖥] on certain types of graphs.

Cite as

Somnath Bhattacharjee, Markus Bläser, Pranjal Dutta, and Saswata Mukherjee. Exponential Lower Bounds via Exponential Sums. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 24:1-24:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bhattacharjee_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.24,
  author =	{Bhattacharjee, Somnath and Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Dutta, Pranjal and Mukherjee, Saswata},
  title =	{{Exponential Lower Bounds via Exponential Sums}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{24:1--24:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.24},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201677},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.24},
  annote =	{Keywords: Algebraic complexity, parameterized complexity, exponential sums, counting hierarchy, tau conjecture}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
A Tight Monte-Carlo Algorithm for Steiner Tree Parameterized by Clique-Width

Authors: Narek Bojikian and Stefan Kratsch

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Given a graph G = (V,E), a set T ⊆ V, and an integer b, the Steiner Tree problem asks whether G has a connected subgraph H with at most b vertices that spans all of T. This work presents a 3^k⋅ n^𝒪(1) time one-sided Monte-Carlo algorithm for solving Steiner Tree when additionally a clique-expression of width k is provided. Known lower bounds for less expressive parameters imply that this dependence on the clique-width of G is optimal assuming the Strong Exponential-Time Hypothesis (SETH). Indeed our work establishes that the parameter dependence of Steiner Tree is the same for any graph parameter between cutwidth and clique-width, assuming SETH. Our work contributes to the program of determining the exact parameterized complexity of fundamental hard problems relative to structural graph parameters such as treewidth, which was initiated by Lokshtanov et al. [SODA 2011 & TALG 2018] and which by now has seen a plethora of results. Since the cut-and-count framework of Cygan et al. [FOCS 2011 & TALG 2022], connectivity problems have played a key role in this program as they pose many challenges for developing tight upper and lower bounds. Recently, Hegerfeld and Kratsch [ESA 2023] gave the first application of the cut-and-count technique to problems parameterized by clique-width and obtained tight bounds for Connected Dominating Set and Connected Vertex Cover, leaving open the complexity of other benchmark connectivity problems such as Steiner Tree and Feedback Vertex Set. Our algorithm for Steiner Tree does not follow the cut-and-count technique and instead works with the connectivity patterns of partial solutions. As a first technical contribution we identify a special family of so-called complete patterns that has strong (existential) representation properties, and using these at least one solution will be preserved. Furthermore, there is a family of 3^k basis patterns that (parity) represents the complete patterns, i.e., it has the same number of solutions modulo two. Our main technical contribution, a new technique called "isolating a representative," allows us to leverage both forms of representation (existential and parity). Both complete patterns and isolation of a representative will likely be applicable to other (connectivity) problems.

Cite as

Narek Bojikian and Stefan Kratsch. A Tight Monte-Carlo Algorithm for Steiner Tree Parameterized by Clique-Width. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 29:1-29:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bojikian_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.29,
  author =	{Bojikian, Narek and Kratsch, Stefan},
  title =	{{A Tight Monte-Carlo Algorithm for Steiner Tree Parameterized by Clique-Width}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201728},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parameterized complexity, Steiner tree, clique-width}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Kernelization Dichotomies for Hitting Subgraphs Under Structural Parameterizations

Authors: Marin Bougeret, Bart M. P. Jansen, and Ignasi Sau

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
For a fixed graph H, the H-Subgraph Hitting problem consists in deleting the minimum number of vertices from an input graph to obtain a graph without any occurrence of H as a subgraph. This problem can be seen as a generalization of Vertex Cover, which corresponds to the case H = K₂. We initiate a study of H-Subgraph Hitting from the point of view of characterizing structural parameterizations that allow for polynomial kernels, within the recently active framework of taking as the parameter the number of vertex deletions to obtain a graph in a "simple" class 𝒞. Our main contribution is to identify graph parameters that, when H-Subgraph Hitting is parameterized by the vertex-deletion distance to a class 𝒞 where any of these parameters is bounded, and assuming standard complexity assumptions and that H is biconnected, allow us to prove the following sharp dichotomy: the problem admits a polynomial kernel if and only if H is a clique. These new graph parameters are inspired by the notion of 𝒞-elimination distance introduced by Bulian and Dawar [Algorithmica 2016], and generalize it in two directions. Our results also apply to the version of the problem where one wants to hit H as an induced subgraph, and imply in particular, that the problems of hitting minors and hitting (induced) subgraphs have a substantially different behavior with respect to the existence of polynomial kernels under structural parameterizations.

