27 Search Results for "Schoeberl, Martin"


Volume

OASIcs, Volume 55

16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)

WCET 2016, July 5, 2016, Toulouse, France

Editors: Martin Schoeberl

Document
Constant-Loop Dominators for Single-Path Code Optimization

Authors: Emad Jacob Maroun, Martin Schoeberl, and Peter Puschner

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 114, 21th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2023)


Abstract
Single-path code is a code generation technique specifically designed for real-time systems. It guarantees that programs execute the same instruction sequence regardless of runtime conditions. Single-path code uses loop bounds to ensure all loops iterate a fixed number of times equal to their upper loop bound. When the lower and upper bounds are equal, the loop must iterate the same number of times, which we call a constant loop. In this paper, we present the constant-loop dominance relation on control-flow graphs. It is a variation of the traditional dominance relation that considers constant loops to find basic blocks that are always executed the same number of times. Using this relation, we present an optimization that reduces the code needed to manage single-path code. Our evaluation shows significant performance improvements, with one example of up to 90%, with mostly minor effects on code size.

Cite as

Emad Jacob Maroun, Martin Schoeberl, and Peter Puschner. Constant-Loop Dominators for Single-Path Code Optimization. In 21th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2023). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 114, pp. 7:1-7:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{maroun_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2023.7,
  author =	{Maroun, Emad Jacob and Schoeberl, Martin and Puschner, Peter},
  title =	{{Constant-Loop Dominators for Single-Path Code Optimization}},
  booktitle =	{21th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2023)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:13},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-293-8},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{114},
  editor =	{W\"{a}gemann, Peter},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2023.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-184361},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2023.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: single-path, dominators, algorithms, optimization, control-flow graph}
}
Document
Improving WCET Evaluation using Linear Relation Analysis

Authors: Pascal Raymond, Claire Maiza, Catherine Parent-Vigouroux, Erwan Jahier, Nicolas Halbwachs, Fabienne Carrier, Mihail Asavoae, and Rémy Boutonnet

Published in: LITES, Volume 6, Issue 1 (2019). Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems, Volume 6, Issue 1


Abstract
The precision of a worst case execution time (WCET) evaluation tool on a given program is highly dependent on how the tool is able to detect and discard semantically infeasible executions of the program. In this paper, we propose to use the classical abstract interpretation-based method of linear relation analysis to discover and exploit relations between execution paths. For this purpose, we add auxiliary variables (counters) to the program to trace its execution paths. The results are easily incorporated in the classical workflow of a WCET evaluator, when the evaluator is based on the popular implicit path enumeration technique. We use existing tools - a WCET evaluator and a linear relation analyzer - to build and experiment a prototype implementation of this idea.

Cite as

Pascal Raymond, Claire Maiza, Catherine Parent-Vigouroux, Erwan Jahier, Nicolas Halbwachs, Fabienne Carrier, Mihail Asavoae, and Rémy Boutonnet. Improving WCET Evaluation using Linear Relation Analysis. In LITES, Volume 6, Issue 1 (2019). Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 02:1-02:28, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@Article{raymond_et_al:LITES-v006-i001-a002,
  author =	{Raymond, Pascal and Maiza, Claire and Parent-Vigouroux, Catherine and Jahier, Erwan and Halbwachs, Nicolas and Carrier, Fabienne and Asavoae, Mihail and Boutonnet, R\'{e}my},
  title =	{{Improving WCET Evaluation using Linear Relation Analysis}},
  booktitle =	{LITES, Volume 6, Issue 1 (2019)},
  pages =	{02:1--02:28},
  journal =	{Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems},
  ISSN =	{2199-2002},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{6},
  number =	{1},
  editor =	{Raymond, Pascal and Maiza, Claire and Parent-Vigouroux, Catherine and Jahier, Erwan and Halbwachs, Nicolas and Carrier, Fabienne and Asavoae, Mihail and Boutonnet, R\'{e}my},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LITES-v006-i001-a002},
  doi =		{10.4230/LITES-v006-i001-a002},
  annote =	{Keywords: Worst Case Execution Time estimation, Infeasible Execution Paths, Abstract Interpretation}
}
Document
EMSBench: Benchmark and Testbed for Reactive Real-Time Systems

