26 Search Results for "van Leeuwen, Erik Jan"


Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Computing Tree Decompositions with Small Independence Number

Authors: Clément Dallard, Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, Tuukka Korhonen, and Martin Milanič

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
The independence number of a tree decomposition is the maximum of the independence numbers of the subgraphs induced by its bags. The tree-independence number of a graph is the minimum independence number of a tree decomposition of it. Several NP-hard graph problems, like maximum weight independent set, can be solved in time n^𝒪(k) if the input n-vertex graph is given together with a tree decomposition of independence number k. Yolov in [SODA 2018] gave an algorithm that given an n-vertex graph G and an integer k, in time n^𝒪(k³) either constructs a tree decomposition of G whose independence number is 𝒪(k³) or correctly reports that the tree-independence number of G is larger than k. In this paper, we first give an algorithm for computing the tree-independence number with a better approximation ratio and running time and then prove that our algorithm is, in some sense, the best one can hope for. More precisely, our algorithm runs in time 2^𝒪(k²) n^𝒪(k) and either outputs a tree decomposition of G with independence number at most 8k, or determines that the tree-independence number of G is larger than k. This implies 2^𝒪(k²) n^𝒪(k)-time algorithms for various problems, like maximum weight independent set, parameterized by the tree-independence number k without needing the decomposition as an input. Assuming Gap-ETH, an n^Ω(k) factor in the running time is unavoidable for any approximation algorithm for the tree-independence number. Our second result is that the exact computation of the tree-independence number is para-NP-hard: We show that for every constant k ≥ 4 it is NP-hard to decide if a given graph has the tree-independence number at most k.

Cite as

Clément Dallard, Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, Tuukka Korhonen, and Martin Milanič. Computing Tree Decompositions with Small Independence Number. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 51:1-51:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{dallard_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.51,
  author =	{Dallard, Cl\'{e}ment and Fomin, Fedor V. and Golovach, Petr A. and Korhonen, Tuukka and Milani\v{c}, Martin},
  title =	{{Computing Tree Decompositions with Small Independence Number}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{51:1--51:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.51},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201945},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.51},
  annote =	{Keywords: tree-independence number, approximation, parameterized algorithms}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Two-Sets Cut-Uncut on Planar Graphs

Authors: Matthias Bentert, Pål Grønås Drange, Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, and Tuukka Korhonen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We study Two-Sets Cut-Uncut on planar graphs. Therein, one is given an undirected planar graph G and two disjoint sets S and T of vertices as input. The question is, what is the minimum number of edges to remove from G, such that all vertices in S are separated from all vertices in T, while maintaining that every vertex in S, and respectively in T, stays in the same connected component. We show that this problem can be solved in 2^{|S|+|T|} n^𝒪(1) time with a one-sided-error randomized algorithm. Our algorithm implies a polynomial-time algorithm for the network diversion problem on planar graphs, which resolves an open question from the literature. More generally, we show that Two-Sets Cut-Uncut is fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by the number r of faces in a planar embedding covering the terminals S ∪ T, by providing a 2^𝒪(r) n^𝒪(1)-time algorithm.

Cite as

Matthias Bentert, Pål Grønås Drange, Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, and Tuukka Korhonen. Two-Sets Cut-Uncut on Planar Graphs. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 22:1-22:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bentert_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.22,
  author =	{Bentert, Matthias and Drange, P\r{a}l Gr{\o}n\r{a}s and Fomin, Fedor V. and Golovach, Petr A. and Korhonen, Tuukka},
  title =	{{Two-Sets Cut-Uncut on Planar Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{22:1--22:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.22},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201654},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.22},
  annote =	{Keywords: planar graphs, cut-uncut, group-constrained paths}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
A Tight Monte-Carlo Algorithm for Steiner Tree Parameterized by Clique-Width

Authors: Narek Bojikian and Stefan Kratsch

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Given a graph G = (V,E), a set T ⊆ V, and an integer b, the Steiner Tree problem asks whether G has a connected subgraph H with at most b vertices that spans all of T. This work presents a 3^k⋅ n^𝒪(1) time one-sided Monte-Carlo algorithm for solving Steiner Tree when additionally a clique-expression of width k is provided. Known lower bounds for less expressive parameters imply that this dependence on the clique-width of G is optimal assuming the Strong Exponential-Time Hypothesis (SETH). Indeed our work establishes that the parameter dependence of Steiner Tree is the same for any graph parameter between cutwidth and clique-width, assuming SETH. Our work contributes to the program of determining the exact parameterized complexity of fundamental hard problems relative to structural graph parameters such as treewidth, which was initiated by Lokshtanov et al. [SODA 2011 & TALG 2018] and which by now has seen a plethora of results. Since the cut-and-count framework of Cygan et al. [FOCS 2011 & TALG 2022], connectivity problems have played a key role in this program as they pose many challenges for developing tight upper and lower bounds. Recently, Hegerfeld and Kratsch [ESA 2023] gave the first application of the cut-and-count technique to problems parameterized by clique-width and obtained tight bounds for Connected Dominating Set and Connected Vertex Cover, leaving open the complexity of other benchmark connectivity problems such as Steiner Tree and Feedback Vertex Set. Our algorithm for Steiner Tree does not follow the cut-and-count technique and instead works with the connectivity patterns of partial solutions. As a first technical contribution we identify a special family of so-called complete patterns that has strong (existential) representation properties, and using these at least one solution will be preserved. Furthermore, there is a family of 3^k basis patterns that (parity) represents the complete patterns, i.e., it has the same number of solutions modulo two. Our main technical contribution, a new technique called "isolating a representative," allows us to leverage both forms of representation (existential and parity). Both complete patterns and isolation of a representative will likely be applicable to other (connectivity) problems.

Cite as

Narek Bojikian and Stefan Kratsch. A Tight Monte-Carlo Algorithm for Steiner Tree Parameterized by Clique-Width. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 29:1-29:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bojikian_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.29,
  author =	{Bojikian, Narek and Kratsch, Stefan},
  title =	{{A Tight Monte-Carlo Algorithm for Steiner Tree Parameterized by Clique-Width}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201728},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parameterized complexity, Steiner tree, clique-width}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness

Authors: Barış Can Esmer, Jacob Focke, Dániel Marx, and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
It is known for many algorithmic problems that if a tree decomposition of width t is given in the input, then the problem can be solved with exponential dependence on t. A line of research initiated by Lokshtanov, Marx, and Saurabh [SODA 2011] produced lower bounds showing that in many cases known algorithms already achieve the best possible exponential dependence on t, assuming the Strong Exponential-Time Hypothesis (SETH). The main message of this paper is showing that the same lower bounds can already be obtained in a much more restricted setting: informally, a graph consisting of a block of t vertices connected to components of constant size already has the same hardness as a general tree decomposition of width t. Formally, a (σ,δ)-hub is a set Q of vertices such that every component of Q has size at most σ and is adjacent to at most δ vertices of Q. We explore if the known tight lower bounds parameterized by the width of the given tree decomposition remain valid if we parameterize by the size of the given hub. - For every ε > 0, there are σ,δ > 0 such that Independent Set (equivalently Vertex Cover) cannot be solved in time (2-ε)^p⋅ n, even if a (σ, δ)-hub of size p is given in the input, assuming the SETH. This matches the earlier tight lower bounds parameterized by width of the tree decomposition. Similar tight bounds are obtained for Odd Cycle Transversal, Max Cut, q-Coloring, and edge/vertex deletions versions of q-Coloring. - For every ε > 0, there are σ,δ > 0 such that △-Partition cannot be solved in time (2-ε)^p ⋅ n, even if a (σ, δ)-hub of size p is given in the input, assuming the Set Cover Conjecture (SCC). In fact, we prove that this statement is equivalent to the SCC, thus it is unlikely that this could be proved assuming the SETH. - For Dominating Set, we can prove a non-tight lower bound ruling out (2-ε)^p ⋅ n^𝒪(1) algorithms, assuming either the SETH or the SCC, but this does not match the 3^p⋅ n^{𝒪(1)} upper bound. Thus our results reveal that, for many problems, the research on lower bounds on the dependence on tree width was never really about tree decompositions, but the real source of hardness comes from a much simpler structure. Additionally, we study if the same lower bounds can be obtained if σ and δ are fixed universal constants (not depending on ε). We show that lower bounds of this form are possible for Max Cut and the edge-deletion version of q-Coloring, under the Max 3-Sat Hypothesis (M3SH). However, no such lower bounds are possible for Independent Set, Odd Cycle Transversal, and the vertex-deletion version of q-Coloring: better than brute force algorithms are possible for every fixed (σ,δ).

Cite as

Barış Can Esmer, Jacob Focke, Dániel Marx, and Paweł Rzążewski. Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 34:1-34:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{canesmer_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34,
  author =	{Can Esmer, Bar{\i}\c{s} and Focke, Jacob and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
  title =	{{Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{34:1--34:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201772},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, Tight Bounds, Hub, Treewidth, Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis, Vertex Coloring, Vertex Deletion, Edge Deletion, Triangle Packing, Triangle Partition, Set Cover Hypothesis, Dominating Set}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Parameterized Algorithms for Steiner Forest in Bounded Width Graphs

Authors: Andreas Emil Feldmann and Michael Lampis

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
In this paper we reassess the parameterized complexity and approximability of the well-studied Steiner Forest problem in several graph classes of bounded width. The problem takes an edge-weighted graph and pairs of vertices as input, and the aim is to find a minimum cost subgraph in which each given vertex pair lies in the same connected component. It is known that this problem is APX-hard in general, and NP-hard on graphs of treewidth 3, treedepth 4, and feedback vertex set size 2. However, Bateni, Hajiaghayi and Marx [JACM, 2011] gave an approximation scheme with a runtime of n^O(k²/ε) on graphs of treewidth k. Our main result is a much faster efficient parameterized approximation scheme (EPAS) with a runtime of 2^O(k²/ε log k/ε)⋅n^O(1). If k instead is the vertex cover number of the input graph, we show how to compute the optimum solution in 2^O(k log k)⋅n^O(1) time, and we also prove that this runtime dependence on k is asymptotically best possible, under ETH. Furthermore, if k is the size of a feedback edge set, then we obtain a faster 2^O(k)⋅n^O(1) time algorithm, which again cannot be improved under ETH.

Cite as

Andreas Emil Feldmann and Michael Lampis. Parameterized Algorithms for Steiner Forest in Bounded Width Graphs. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 61:1-61:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{feldmann_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.61,
  author =	{Feldmann, Andreas Emil and Lampis, Michael},
  title =	{{Parameterized Algorithms for Steiner Forest in Bounded Width Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{61:1--61:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.61},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202048},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.61},
  annote =	{Keywords: Steiner Forest, Approximation Algorithms, FPT algorithms}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Towards Tight Bounds for the Graph Homomorphism Problem Parameterized by Cutwidth via Asymptotic Matrix Parameters

Authors: Carla Groenland, Isja Mannens, Jesper Nederlof, Marta Piecyk, and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
A homomorphism from a graph G to a graph H is an edge-preserving mapping from V(G) to V(H). In the graph homomorphism problem, denoted by Hom(H), the graph H is fixed and we need to determine if there exists a homomorphism from an instance graph G to H. We study the complexity of the problem parameterized by the cutwidth of G, i.e., we assume that G is given along with a linear ordering v_1,…,v_n of V(G) such that, for each i ∈ {1,…,n-1}, the number of edges with one endpoint in {v_1,…,v_i} and the other in {v_{i+1},…,v_n} is at most k. We aim, for each H, for algorithms for Hom(H) running in time c_H^k n^𝒪(1) and matching lower bounds that exclude c_H^{k⋅o(1)} n^𝒪(1) or c_H^{k(1-Ω(1))} n^𝒪(1) time algorithms under the (Strong) Exponential Time Hypothesis. In the paper we introduce a new parameter that we call mimsup(H). Our main contribution is strong evidence of a close connection between c_H and mimsup(H): - an information-theoretic argument that the number of states needed in a natural dynamic programming algorithm is at most mimsup(H)^k, - lower bounds that show that for almost all graphs H indeed we have c_H ≥ mimsup(H), assuming the (Strong) Exponential-Time Hypothesis, and - an algorithm with running time exp(𝒪(mimsup(H)⋅k log k)) n^𝒪(1). In the last result we do not need to assume that H is a fixed graph. Thus, as a consequence, we obtain that the problem of deciding whether G admits a homomorphism to H is fixed-parameter tractable, when parameterized by cutwidth of G and mimsup(H). The parameter mimsup(H) can be thought of as the p-th root of the maximum induced matching number in the graph obtained by multiplying p copies of H via a certain graph product, where p tends to infinity. It can also be defined as an asymptotic rank parameter of the adjacency matrix of H. Such parameters play a central role in, among others, algebraic complexity theory and additive combinatorics. Our results tightly link the parameterized complexity of a problem to such an asymptotic matrix parameter for the first time.

Cite as

Carla Groenland, Isja Mannens, Jesper Nederlof, Marta Piecyk, and Paweł Rzążewski. Towards Tight Bounds for the Graph Homomorphism Problem Parameterized by Cutwidth via Asymptotic Matrix Parameters. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 77:1-77:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{groenland_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.77,
  author =	{Groenland, Carla and Mannens, Isja and Nederlof, Jesper and Piecyk, Marta and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
  title =	{{Towards Tight Bounds for the Graph Homomorphism Problem Parameterized by Cutwidth via Asymptotic Matrix Parameters}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{77:1--77:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.77},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202208},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.77},
  annote =	{Keywords: graph homomorphism, cutwidth, asymptotic matrix parameters}
}
Document
Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming
On Homomorphism Indistinguishability and Hypertree Depth

Authors: Benjamin Scheidt

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
GC^k is a logic introduced by Scheidt and Schweikardt (2023) to express properties of hypergraphs. It is similar to first-order logic with counting quantifiers (C) adapted to the hypergraph setting. It has distinct sets of variables for vertices and for hyperedges and requires vertex variables to be guarded by hyperedge variables on every quantification. We prove that two hypergraphs G, H satisfy the same sentences in the logic GC^k with guard depth at most k if, and only if, they are homomorphism indistinguishable over the class of hypergraphs of strict hypertree depth at most k. This lifts the analogous result for tree depth ≤ k and sentences of first-order logic with counting quantifiers of quantifier rank at most k due to Grohe (2020) from graphs to hypergraphs. The guard depth of a formula is the quantifier rank with respect to hyperedge variables, and strict hypertree depth is a restriction of hypertree depth as defined by Adler, Gavenčiak and Klimošová (2012). To justify this restriction, we show that for every H, the strict hypertree depth of H is at most 1 larger than its hypertree depth, and we give additional evidence that strict hypertree depth can be viewed as a reasonable generalisation of tree depth for hypergraphs.

Cite as

Benjamin Scheidt. On Homomorphism Indistinguishability and Hypertree Depth. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 152:1-152:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{scheidt:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.152,
  author =	{Scheidt, Benjamin},
  title =	{{On Homomorphism Indistinguishability and Hypertree Depth}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{152:1--152:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.152},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202958},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.152},
  annote =	{Keywords: homomorphism indistinguishability, counting logics, guarded logics, hypergraphs, incidence graphs, tree depth, elimination forest, hypertree width}
}
Document
Separator Theorem and Algorithms for Planar Hyperbolic Graphs

Authors: Sándor Kisfaludi-Bak, Jana Masaříková, Erik Jan van Leeuwen, Bartosz Walczak, and Karol Węgrzycki

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 293, 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)


Abstract
The hyperbolicity of a graph, informally, measures how close a graph is (metrically) to a tree. Hence, it is intuitively similar to treewidth, but the measures are formally incomparable. Motivated by the broad study of algorithms and separators on planar graphs and their relation to treewidth, we initiate the study of planar graphs of bounded hyperbolicity. Our main technical contribution is a novel balanced separator theorem for planar δ-hyperbolic graphs that is substantially stronger than the classic planar separator theorem. For any fixed δ ⩾ 0, we can find a small balanced separator that induces either a single geodesic (shortest) path or a single geodesic cycle in the graph. An important advantage of our separator is that the union of our separator (vertex set Z) with any subset of the connected components of G - Z induces again a planar δ-hyperbolic graph, which would not be guaranteed with an arbitrary separator. Our construction runs in near-linear time and guarantees that the size of the separator is poly(δ) ⋅ log n. As an application of our separator theorem and its strong properties, we obtain two novel approximation schemes on planar δ-hyperbolic graphs. We prove that both Maximum Independent Set and the Traveling Salesperson problem have a near-linear time FPTAS for any constant δ, running in n polylog(n) ⋅ 2^𝒪(δ²) ⋅ ε^{-𝒪(δ)} time. We also show that our approximation scheme for Maximum Independent Set has essentially the best possible running time under the Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH). This immediately follows from our third contribution: we prove that Maximum Independent Set has no n^{o(δ)}-time algorithm on planar δ-hyperbolic graphs, unless ETH fails.

Cite as

Sándor Kisfaludi-Bak, Jana Masaříková, Erik Jan van Leeuwen, Bartosz Walczak, and Karol Węgrzycki. Separator Theorem and Algorithms for Planar Hyperbolic Graphs. In 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 293, pp. 67:1-67:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{kisfaludibak_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.67,
  author =	{Kisfaludi-Bak, S\'{a}ndor and Masa\v{r}{\'\i}kov\'{a}, Jana and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan and Walczak, Bartosz and W\k{e}grzycki, Karol},
  title =	{{Separator Theorem and Algorithms for Planar Hyperbolic Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)},
  pages =	{67:1--67:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-316-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{293},
  editor =	{Mulzer, Wolfgang and Phillips, Jeff M.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.67},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-200126},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.67},
  annote =	{Keywords: Hyperbolic metric, Planar Graphs, r-Division, Approximation Algorithms}
}
Document
Edge Multiway Cut and Node Multiway Cut Are Hard for Planar Subcubic Graphs

Authors: Matthew Johnson, Barnaby Martin, Sukanya Pandey, Daniël Paulusma, Siani Smith, and Erik Jan van Leeuwen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 294, 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)


Abstract
It is known that the weighted version of Edge Multiway Cut (also known as Multiterminal Cut) is NP-complete on planar graphs of maximum degree 3. In contrast, for the unweighted version, NP-completeness is only known for planar graphs of maximum degree 11. In fact, the complexity of unweighted Edge Multiway Cut was open for graphs of maximum degree 3 for over twenty years. We prove that the unweighted version is NP-complete even for planar graphs of maximum degree 3. As weighted Edge Multiway Cut is polynomial-time solvable for graphs of maximum degree at most 2, we have now closed the complexity gap. We also prove that (unweighted) Node Multiway Cut (both with and without deletable terminals) is NP-complete for planar graphs of maximum degree 3. By combining our results with known results, we can apply two meta-classifications on graph containment from the literature. This yields full dichotomies for all three problems on H-topological-minor-free graphs and, should H be finite, on H-subgraph-free graphs as well. Previously, such dichotomies were only implied for H-minor-free graphs.

Cite as

Matthew Johnson, Barnaby Martin, Sukanya Pandey, Daniël Paulusma, Siani Smith, and Erik Jan van Leeuwen. Edge Multiway Cut and Node Multiway Cut Are Hard for Planar Subcubic Graphs. In 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 294, pp. 29:1-29:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{johnson_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.29,
  author =	{Johnson, Matthew and Martin, Barnaby and Pandey, Sukanya and Paulusma, Dani\"{e}l and Smith, