35 Search Results for "Thilikos, Dimitrios M."


Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Computing Tree Decompositions with Small Independence Number

Authors: Clément Dallard, Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, Tuukka Korhonen, and Martin Milanič

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
The independence number of a tree decomposition is the maximum of the independence numbers of the subgraphs induced by its bags. The tree-independence number of a graph is the minimum independence number of a tree decomposition of it. Several NP-hard graph problems, like maximum weight independent set, can be solved in time n^𝒪(k) if the input n-vertex graph is given together with a tree decomposition of independence number k. Yolov in [SODA 2018] gave an algorithm that given an n-vertex graph G and an integer k, in time n^𝒪(k³) either constructs a tree decomposition of G whose independence number is 𝒪(k³) or correctly reports that the tree-independence number of G is larger than k. In this paper, we first give an algorithm for computing the tree-independence number with a better approximation ratio and running time and then prove that our algorithm is, in some sense, the best one can hope for. More precisely, our algorithm runs in time 2^𝒪(k²) n^𝒪(k) and either outputs a tree decomposition of G with independence number at most 8k, or determines that the tree-independence number of G is larger than k. This implies 2^𝒪(k²) n^𝒪(k)-time algorithms for various problems, like maximum weight independent set, parameterized by the tree-independence number k without needing the decomposition as an input. Assuming Gap-ETH, an n^Ω(k) factor in the running time is unavoidable for any approximation algorithm for the tree-independence number. Our second result is that the exact computation of the tree-independence number is para-NP-hard: We show that for every constant k ≥ 4 it is NP-hard to decide if a given graph has the tree-independence number at most k.

Cite as

Clément Dallard, Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, Tuukka Korhonen, and Martin Milanič. Computing Tree Decompositions with Small Independence Number. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 51:1-51:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{dallard_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.51,
  author =	{Dallard, Cl\'{e}ment and Fomin, Fedor V. and Golovach, Petr A. and Korhonen, Tuukka and Milani\v{c}, Martin},
  title =	{{Computing Tree Decompositions with Small Independence Number}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{51:1--51:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.51},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201945},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.51},
  annote =	{Keywords: tree-independence number, approximation, parameterized algorithms}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Kernelization Dichotomies for Hitting Subgraphs Under Structural Parameterizations

Authors: Marin Bougeret, Bart M. P. Jansen, and Ignasi Sau

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
For a fixed graph H, the H-Subgraph Hitting problem consists in deleting the minimum number of vertices from an input graph to obtain a graph without any occurrence of H as a subgraph. This problem can be seen as a generalization of Vertex Cover, which corresponds to the case H = K₂. We initiate a study of H-Subgraph Hitting from the point of view of characterizing structural parameterizations that allow for polynomial kernels, within the recently active framework of taking as the parameter the number of vertex deletions to obtain a graph in a "simple" class 𝒞. Our main contribution is to identify graph parameters that, when H-Subgraph Hitting is parameterized by the vertex-deletion distance to a class 𝒞 where any of these parameters is bounded, and assuming standard complexity assumptions and that H is biconnected, allow us to prove the following sharp dichotomy: the problem admits a polynomial kernel if and only if H is a clique. These new graph parameters are inspired by the notion of 𝒞-elimination distance introduced by Bulian and Dawar [Algorithmica 2016], and generalize it in two directions. Our results also apply to the version of the problem where one wants to hit H as an induced subgraph, and imply in particular, that the problems of hitting minors and hitting (induced) subgraphs have a substantially different behavior with respect to the existence of polynomial kernels under structural parameterizations.

Cite as

Marin Bougeret, Bart M. P. Jansen, and Ignasi Sau. Kernelization Dichotomies for Hitting Subgraphs Under Structural Parameterizations. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 33:1-33:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bougeret_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.33,
  author =	{Bougeret, Marin and Jansen, Bart M. P. and Sau, Ignasi},
  title =	{{Kernelization Dichotomies for Hitting Subgraphs Under Structural Parameterizations}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{33:1--33:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.33},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201766},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.33},
  annote =	{Keywords: hitting subgraphs, hitting induced subgraphs, parameterized complexity, polynomial kernel, complexity dichotomy, elimination distance}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Delineating Half-Integrality of the Erdős-Pósa Property for Minors: The Case of Surfaces