Cite as

Marin Bougeret, Bart M. P. Jansen, and Ignasi Sau. Kernelization Dichotomies for Hitting Subgraphs Under Structural Parameterizations. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 33:1-33:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bougeret_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.33,
  author =	{Bougeret, Marin and Jansen, Bart M. P. and Sau, Ignasi},
  title =	{{Kernelization Dichotomies for Hitting Subgraphs Under Structural Parameterizations}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{33:1--33:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.33},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201766},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.33},
  annote =	{Keywords: hitting subgraphs, hitting induced subgraphs, parameterized complexity, polynomial kernel, complexity dichotomy, elimination distance}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness

Authors: Barış Can Esmer, Jacob Focke, Dániel Marx, and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
It is known for many algorithmic problems that if a tree decomposition of width t is given in the input, then the problem can be solved with exponential dependence on t. A line of research initiated by Lokshtanov, Marx, and Saurabh [SODA 2011] produced lower bounds showing that in many cases known algorithms already achieve the best possible exponential dependence on t, assuming the Strong Exponential-Time Hypothesis (SETH). The main message of this paper is showing that the same lower bounds can already be obtained in a much more restricted setting: informally, a graph consisting of a block of t vertices connected to components of constant size already has the same hardness as a general tree decomposition of width t. Formally, a (σ,δ)-hub is a set Q of vertices such that every component of Q has size at most σ and is adjacent to at most δ vertices of Q. We explore if the known tight lower bounds parameterized by the width of the given tree decomposition remain valid if we parameterize by the size of the given hub. - For every ε > 0, there are σ,δ > 0 such that Independent Set (equivalently Vertex Cover) cannot be solved in time (2-ε)^p⋅ n, even if a (σ, δ)-hub of size p is given in the input, assuming the SETH. This matches the earlier tight lower bounds parameterized by width of the tree decomposition. Similar tight bounds are obtained for Odd Cycle Transversal, Max Cut, q-Coloring, and edge/vertex deletions versions of q-Coloring. - For every ε > 0, there are σ,δ > 0 such that △-Partition cannot be solved in time (2-ε)^p ⋅ n, even if a (σ, δ)-hub of size p is given in the input, assuming the Set Cover Conjecture (SCC). In fact, we prove that this statement is equivalent to the SCC, thus it is unlikely that this could be proved assuming the SETH. - For Dominating Set, we can prove a non-tight lower bound ruling out (2-ε)^p ⋅ n^𝒪(1) algorithms, assuming either the SETH or the SCC, but this does not match the 3^p⋅ n^{𝒪(1)} upper bound. Thus our results reveal that, for many problems, the research on lower bounds on the dependence on tree width was never really about tree decompositions, but the real source of hardness comes from a much simpler structure. Additionally, we study if the same lower bounds can be obtained if σ and δ are fixed universal constants (not depending on ε). We show that lower bounds of this form are possible for Max Cut and the edge-deletion version of q-Coloring, under the Max 3-Sat Hypothesis (M3SH). However, no such lower bounds are possible for Independent Set, Odd Cycle Transversal, and the vertex-deletion version of q-Coloring: better than brute force algorithms are possible for every fixed (σ,δ).

Cite as

Barış Can Esmer, Jacob Focke, Dániel Marx, and Paweł Rzążewski. Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 34:1-34:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{canesmer_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34,
  author =	{Can Esmer, Bar{\i}\c{s} and Focke, Jacob and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
  title =	{{Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{34:1--34:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201772},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, Tight Bounds, Hub, Treewidth, Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis, Vertex Coloring, Vertex Deletion, Edge Deletion, Triangle Packing, Triangle Partition, Set Cover Hypothesis, Dominating Set}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Towards Tight Bounds for the Graph Homomorphism Problem Parameterized by Cutwidth via Asymptotic Matrix Parameters

Authors: Carla Groenland, Isja Mannens, Jesper Nederlof, Marta Piecyk, and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
A homomorphism from a graph G to a graph H is an edge-preserving mapping from V(G) to V(H). In the graph homomorphism problem, denoted by Hom(H), the graph H is fixed and we need to determine if there exists a homomorphism from an instance graph G to H. We study the complexity of the problem parameterized by the cutwidth of G, i.e., we assume that G is given along with a linear ordering v_1,…,v_n of V(G) such that, for each i ∈ {1,…,n-1}, the number of edges with one endpoint in {v_1,…,v_i} and the other in {v_{i+1},…,v_n} is at most k. We aim, for each H, for algorithms for Hom(H) running in time c_H^k n^𝒪(1) and matching lower bounds that exclude c_H^{k⋅o(1)} n^𝒪(1) or c_H^{k(1-Ω(1))} n^𝒪(1) time algorithms under the (Strong) Exponential Time Hypothesis. In the paper we introduce a new parameter that we call mimsup(H). Our main contribution is strong evidence of a close connection between c_H and mimsup(H): - an information-theoretic argument that the number of states needed in a natural dynamic programming algorithm is at most mimsup(H)^k, - lower bounds that show that for almost all graphs H indeed we have c_H ≥ mimsup(H), assuming the (Strong) Exponential-Time Hypothesis, and - an algorithm with running time exp(𝒪(mimsup(H)⋅k log k)) n^𝒪(1). In the last result we do not need to assume that H is a fixed graph. Thus, as a consequence, we obtain that the problem of deciding whether G admits a homomorphism to H is fixed-parameter tractable, when parameterized by cutwidth of G and mimsup(H). The parameter mimsup(H) can be thought of as the p-th root of the maximum induced matching number in the graph obtained by multiplying p copies of H via a certain graph product, where p tends to infinity. It can also be defined as an asymptotic rank parameter of the adjacency matrix of H. Such parameters play a central role in, among others, algebraic complexity theory and additive combinatorics. Our results tightly link the parameterized complexity of a problem to such an asymptotic matrix parameter for the first time.

Cite as

Carla Groenland, Isja Mannens, Jesper Nederlof, Marta Piecyk, and Paweł Rzążewski. Towards Tight Bounds for the Graph Homomorphism Problem Parameterized by Cutwidth via Asymptotic Matrix Parameters. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 77:1-77:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{groenland_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.77,
  author =	{Groenland, Carla and Mannens, Isja and Nederlof, Jesper and Piecyk, Marta and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
  title =	{{Towards Tight Bounds for the Graph Homomorphism Problem Parameterized by Cutwidth via Asymptotic Matrix Parameters}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{77:1--77:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.77},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202208},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.77},
  annote =	{Keywords: graph homomorphism, cutwidth, asymptotic matrix parameters}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
No Polynomial Kernels for Knapsack