Authors: Florian Kluge, Christine Rochange, and Theo Ungerer

Published in: LITES, Volume 4, Issue 2 (2017). Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems, Volume 4, Issue 2


Abstract
Benchmark suites for real-time embedded systems (RTES) usually contain only pure computations that are often used in this domain. They allow to evaluate computing performance, but do not reproduce the complexity and behaviour that is typical for such systems. Actual RTES have to interact with the physical environment, which is often reflected by code that is executed concurrently. In this article, we present the software package EMSBench that mimics such complex behaviour, and highlight some of its use cases. The benchmark code ems of EMSBench is based on the open-source engine management system (EMS) FreeEMS. Additionally, EMSBench contains a trace generator (tg) that provides input signals for ems and enables to execute ems close to reality. We provide detailed descriptions of the ems's execution behaviour and of trace generation. EMSBench can be used as test or benchmark program to compare different hardware platforms, e.g. in terms of schedulability. Also, we use EMSBench as a benchmark for static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis and compare these results to measurements performed on existing hardware. Our results based on the OTAWA WCET estimation tool show WCET overestimations by the static analysis from 11.9% to 41.1% depending on the complexity of the analysed functions.

Cite as

Florian Kluge, Christine Rochange, and Theo Ungerer. EMSBench: Benchmark and Testbed for Reactive Real-Time Systems. In LITES, Volume 4, Issue 2 (2017). Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp. 02:1-02:23, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@Article{kluge_et_al:LITES-v004-i002-a002,
  author =	{Kluge, Florian and Rochange, Christine and Ungerer, Theo},
  title =	{{EMSBench: Benchmark and Testbed for Reactive Real-Time Systems}},
  booktitle =	{LITES, Volume 4, Issue 2 (2017)},
  pages =	{02:1--02:23},
  journal =	{Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems},
  ISSN =	{2199-2002},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{4},
  number =	{2},
  editor =	{Kluge, Florian and Rochange, Christine and Ungerer, Theo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LITES-v004-i002-a002},
  doi =		{10.4230/LITES-v004-i002-a002},
  annote =	{Keywords: Real-time benchmark, WCET Analysis, Engine Management System}
}
Document
Best Practice for Caching of Single-Path Code

Authors: Martin Schoeberl, Bekim Cilku, Daniel Prokesch, and Peter Puschner

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 57, 17th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2017)


Abstract
Single-path code has some unique properties that make it interesting to explore different caching and prefetching alternatives for the stream of instructions. In this paper, we explore different cache organizations and how they perform with single-path code.

Cite as

Martin Schoeberl, Bekim Cilku, Daniel Prokesch, and Peter Puschner. Best Practice for Caching of Single-Path Code. In 17th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2017). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 57, pp. 2:1-2:12, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{schoeberl_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2017.2,
  author =	{Schoeberl, Martin and Cilku, Bekim and Prokesch, Daniel and Puschner, Peter},
  title =	{{Best Practice for Caching of Single-Path Code}},
  booktitle =	{17th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2017)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:12},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-057-6},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{57},
  editor =	{Reineke, Jan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2017.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-73050},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2017.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: single-path code, method cache, prefetching}
}
Document
Complete Volume
OASIcs, Volume 55, WCET'16, Complete Volume

Authors: Martin Schoeberl

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 55, 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)


Abstract
OASIcs, Volume 55, WCET'16, Complete Volume

Cite as

Martin Schoeberl. OASIcs, Volume 55, WCET'16, Complete Volume. In 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 55, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@Proceedings{schoeberl:OASIcs.WCET.2016,
  title =	{{OASIcs, Volume 55, WCET'16, Complete Volume}},
  booktitle =	{16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-025-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Schoeberl, Martin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-69095},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016},
  annote =	{Keywords: Performance Analysis and Design Aids, Real-Time and Embedded systems, Software/- Program Verification, \lbrackOrganization and Design\rbrack Real-time Systems and Embedded Systems}
}
Document
Front Matter
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, List of Authors, Committee

Authors: Martin Schoeberl

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 55, 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)


Abstract
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, List of Authors, Committee

Cite as

Martin Schoeberl. Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, List of Authors, Committee. In 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 55, pp. 0:i-0:xii, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{schoeberl:OASIcs.WCET.2016.0,
  author =	{Schoeberl, Martin},
  title =	{{Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, List of Authors, Committee}},
  booktitle =	{16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)},
  pages =	{0:i--0:xii},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-025-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Schoeberl, Martin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.0},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68939},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.0},
  annote =	{Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, List of Authors, Committee}
}
Document
Mitigating Software-Instrumentation Cache Effects in Measurement-Based Timing Analysis

Authors: Enrique Díaz, Jaume Abella, Enrico Mezzetti, Irune Agirre, Mikel Azkarate-Askasua, Tullio Vardanega, and Francisco J. Cazorla

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 55, 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)


Abstract
Measurement-based timing analysis (MBTA) is often used to determine the timing behaviour of software programs embedded in safety-aware real-time systems deployed in various industrial domains including automotive and railway. MBTA methods rely on some form of instrumentation, either at hardware or software level, of the target program or fragments thereof to collect execution-time measurement data. A known drawback of software-level instrumentation is that instrumentation itself does affect the timing and functional behaviour of a program, resulting in the so-called probe effect: leaving the instrumentation code in the final executable can negatively affect average performance and could not be even admissible under stringent industrial qualification and certification standards; removing it before operation jeopardizes the results of timing analysis as the WCET estimates on the instrumented version of the program cannot be valid any more due, for example, to the timing effects incurred by different cache alignments. In this paper, we present a novel approach to mitigate the impact of instrumentation code on cache behaviour by reducing the instrumentation overhead while at the same time preserving and consolidating the results of timing analysis.

Cite as

Enrique Díaz, Jaume Abella, Enrico Mezzetti, Irune Agirre, Mikel Azkarate-Askasua, Tullio Vardanega, and Francisco J. Cazorla. Mitigating Software-Instrumentation Cache Effects in Measurement-Based Timing Analysis. In 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 55, pp. 1:1-1:11, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{diaz_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2016.1,
  author =	{D{\'\i}az, Enrique and Abella, Jaume and Mezzetti, Enrico and Agirre, Irune and Azkarate-Askasua, Mikel and Vardanega, Tullio and Cazorla, Francisco J.},
  title =	{{Mitigating Software-Instrumentation Cache Effects in Measurement-Based Timing Analysis}},
  booktitle =	{16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:11},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-025-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Schoeberl, Martin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68946},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: WCET, Measurements, Instrumentation overhead}
}
Document
TACLeBench: A Benchmark Collection to Support Worst-Case Execution Time Research

Authors: Heiko Falk, Sebastian Altmeyer, Peter Hellinckx, Björn Lisper, Wolfgang Puffitsch, Christine Rochange, Martin Schoeberl, Rasmus Bo Sørensen, Peter Wägemann, and Simon Wegener

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 55, 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)


Abstract
Engineering related research, such as research on worst-case execution time, uses experimentation to evaluate ideas. For these experiments we need example programs. Furthermore, to make the research experimentation repeatable those programs shall be made publicly available. We collected open-source programs, adapted them to a common coding style, and provide the collection in open-source. The benchmark collection is called TACLeBench and is available from GitHub in version 1.9 at the publication date of this paper. One of the main features of TACLeBench is that all programs are self-contained without any dependencies on standard libraries or an operating system.

Cite as

Heiko Falk, Sebastian Altmeyer, Peter Hellinckx, Björn Lisper, Wolfgang Puffitsch, Christine Rochange, Martin Schoeberl, Rasmus Bo Sørensen, Peter Wägemann, and Simon Wegener. TACLeBench: A Benchmark Collection to Support Worst-Case Execution Time Research. In 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 55, pp. 2:1-2:10, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{falk_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2016.2,
  author =	{Falk, Heiko and Altmeyer, Sebastian and Hellinckx, Peter and Lisper, Bj\"{o}rn and Puffitsch, Wolfgang and Rochange, Christine and Schoeberl, Martin and S{\o}rensen, Rasmus Bo and W\"{a}gemann, Peter and Wegener, Simon},
  title =	{{TACLeBench: A Benchmark Collection to Support Worst-Case Execution Time Research}},
  booktitle =	{16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:10},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-025-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Schoeberl, Martin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68958},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Benchmark, WCET analysis, real-time systems}
}
Document
Expressing and Exploiting Conflicts over Paths in WCET Analysis

Authors: Vincent Mussot, Jordy Ruiz, Pascal Sotin, Marianne de Michiel, and Hugues Cassé

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 55, 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)


Abstract
The presence of infeasible paths in a program is a source of imprecision in the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) analysis. Detecting, expressing and exploiting such paths can improve the WCET estimation or, at least, improve the confidence we have in estimation precision. In this article, we propose an extension of the FFX format to express conflicts over paths and we detail two ways of enhancing the WCET analyses with that information. We demonstrate and compare these techniques on the Mälardalen benchmark suite and on C code generated from Esterel.

Cite as

Vincent Mussot, Jordy Ruiz, Pascal Sotin, Marianne de Michiel, and Hugues Cassé. Expressing and Exploiting Conflicts over Paths in WCET Analysis. In 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 55, pp. 3:1-3:11, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{mussot_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2016.3,
  author =	{Mussot, Vincent and Ruiz, Jordy and Sotin, Pascal and de Michiel, Marianne and Cass\'{e}, Hugues},
  title =	{{Expressing and Exploiting Conflicts over Paths in WCET Analysis}},
  booktitle =	{16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:11},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-025-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Schoeberl, Martin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68966},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: WCET analysis, Infeasible paths, Path conflicts, IPET, CFG transformation}
}
Document
Continuous Non-Intrusive Hybrid WCET Estimation Using Waypoint Graphs

Authors: Boris Dreyer, Christian Hochberger, Alexander Lange, Simon Wegener, and Alexander Weiss

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 55, 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)


Abstract
Traditionally, the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) of Embedded Software has been estimated using analytical approaches. This is effective, if good models of the processor/System-on-Chip (SoC) architecture exist. Unfortunately, modern high performance SoCs often contain unpredictable and/or undocumented components that influence the timing behaviour. Thus, analytical results for such processors are unrealistically pessimistic. One possible alternative approach seems to be hybrid WCET analysis, where measurement data together with an analytical approach is used to estimate worst-case behaviour. Previously, we demonstrated how continuous evaluation of basic block trace data can be used to produce detailed statistics of basic blocks in embedded software. In the meantime it has become clear that the trace data provided by modern SoCs delivers a different type of information. In this contribution, we show that even under realistic conditions, a meaningful analysis can be conducted with the trace data.

Cite as

Boris Dreyer, Christian Hochberger, Alexander Lange, Simon Wegener, and Alexander Weiss. Continuous Non-Intrusive Hybrid WCET Estimation Using Waypoint Graphs. In 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 55, pp. 4:1-4:11, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{dreyer_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2016.4,
  author =	{Dreyer, Boris and Hochberger, Christian and Lange, Alexander and Wegener, Simon and Weiss, Alexander},
  title =	{{Continuous Non-Intrusive Hybrid WCET Estimation Using Waypoint Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:11},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-025-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Schoeberl, Martin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68977},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Hybrid Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) Estimation for Multicore Processors, Real-time Systems}
}
Document
Eager Stack Cache Memory Transfers

Authors: Amine Naji and Florian Brandner

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 55, 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)


Abstract
The growing complexity of modern computer architectures increasingly complicates the prediction of the run-time behavior of software. For real-time systems, where a safe estimation of the program's worst-case execution time is needed, time-predictable computer architectures promise to resolve this problem. The stack cache, for instance, allows the compiler to efficiently cache a program's stack, while static analysis of its behavior remains easy. This work introduces an optimization of the stack cache that allows to anticipate memory transfers that might be initiated by future stack cache control instructions. These eager memory transfers thus allow to reduce the average-case latency of those control instructions, very similar to "prefetching" techniques known from conventional caches. However, the mechanism proposed here is guaranteed to have no impact on the worst-case execution time estimates computed by static analysis. Measurements on a dual-core platform using the Patmos processor and imedivision-multiplexing-based memory arbitration, show that our technique can eliminate up to 62% (7%) of the memory transfers from (respectively to) the stack cache on average over all programs of the MiBench benchmark suite.

Cite as

Amine Naji and Florian Brandner. Eager Stack Cache Memory Transfers. In 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 55, pp. 5:1-5:11, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{naji_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2016.5,
  author =	{Naji, Amine and Brandner, Florian},
  title =	{{Eager Stack Cache Memory Transfers}},
  booktitle =	{16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:11},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-025-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Schoeberl, Martin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68983},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Predictability, Eager Memory Transfers, Stack Cache, Real-Time Systems, Prefetching, Eager Eviction}
}
Document
The Variability of Application Execution Times on a Multi-Core Platform

Authors: Vincent Nélis, Patrick Meumeu Yomsi, and Luís Miguel Pinho

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 55, 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)


Abstract
It is a known fact that processes running concurrently on different cores in a multicore environment interfere with each other on the processor shared resources. The contention on these shared resources considerably slows down the execution on every core since sometimes the cores must stall while their requests to access the resources are being served. But by how much the execution may be slowed down due to this interference? In this paper we answer this question with numbers coming from experimentation. That is, we quantify the magnitude of the impact of the interference on the execution time by running programs taken from the TACLeBench benchmark suite, a popular benchmark suite in the real-time research community, on the first generation of Kalray manycore processor family, the MPPA-256 (the development board) that goes by the codename "Andey".

Cite as

Vincent Nélis, Patrick Meumeu Yomsi, and Luís Miguel Pinho. The Variability of Application Execution Times on a Multi-Core Platform. In 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 55, pp. 6:1-6:11, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{nelis_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2016.6,
  author =	{N\'{e}lis, Vincent and Yomsi, Patrick Meumeu and Pinho, Lu{\'\i}s Miguel},
  title =	{{The Variability of Application Execution Times on a Multi-Core Platform}},
  booktitle =	{16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:11},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-025-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Schoeberl, Martin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68994},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Execution time variability, timing analysis, WCET estimates, multi-cores, many-cores}
}
Document
BEST: a Binary Executable Slicing Tool

Authors: Armel Mangean, Jean-Luc Béchennec, Mikaël Briday, and Sébastien Faucou

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 55, 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)


Abstract
We describe the implementation of BEST, a tool for slicing binary code. We aim to integrate this tool in a WCET estimation framework based on model checking. In this approach, program slicing is used to abstract the program model in order to reduce the state space of the system. In this article, we also report on the results of an evaluation of the efficiency of the abstraction technique.

Cite as

Armel Mangean, Jean-Luc Béchennec, Mikaël Briday, and Sébastien Faucou. BEST: a Binary Executable Slicing Tool. In 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 55, pp. 7:1-7:10, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{mangean_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2016.7,
  author =	{Mangean, Armel and B\'{e}chennec, Jean-Luc and Briday, Mika\"{e}l and Faucou, S\'{e}bastien},
  title =	{{BEST: a Binary Executable Slicing Tool}},
  booktitle =	{16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:10},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-025-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Schoeberl, Martin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-69004},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Program Slicing, Binary Code Analysis, WCET Analysis}
}
Document
Dynamic Branch Resolution Based on Combined Static Analyses

Authors: Wei-Tsun Sun and Hugues Cassé

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 55, 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)


Abstract
Static analysis requires the full knowledge of the overall program structure. The structure of a program can be represented by a Control Flow Graph (CFG) where vertices are basic blocks (BB) and edges represent the control flow between the BB. To construct a full CFG, all the BB as well as all of their possible targets addresses must be found. In this paper, we present a method to resolve dynamic branches, that identifies the target addresses of BB created due to the switch-cases and calls on function pointers. We also implemented a slicing method to speed up the overall analysis which makes our approach applicable on large and realistic real-time programs.

Cite as

Wei-Tsun Sun and Hugues Cassé. Dynamic Branch Resolution Based on Combined Static Analyses. In 16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 55, pp. 8:1-8:10, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{sun_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2016.8,
  author =	{Sun, Wei-Tsun and Cass\'{e}, Hugues},
  title =	{{Dynamic Branch Resolution Based on Combined Static Analyses}},
  booktitle =	{16th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2016)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:10},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-025-5},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Schoeberl, Martin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-69014},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2016.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: WCET, static analysis, dynamic branch, assembly, machine language}
}
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