Authors: Christophe Paul, Evangelos Protopapas, Dimitrios M. Thilikos, and Sebastian Wiederrecht

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
In 1986 Robertson and Seymour proved a generalization of the seminal result of Erdős and Pósa on the duality of packing and covering cycles: A graph has the Erdős-Pósa property for minors if and only if it is planar. In particular, for every non-planar graph H they gave examples showing that the Erdős-Pósa property does not hold for H. Recently, Liu confirmed a conjecture of Thomas and showed that every graph has the half-integral Erdős-Pósa property for minors. Liu’s proof is non-constructive and to this date, with the exception of a small number of examples, no constructive proof is known. In this paper, we initiate the delineation of the half-integrality of the Erdős-Pósa property for minors. We conjecture that for every graph H, there exists a unique (up to a suitable equivalence relation on graph parameters) graph parameter EP_H such that H has the Erdős-Pósa property in a minor-closed graph class 𝒢 if and only if sup{EP_H(G) ∣ G ∈ 𝒢} is finite. We prove this conjecture for the class ℋ of Kuratowski-connected shallow-vortex minors by showing that, for every non-planar H ∈ ℋ, the parameter EP_H(G) is precisely the maximum order of a Robertson-Seymour counterexample to the Erdős-Pósa property of H which can be found as a minor in G. Our results are constructive and imply, for the first time, parameterized algorithms that find either a packing, or a cover, or one of the Robertson-Seymour counterexamples, certifying the existence of a half-integral packing for the graphs in ℋ.

Cite as

Christophe Paul, Evangelos Protopapas, Dimitrios M. Thilikos, and Sebastian Wiederrecht. Delineating Half-Integrality of the Erdős-Pósa Property for Minors: The Case of Surfaces. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 114:1-114:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{paul_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.114,
  author =	{Paul, Christophe and Protopapas, Evangelos and Thilikos, Dimitrios M. and Wiederrecht, Sebastian},
  title =	{{Delineating Half-Integrality of the Erd\H{o}s-P\'{o}sa Property for Minors: The Case of Surfaces}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{114:1--114:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.114},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202576},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.114},
  annote =	{Keywords: Erd\H{o}s-P\'{o}sa property, Erd\H{o}s-P\'{o}sa pair, Graph parameters, Graph minors, Universal obstruction, Surface containment}
}
Document
Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming
On Homomorphism Indistinguishability and Hypertree Depth

Authors: Benjamin Scheidt

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
GC^k is a logic introduced by Scheidt and Schweikardt (2023) to express properties of hypergraphs. It is similar to first-order logic with counting quantifiers (C) adapted to the hypergraph setting. It has distinct sets of variables for vertices and for hyperedges and requires vertex variables to be guarded by hyperedge variables on every quantification. We prove that two hypergraphs G, H satisfy the same sentences in the logic GC^k with guard depth at most k if, and only if, they are homomorphism indistinguishable over the class of hypergraphs of strict hypertree depth at most k. This lifts the analogous result for tree depth ≤ k and sentences of first-order logic with counting quantifiers of quantifier rank at most k due to Grohe (2020) from graphs to hypergraphs. The guard depth of a formula is the quantifier rank with respect to hyperedge variables, and strict hypertree depth is a restriction of hypertree depth as defined by Adler, Gavenčiak and Klimošová (2012). To justify this restriction, we show that for every H, the strict hypertree depth of H is at most 1 larger than its hypertree depth, and we give additional evidence that strict hypertree depth can be viewed as a reasonable generalisation of tree depth for hypergraphs.

Cite as

Benjamin Scheidt. On Homomorphism Indistinguishability and Hypertree Depth. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 152:1-152:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{scheidt:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.152,
  author =	{Scheidt, Benjamin},
  title =	{{On Homomorphism Indistinguishability and Hypertree Depth}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{152:1--152:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.152},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202958},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.152},
  annote =	{Keywords: homomorphism indistinguishability, counting logics, guarded logics, hypergraphs, incidence graphs, tree depth, elimination forest, hypertree width}
}
Document
Dynamic Programming on Bipartite Tree Decompositions

Authors: Lars Jaffke, Laure Morelle, Ignasi Sau, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)


Abstract
We revisit a graph width parameter that we dub bipartite treewidth, along with its associated graph decomposition that we call bipartite tree decomposition. Bipartite treewidth can be seen as a common generalization of treewidth and the odd cycle transversal number. Intuitively, a bipartite tree decomposition is a tree decomposition whose bags induce almost bipartite graphs and whose adhesions contain at most one vertex from the bipartite part of any other bag, while the width of such decomposition measures how far the bags are from being bipartite. Adapted from a tree decomposition originally defined by Demaine, Hajiaghayi, and Kawarabayashi [SODA 2010] and explicitly defined by Tazari [Theor. Comput. Sci. 2012], bipartite treewidth appears to play a crucial role for solving problems related to odd-minors, which have recently attracted considerable attention. As a first step toward a theory for solving these problems efficiently, the main goal of this paper is to develop dynamic programming techniques to solve problems on graphs of small bipartite treewidth. For such graphs, we provide a number of para-NP-completeness results, FPT-algorithms, and XP-algorithms, as well as several open problems. In particular, we show that K_t-Subgraph-Cover, Weighted Vertex Cover/Independent Set, Odd Cycle Transversal, and Maximum Weighted Cut are FPT parameterized by bipartite treewidth. We also provide the following complexity dichotomy when H is a 2-connected graph, for each of the H-Subgraph-Packing, H-Induced-Packing, H-Scattered-Packing, and H-Odd-Minor-Packing problems: if H is bipartite, then the problem is para-NP-complete parameterized by bipartite treewidth while, if H is non-bipartite, then the problem is solvable in XP-time. Beyond bipartite treewidth, we define 1-ℋ-treewidth by replacing the bipartite graph class by any graph class ℋ. Most of the technology developed here also works for this more general parameter.

Cite as

Lars Jaffke, Laure Morelle, Ignasi Sau, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. Dynamic Programming on Bipartite Tree Decompositions. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 26:1-26:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{jaffke_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.26,
  author =	{Jaffke, Lars and Morelle, Laure and Sau, Ignasi and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.},
  title =	{{Dynamic Programming on Bipartite Tree Decompositions}},
  booktitle =	{18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)},
  pages =	{26:1--26:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-305-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{285},
  editor =	{Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.26},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194455},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.26},
  annote =	{Keywords: tree decomposition, bipartite graphs, dynamic programming, odd-minors, packing, maximum cut, vertex cover, independent set, odd cycle transversal}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Compound Logics for Modification Problems

Authors: Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, Ignasi Sau, Giannos Stamoulis, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)


Abstract
We introduce a novel model-theoretic framework inspired from graph modification and based on the interplay between model theory and algorithmic graph minors. The core of our framework is a new compound logic operating with two types of sentences, expressing graph modification: the modulator sentence, defining some property of the modified part of the graph, and the target sentence, defining some property of the resulting graph. In our framework, modulator sentences are in counting monadic second-order logic (CMSOL) and have models of bounded treewidth, while target sentences express first-order logic (FOL) properties along with minor-exclusion. Our logic captures problems that are not definable in first-order logic and, moreover, may have instances of unbounded treewidth. Also, it permits the modeling of wide families of problems involving vertex/edge removals, alternative modulator measures (such as elimination distance or G-treewidth), multistage modifications, and various cut problems. Our main result is that, for this compound logic, model-checking can be done in quadratic time. All derived algorithms are constructive and this, as a byproduct, extends the constructibility horizon of the algorithmic applications of the Graph Minors theorem of Robertson and Seymour. The proposed logic can be seen as a general framework to capitalize on the potential of the irrelevant vertex technique. It gives a way to deal with problem instances of unbounded treewidth, for which Courcelle’s theorem does not apply.

Cite as

Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, Ignasi Sau, Giannos Stamoulis, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. Compound Logics for Modification Problems. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 61:1-61:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.61,
  author =	{Fomin, Fedor V. and Golovach, Petr A. and Sau, Ignasi and Stamoulis, Giannos and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.},
  title =	{{Compound Logics for Modification Problems}},
  booktitle =	{50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)},
  pages =	{61:1--61:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-278-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{261},
  editor =	{Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.61},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181137},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.61},
  annote =	{Keywords: Algorithmic meta-theorems, Graph modification problems, Model-checking, Graph minors, First-order logic, Monadic second-order logic, Flat Wall theorem, Irrelevant vertex technique}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Faster Parameterized Algorithms for Modification Problems to Minor-Closed Classes

Authors: Laure Morelle, Ignasi Sau, Giannos Stamoulis, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)


Abstract
Let G be a minor-closed graph class and let G be an n-vertex graph. We say that G is a k-apex of G if G contains a set S of at most k vertices such that G⧵S belongs to G. Our first result is an algorithm that decides whether G is a k-apex of G in time 2^poly(k)⋅n². This algorithm improves the previous one, given by Sau, Stamoulis, and Thilikos [ICALP 2020, TALG 2022], whose running time was 2^poly(k)⋅n³. The elimination distance of G to G, denoted by ed_G(G), is the minimum number of rounds required to reduce each connected component of G to a graph in G by removing one vertex from each connected component in each round. Bulian and Dawar [Algorithmica 2017] proved the existence of an FPT-algorithm, with parameter k, to decide whether ed_G(G) ≤ k. This algorithm is based on the computability of the minor-obstructions and its dependence on k is not explicit. We extend the techniques used in the first algorithm to decide whether ed_G(G) ≤ k in time 2^{2^{2^poly(k)}}⋅n². This is the first algorithm for this problem with an explicit parametric dependence in k. In the special case where G excludes some apex-graph as a minor, we give two alternative algorithms, one running in time 2^{2^O(k²log k)}⋅n² and one running in time 2^{poly(k)}⋅n³. As a stepping stone for these algorithms, we provide an algorithm that decides whether ed_G(G) ≤ k in time 2^O(tw⋅ k + tw log tw)⋅n, where tw is the treewidth of G. This algorithm combines the dynamic programming framework of Reidl, Rossmanith, Villaamil, and Sikdar [ICALP 2014] for the particular case where G contains only the empty graph (i.e., for treedepth) with the representative-based techniques introduced by Baste, Sau, and Thilikos [SODA 2020]. In all the algorithmic complexities above, poly is a polynomial function whose degree depends on G, while the hidden constants also depend on G. Finally, we provide explicit upper bounds on the size of the graphs in the minor-obstruction set of the class of graphs E_k(G) = {G ∣ ed_G(G) ≤ k}.

Cite as

Laure Morelle, Ignasi Sau, Giannos Stamoulis, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. Faster Parameterized Algorithms for Modification Problems to Minor-Closed Classes. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 93:1-93:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{morelle_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.93,
  author =	{Morelle, Laure and Sau, Ignasi and Stamoulis, Giannos and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.},
  title =	{{Faster Parameterized Algorithms for Modification Problems to Minor-Closed Classes}},
  booktitle =	{50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)},
  pages =	{93:1--93:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-278-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{261},
  editor =	{Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.93},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181458},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.93},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph minors, Parameterized algorithms, Graph modification problems, Vertex deletion, Elimination distance, Irrelevant vertex technique, Flat Wall Theorem, Obstructions}
}
Document
APPROX
A Constant-Factor Approximation for Weighted Bond Cover

Authors: Eun Jung Kim, Euiwoong Lee, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 207, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)


Abstract
The Weighted ℱ-Vertex Deletion for a class ℱ of graphs asks, weighted graph G, for a minimum weight vertex set S such that G-S ∈ ℱ. The case when ℱ is minor-closed and excludes some graph as a minor has received particular attention but a constant-factor approximation remained elusive for Weighted ℱ-Vertex Deletion. Only three cases of minor-closed ℱ are known to admit constant-factor approximations, namely Vertex Cover, Feedback Vertex Set and Diamond Hitting Set. We study the problem for the class ℱ of θ_c-minor-free graphs, under the equivalent setting of the Weighted c-Bond Cover problem, and present a constant-factor approximation algorithm using the primal-dual method. For this, we leverage a structure theorem implicit in [Joret et al., SIDMA'14] which states the following: any graph G containing a θ_c-minor-model either contains a large two-terminal protrusion, or contains a constant-size θ_c-minor-model, or a collection of pairwise disjoint constant-sized connected sets that can be contracted simultaneously to yield a dense graph. In the first case, we tame the graph by replacing the protrusion with a special-purpose weighted gadget. For the second and third case, we provide a weighting scheme which guarantees a local approximation ratio. Besides making an important step in the quest of (dis)proving a constant-factor approximation for Weighted ℱ-Vertex Deletion, our result may be useful as a template for algorithms for other minor-closed families.

Cite as

Eun Jung Kim, Euiwoong Lee, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. A Constant-Factor Approximation for Weighted Bond Cover. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 7:1-7:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{kim_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.7,
  author =	{Kim, Eun Jung and Lee, Euiwoong and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.},
  title =	{{A Constant-Factor Approximation for Weighted Bond Cover}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-207-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{207},
  editor =	{Wootters, Mary and Sanit\`{a}, Laura},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-147002},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Constant-factor approximation algorithms, Primal-dual method, Bonds in graphs, Graph minors, Graph modification problems}
}
Document
An Algorithmic Meta-Theorem for Graph Modification to Planarity and FOL

Authors: Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, Giannos Stamoulis, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)


Abstract
In general, a graph modification problem is defined by a graph modification operation ⊠ and a target graph property 𝒫. Typically, the modification operation ⊠ may be vertex removal, edge removal, edge contraction, or edge addition and the question is, given a graph G and an integer k, whether it is possible to transform G to a graph in 𝒫 after applying k times the operation ⊠ on G. This problem has been extensively studied for particilar instantiations of ⊠ and 𝒫. In this paper we consider the general property 𝒫_ϕ of being planar and, moreover, being a model of some First-Order Logic sentence ϕ (an FOL-sentence). We call the corresponding meta-problem Graph ⊠-Modification to Planarity and ϕ and prove the following algorithmic meta-theorem: there exists a function f: ℕ² → ℕ such that, for every ⊠ and every FOL sentence ϕ, the Graph ⊠-Modification to Planarity and ϕ is solvable in f(k,|ϕ|)⋅n² time. The proof constitutes a hybrid of two different classic techniques in graph algorithms. The first is the irrelevant vertex technique that is typically used in the context of Graph Minors and deals with properties such as planarity or surface-embeddability (that are not FOL-expressible) and the second is the use of Gaifman’s Locality Theorem that is the theoretical base for the meta-algorithmic study of FOL-expressible problems.

Cite as

Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, Giannos Stamoulis, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. An Algorithmic Meta-Theorem for Graph Modification to Planarity and FOL. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 51:1-51:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.51,
  author =	{Fomin, Fedor V. and Golovach, Petr A. and Stamoulis, Giannos and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.},
  title =	{{An Algorithmic Meta-Theorem for Graph Modification to Planarity and FOL}},
  booktitle =	{28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)},
  pages =	{51:1--51:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-162-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{173},
  editor =	{Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.51},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-129172},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.51},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph modification Problems, Algorithmic meta-theorems, First Order Logic, Irrelevant vertex technique, Planar graphs, Surface embeddable graphs}
}
Document
A Linear Fixed Parameter Tractable Algorithm for Connected Pathwidth

Authors: Mamadou Moustapha Kanté, Christophe Paul, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)


Abstract
The graph parameter of pathwidth can be seen as a measure of the topological resemblance of a graph to a path. A popular definition of pathwidth is given in terms of node search where we are given a system of tunnels (represented by a graph) that is contaminated by some infectious substance and we are looking for a search strategy that, at each step, either places a searcher on a vertex or removes a searcher from a vertex and where an edge is cleaned when both endpoints are simultaneously occupied by searchers. It was proved that the minimum number of searchers required for a successful cleaning strategy is equal to the pathwidth of the graph plus one. Two desired characteristics for a cleaning strategy is to be monotone (no recontamination occurs) and connected (clean territories always remain connected). Under these two demands, the number of searchers is equivalent to a variant of pathwidth called connected pathwidth. We prove that connected pathwidth is fixed parameter tractable, in particular we design a 2^O(k²)⋅n time algorithm that checks whether the connected pathwidth of G is at most k. This resolves an open question by [Dereniowski, Osula, and Rzążewski, Finding small-width connected path-decompositions in polynomial time. Theor. Comput. Sci., 794:85–100, 2019]. For our algorithm, we enrich the typical sequence technique that is able to deal with the connectivity demand. Typical sequences have been introduced in [Bodlaender and Kloks. Efficient and constructive algorithms for the pathwidth and treewidth of graphs. J. Algorithms, 21(2):358–402, 1996] for the design of linear parameterized algorithms for treewidth and pathwidth. While this technique has been later applied to other parameters, none of its advancements was able to deal with the connectivity demand, as it is a "global" demand that concerns an unbounded number of parts of the graph of unbounded size. The proposed extension is based on an encoding of the connectivity property that is quite versatile and may be adapted so to deliver linear parameterized algorithms for the connected variants of other width parameters as well. An immediate consequence of our result is a 2^O(k²)⋅n time algorithm for the monotone and connected version of the edge search number.

Cite as

Mamadou Moustapha Kanté, Christophe Paul, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. A Linear Fixed Parameter Tractable Algorithm for Connected Pathwidth. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 64:1-64:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{kante_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.64,
  author =	{Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha and Paul, Christophe and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.},
  title =	{{A Linear Fixed Parameter Tractable Algorithm for Connected Pathwidth}},
  booktitle =	{28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)},
  pages =	{64:1--64:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-162-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{173},
  editor =	{Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.64},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-129307},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.64},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph decompositions, Parameterized algorithms, Typical sequences, Pathwidth, Graph searching}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
An FPT-Algorithm for Recognizing k-Apices of Minor-Closed Graph Classes

Authors: Ignasi Sau, Giannos Stamoulis, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)


Abstract
Let G be a graph class. We say that a graph G is a k-apex of G if G contains a set S of at most k vertices such that G⧵S belongs to G. We prove that if G is minor-closed, then there is an algorithm that either returns a set S certifying that G is a k-apex of G or reports that such a set does not exist, in 2^{poly(k)}n³ time. Here poly is a polynomial function whose degree depends on the maximum size of a minor-obstruction of G, i.e., the minor-minimal set of graphs not belonging to G. In the special case where G excludes some apex graph as a minor, we give an alternative algorithm running in 2^{poly(k)}n² time.

Cite as

Ignasi Sau, Giannos Stamoulis, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. An FPT-Algorithm for Recognizing k-Apices of Minor-Closed Graph Classes. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 95:1-95:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{sau_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.95,
  author =	{Sau, Ignasi and Stamoulis, Giannos and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.},
  title =	{{An FPT-Algorithm for Recognizing k-Apices of Minor-Closed Graph Classes}},
  booktitle =	{47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)},
  pages =	{95:1--95:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-138-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{168},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.95},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125027},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.95},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph modification problems, irrelevant vertex technique, graph minors, parameterized algorithms}
}
Document
Connected Search for a Lazy Robber

Authors: Isolde Adler, Christophe Paul, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 150, 39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019)


Abstract
The node search game against a lazy (or, respectively, agile) invisible robber has been introduced as a search-game analogue of the treewidth parameter (and, respectively, pathwidth). In the connected variants of the above two games, we additionally demand that, at each moment of the search, the clean territories are connected. The connected search game against an agile and invisible robber has been extensively examined. The monotone variant (where we also demand that the clean territories are progressively increasing) of this game, corresponds to the graph parameter of connected pathwidth. It is known that the price of connectivty to search for an agile robber is bounded by 2, that is the connected pathwidth of a graph is at most twice (plus some constant) its pathwidth. In this paper, we investigate the connected search game against a lazy robber. A lazy robber moves only when the searchers' strategy threatens the location that he currently occupies. We introduce two alternative graph-theoretic formulations of this game, one in terms of connected tree decompositions, and one in terms of (connected) layouts, leading to the graph parameter of connected treewidth. We observe that connected treewidth parameter is closed under contractions and prove that for every k >= 2, the set of contraction obstructions of the class of graphs with connected treewidth at most k is infinite. Our main result is a complete characterization of the obstruction set for k=2. One may observe that, so far, only a few complete obstruction sets are explicitly known for contraction closed graph classes. We finally show that, in contrast to the agile robber game, the price of connectivity is unbounded.

Cite as

Isolde Adler, Christophe Paul, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. Connected Search for a Lazy Robber. In 39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 150, pp. 7:1-7:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{adler_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.7,
  author =	{Adler, Isolde and Paul, Christophe and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.},
  title =	{{Connected Search for a Lazy Robber}},
  booktitle =	{39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-131-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{150},
  editor =	{Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and Gastin, Paul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-115695},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph searching, Tree-decomposition, Obstructions}
}
Document
Clustering to Given Connectivities

Authors: Petr A. Golovach and Dimitrios M. Thilikos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 148, 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)


Abstract
We define a general variant of the graph clustering problem where the criterion of density for the clusters is (high) connectivity. In Clustering to Given Connectivities, we are given an n-vertex graph G, an integer k, and a sequence Lambda=<lambda_{1},...,lambda_{t}> of positive integers and we ask whether it is possible to remove at most k edges from G such that the resulting connected components are exactly t and their corresponding edge connectivities are lower-bounded by the numbers in Lambda. We prove that this problem, parameterized by k, is fixed parameter tractable, i.e., can be solved by an f(k)* n^{O(1)}-step algorithm, for some function f that depends only on the parameter k. Our algorithm uses the recursive understanding technique that is especially adapted so to deal with the fact that we do not impose any restriction to the connectivity demands in Lambda.

Cite as

Petr A. Golovach and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. Clustering to Given Connectivities. In 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 148, pp. 18:1-18:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{golovach_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.18,
  author =	{Golovach, Petr A. and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.},
  title =	{{Clustering to Given Connectivities}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)},
  pages =	{18:1--18:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-129-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{148},
  editor =	{Jansen, Bart M. P. and Telle, Jan Arne},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.18},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-114796},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.18},
  annote =	{Keywords: graph clustering, edge connectivity, parameterized complexity}
}
Document
Modification to Planarity is Fixed Parameter Tractable

Authors: Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 126, 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)


Abstract
A replacement action is a function L that maps each k-vertex labeled graph to another k-vertex graph. We consider a general family of graph modification problems, called L-Replacement to C, where the input is a graph G and the question is whether it is possible to replace in G some k-vertex subgraph H of it by L(H) so that the new graph belongs to the graph class C. L-Replacement to C can simulate several modification operations such as edge addition, edge removal, edge editing, and diverse completion and superposition operations. In this paper, we prove that for any action L, if C is the class of planar graphs, there is an algorithm that solves L-Replacement to C in O(|G|^{2}) steps. We also present several applications of our approach to related problems.

Cite as

Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. Modification to Planarity is Fixed Parameter Tractable. In 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 126, pp. 28:1-28:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2019.28,
  author =	{Fomin, Fedor V. and Golovach, Petr A. and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.},
  title =	{{Modification to Planarity is Fixed Parameter Tractable}},
  booktitle =	{36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)},
  pages =	{28:1--28:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-100-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{126},
  editor =	{Niedermeier, Rolf and Paul, Christophe},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.28},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102677},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.28},
  annote =	{Keywords: Modification problems, Planar graphs, Irrelevant vertex technique}
}
Document
Lean Tree-Cut Decompositions: Obstructions and Algorithms

Authors: Archontia C. Giannopoulou, O-joung Kwon, Jean-Florent Raymond, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 126, 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)


Abstract
The notion of tree-cut width has been introduced by Wollan in [The structure of graphs not admitting a fixed immersion, Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series B, 110:47 - 66, 2015]. It is defined via tree-cut decompositions, which are tree-like decompositions that highlight small (edge) cuts in a graph. In that sense, tree-cut decompositions can be seen as an edge-version of tree-decompositions and have algorithmic applications on problems that remain intractable on graphs of bounded treewidth. In this paper, we prove that every graph admits an optimal tree-cut decomposition that satisfies a certain Menger-like condition similar to that of the lean tree decompositions of Thomas [A Menger-like property of tree-width: The finite case, Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series B, 48(1):67 - 76, 1990]. This allows us to give, for every k in N, an upper-bound on the number immersion-minimal graphs of tree-cut width k. Our results imply the constructive existence of a linear FPT-algorithm for tree-cut width.

Cite as

Archontia C. Giannopoulou, O-joung Kwon, Jean-Florent Raymond, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. Lean Tree-Cut Decompositions: Obstructions and Algorithms. In 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 126, pp. 32:1-32:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{giannopoulou_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2019.32,
  author =	{Giannopoulou, Archontia C. and Kwon, O-joung and Raymond, Jean-Florent and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.},
  title =	{{Lean Tree-Cut Decompositions: Obstructions and Algorithms}},
  booktitle =	{36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)},
  pages =	{32:1--32:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-100-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{126},
  editor =	{Niedermeier, Rolf and Paul, Christophe},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.32},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102716},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.32},
  annote =	{Keywords: tree-cut width, lean decompositions, immersions, obstructions, parameterized algorithms}
}
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