Authors: Klaus Heeger, Danny Hermelin, Matthias Mnich, and Dvir Shabtay

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
This paper focuses on kernelization algorithms for the fundamental Knapsack problem. A kernelization algorithm (or kernel) is a polynomial-time reduction from a problem onto itself, where the output size is bounded by a function of some problem-specific parameter. Such algorithms provide a theoretical model for data reduction and preprocessing and are central in the area of parameterized complexity. In this way, a kernel for Knapsack for some parameter k reduces any instance of Knapsack to an equivalent instance of size at most f(k) in polynomial time, for some computable function f. When f(k) = k^{O(1)} then we call such a reduction a polynomial kernel. Our study focuses on two natural parameters for Knapsack: The number w_# of different item weights, and the number p_# of different item profits. Our main technical contribution is a proof showing that Knapsack does not admit a polynomial kernel for any of these two parameters under standard complexity-theoretic assumptions. Our proof discovers an elaborate application of the standard kernelization lower bound framework, and develops along the way novel ideas that should be useful for other problems as well. We complement our lower bounds by showing that Knapsack admits a polynomial kernel for the combined parameter w_# ⋅ p_#.

Cite as

Klaus Heeger, Danny Hermelin, Matthias Mnich, and Dvir Shabtay. No Polynomial Kernels for Knapsack. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 83:1-83:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{heeger_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.83,
  author =	{Heeger, Klaus and Hermelin, Danny and Mnich, Matthias and Shabtay, Dvir},
  title =	{{No Polynomial Kernels for Knapsack}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{83:1--83:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.83},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202261},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.83},
  annote =	{Keywords: Knapsack, polynomial kernels, compositions, number of different weights, number of different profits}
}
Document
Current and Future Challenges in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 22282)

Authors: James P. Delgrande, Birte Glimm, Thomas Meyer, Miroslaw Truszczynski, and Frank Wolter

Published in: Dagstuhl Manifestos, Volume 10, Issue 1 (2024)


Abstract
Knowledge Representation and Reasoning is a central, longstanding, and active area of Artificial Intelligence. Over the years it has evolved significantly; more recently it has been challenged and complemented by research in areas such as machine learning and reasoning under uncertainty. In July 2022,sser a Dagstuhl Perspectives workshop was held on Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. The goal of the workshop was to describe the state of the art in the field, including its relation with other areas, its shortcomings and strengths, together with recommendations for future progress. We developed this manifesto based on the presentations, panels, working groups, and discussions that took place at the Dagstuhl Workshop. It is a declaration of our views on Knowledge Representation: its origins, goals, milestones, and current foci; its relation to other disciplines, especially to Artificial Intelligence; and on its challenges, along with key priorities for the next decade.

Cite as

James P. Delgrande, Birte Glimm, Thomas Meyer, Miroslaw Truszczynski, and Frank Wolter. Current and Future Challenges in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 22282). In Dagstuhl Manifestos, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp. 1-61, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@Article{delgrande_et_al:DagMan.10.1.1,
  author =	{Delgrande, James P. and Glimm, Birte and Meyer, Thomas and Truszczynski, Miroslaw and Wolter, Frank},
  title =	{{Current and Future Challenges in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 22282)}},
  pages =	{1--61},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Manifestos},
  ISSN =	{2193-2433},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{10},
  number =	{1},
  editor =	{Delgrande, James P. and Glimm, Birte and Meyer, Thomas and Truszczynski, Miroslaw and Wolter, Frank},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagMan.10.1.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201403},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagMan.10.1.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Knowledge representation and reasoning, Applications of logics, Declarative representations, Formal logic}
}
Document
Fixed-Parameter Tractable Certified Algorithms for Covering and Dominating in Planar Graphs and Beyond

Authors: Benjamin Merlin Bumpus, Bart M. P. Jansen, and Jaime Venne

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 294, 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)


Abstract
For a positive real γ ≥ 1, a γ-certified algorithm for a vertex-weighted graph optimization problem is an algorithm that, given a weighted graph (G,w), outputs a re-weighting of the graph obtained by scaling each weight individually with a factor between 1 and γ, along with a solution which is optimal for the perturbed weight function. Here we provide (1+ε)-certified algorithms for Dominating Set and H-Subgraph-Free-Deletion which, for any ε > 0, run in time f(1/ε)⋅n^𝒪(1) on minor-closed classes of graphs of bounded local tree-width with polynomially-bounded weights. We obtain our algorithms as corollaries of a more general result establishing FPT-time certified algorithms for problems admitting, at an intuitive level, certain "local solution-improvement properties". These results improve - in terms of generality, running time and parameter dependence - on Angelidakis, Awasthi, Blum, Chatziafratis and Dan’s XP-time (1+ε)-certified algorithm for Independent Set on planar graphs (ESA2019). Furthermore, our methods are also conceptually simpler: our algorithm is based on elementary local re-optimizations inspired by Baker’s technique, as opposed to the heavy machinery of the Sherali-Adams hierarchy required in previous work.

Cite as

Benjamin Merlin Bumpus, Bart M. P. Jansen, and Jaime Venne. Fixed-Parameter Tractable Certified Algorithms for Covering and Dominating in Planar Graphs and Beyond. In 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 294, pp. 19:1-19:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bumpus_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.19,
  author =	{Bumpus, Benjamin Merlin and Jansen, Bart M. P. and Venne, Jaime},
  title =	{{Fixed-Parameter Tractable Certified Algorithms for Covering and Dominating in Planar Graphs and Beyond}},
  booktitle =	{19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-318-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{294},
  editor =	{Bodlaender, Hans L.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-200595},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: fixed-parameter tractability, certified algorithms}
}
Document
Search-Space Reduction via Essential Vertices Revisited: Vertex Multicut and Cograph Deletion

Authors: Bart M. P. Jansen and Ruben F. A. Verhaegh

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 294, 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)


Abstract
For an optimization problem Π on graphs whose solutions are vertex sets, a vertex v is called c-essential for Π if all solutions of size at most c ⋅ opt contain v. Recent work showed that polynomial-time algorithms to detect c-essential vertices can be used to reduce the search space of fixed-parameter tractable algorithms solving such problems parameterized by the size k of the solution. We provide several new upper- and lower bounds for detecting essential vertices. For example, we give a polynomial-time algorithm for 3-Essential detection for Vertex Multicut, which translates into an algorithm that finds a minimum multicut of an undirected n-vertex graph G in time 2^𝒪(𝓁³)⋅n^𝒪(1), where 𝓁 is the number of vertices in an optimal solution that are not 3-essential. Our positive results are obtained by analyzing the integrality gaps of certain linear programs. Our lower bounds show that for sufficiently small values of c, the detection task becomes NP-hard assuming the Unique Games Conjecture. For example, we show that (2-ε)-Essential detection for Directed Feedback Vertex Set is NP-hard under this conjecture, thereby proving that the existing algorithm that detects 2-essential vertices is best-possible.

Cite as

Bart M. P. Jansen and Ruben F. A. Verhaegh. Search-Space Reduction via Essential Vertices Revisited: Vertex Multicut and Cograph Deletion. In 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 294, pp. 28:1-28:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{jansen_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.28,
  author =	{Jansen, Bart M. P. and Verhaegh, Ruben F. A.},
  title =	{{Search-Space Reduction via Essential Vertices Revisited: Vertex Multicut and Cograph Deletion}},
  booktitle =	{19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)},
  pages =	{28:1--28:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-318-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{294},
  editor =	{Bodlaender, Hans L.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.28},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-200683},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.28},
  annote =	{Keywords: fixed-parameter tractability, essential vertices, integrality gap}
}
Document
Position
Grounding Stream Reasoning Research

Authors: Pieter Bonte, Jean-Paul Calbimonte, Daniel de Leng, Daniele Dell'Aglio, Emanuele Della Valle, Thomas Eiter, Federico Giannini, Fredrik Heintz, Konstantin Schekotihin, Danh Le-Phuoc, Alessandra Mileo, Patrik Schneider, Riccardo Tommasini, Jacopo Urbani, and Giacomo Ziffer

Published in: TGDK, Volume 2, Issue 1 (2024): Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge - Part 2. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge, Volume 2, Issue 1


Abstract
In the last decade, there has been a growing interest in applying AI technologies to implement complex data analytics over data streams. To this end, researchers in various fields have been organising a yearly event called the "Stream Reasoning Workshop" to share perspectives, challenges, and experiences around this topic. In this paper, the previous organisers of the workshops and other community members provide a summary of the main research results that have been discussed during the first six editions of the event. These results can be categorised into four main research areas: The first is concerned with the technological challenges related to handling large data streams. The second area aims at adapting and extending existing semantic technologies to data streams. The third and fourth areas focus on how to implement reasoning techniques, either considering deductive or inductive techniques, to extract new and valuable knowledge from the data in the stream. This summary is written not only to provide a crystallisation of the field, but also to point out distinctive traits of the stream reasoning community. Moreover, it also provides a foundation for future research by enumerating a list of use cases and open challenges, to stimulate others to join this exciting research area.

Cite as

Pieter Bonte, Jean-Paul Calbimonte, Daniel de Leng, Daniele Dell'Aglio, Emanuele Della Valle, Thomas Eiter, Federico Giannini, Fredrik Heintz, Konstantin Schekotihin, Danh Le-Phuoc, Alessandra Mileo, Patrik Schneider, Riccardo Tommasini, Jacopo Urbani, and Giacomo Ziffer. Grounding Stream Reasoning Research. In Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge - Part 2. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge (TGDK), Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 2:1-2:47, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@Article{bonte_et_al:TGDK.2.1.2,
  author =	{Bonte, Pieter and Calbimonte, Jean-Paul and de Leng, Daniel and Dell'Aglio, Daniele and Della Valle, Emanuele and Eiter, Thomas and Giannini, Federico and Heintz, Fredrik and Schekotihin, Konstantin and Le-Phuoc, Danh and Mileo, Alessandra and Schneider, Patrik and Tommasini, Riccardo and Urbani, Jacopo and Ziffer, Giacomo},
  title =	{{Grounding Stream Reasoning Research}},
  journal =	{Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge},
  pages =	{2:1--2:47},
  ISSN =	{2942-7517},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{2},
  number =	{1},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/TGDK.2.1.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-198597},
  doi =		{10.4230/TGDK.2.1.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Stream Reasoning, Stream Processing, RDF streams, Streaming Linked Data, Continuous query processing, Temporal Logics, High-performance computing, Databases}
}
Document
Kernelization for Counting Problems on Graphs: Preserving the Number of Minimum Solutions

Authors: Bart M. P. Jansen and Bart van der Steenhoven

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)


Abstract
A kernelization for a parameterized decision problem 𝒬 is a polynomial-time preprocessing algorithm that reduces any parameterized instance (x,k) into an instance (x',k') whose size is bounded by a function of k alone and which has the same yes/no answer for 𝒬. Such preprocessing algorithms cannot exist in the context of counting problems, when the answer to be preserved is the number of solutions, since this number can be arbitrarily large compared to k. However, we show that for counting minimum feedback vertex sets of size at most k, and for counting minimum dominating sets of size at most k in a planar graph, there is a polynomial-time algorithm that either outputs the answer or reduces to an instance (G',k') of size polynomial in k with the same number of minimum solutions. This shows that a meaningful theory of kernelization for counting problems is possible and opens the door for future developments. Our algorithms exploit that if the number of solutions exceeds 2^{poly(k)}, the size of the input is exponential in terms of k so that the running time of a parameterized counting algorithm can be bounded by poly(n). Otherwise, we can use gadgets that slightly increase k to represent choices among 2^{𝒪(k)} options by only poly(k) vertices.

Cite as

Bart M. P. Jansen and Bart van der Steenhoven. Kernelization for Counting Problems on Graphs: Preserving the Number of Minimum Solutions. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 27:1-27:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{jansen_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.27,
  author =	{Jansen, Bart M. P. and van der Steenhoven, Bart},
  title =	{{Kernelization for Counting Problems on Graphs: Preserving the Number of Minimum Solutions}},
  booktitle =	{18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-305-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{285},
  editor =	{Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194466},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: kernelization, counting problems, feedback vertex set, dominating set, protrusion decomposition}
}
Document
On the Parameterized Complexity of Multiway Near-Separator

Authors: Bart M. P. Jansen and Shivesh K. Roy

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)


Abstract
We study a new graph separation problem called Multiway Near-Separator. Given an undirected graph G, integer k, and terminal set T ⊆ V(G), it asks whether there is a vertex set S ⊆ V(G) ⧵ T of size at most k such that in graph G-S, no pair of distinct terminals can be connected by two pairwise internally vertex-disjoint paths. Hence each terminal pair can be separated in G-S by removing at most one vertex. The problem is therefore a generalization of (Node) Multiway Cut, which asks for a vertex set for which each terminal is in a different component of G-S. We develop a fixed-parameter tractable algorithm for Multiway Near-Separator running in time 2^{𝒪(k log k)} ⋅ n^{𝒪(1)}. Our algorithm is based on a new pushing lemma for solutions with respect to important separators, along with two problem-specific ingredients. The first is a polynomial-time subroutine to reduce the number of terminals in the instance to a polynomial in the solution size k plus the size of a given suboptimal solution. The second is a polynomial-time algorithm that, given a graph G and terminal set T ⊆ V(G) along with a single vertex x ∈ V(G) that forms a multiway near-separator, computes a 14-approximation for the problem of finding a multiway near-separator not containing x.

Cite as

Bart M. P. Jansen and Shivesh K. Roy. On the Parameterized Complexity of Multiway Near-Separator. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 28:1-28:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{jansen_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.28,
  author =	{Jansen, Bart M. P. and Roy, Shivesh K.},
  title =	{{On the Parameterized Complexity of Multiway Near-Separator}},
  booktitle =	{18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)},
  pages =	{28:1--28:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-305-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{285},
  editor =	{Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.28},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194470},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.28},
  annote =	{Keywords: fixed-parameter tractability, multiway cut, near-separator}
}
Document
Sunflowers Meet Sparsity: A Linear-Vertex Kernel for Weighted Clique-Packing on Sparse Graphs

Authors: Bart M. P. Jansen and Shivesh K. Roy

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)


Abstract
We study the kernelization complexity of the Weighted H-Packing problem on sparse graphs. For a fixed connected graph H, in the Weighted H-Packing problem the input is a graph G, a vertex-weight function w : V(G) → ℕ, and positive integers k, t. The question is whether there exist k vertex-disjoint subgraphs H₁, …, H_k of G such that H_i is isomorphic to H for each i ∈ [k] and the total weight of these k ⋅ |V(H)| vertices is at least t. It is known that the (unweighted) H-Packing problem admits a kernel with 𝒪(k^{|V(H)|-1}) vertices on general graphs, and a linear kernel on planar graphs and graphs of bounded genus. In this work, we focus on case that H is a clique on h ≥ 3 vertices (which captures Triangle Packing) and present a linear-vertex kernel for Weighted K_h-Packing on graphs of bounded expansion, along with a kernel with 𝒪(k^{1+ε}) vertices on nowhere-dense graphs for all ε > 0. To obtain these results, we combine two powerful ingredients in a novel way: the Erdős-Rado Sunflower lemma and the theory of sparsity.

Cite as

Bart M. P. Jansen and Shivesh K. Roy. Sunflowers Meet Sparsity: A Linear-Vertex Kernel for Weighted Clique-Packing on Sparse Graphs. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 29:1-29:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{jansen_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.29,
  author =	{Jansen, Bart M. P. and Roy, Shivesh K.},
  title =	{{Sunflowers Meet Sparsity: A Linear-Vertex Kernel for Weighted Clique-Packing on Sparse Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-305-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{285},
  editor =	{Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194488},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: kernelization, weighted problems, graph packing, sunflower lemma, bounded expansion, nowhere dense}
}
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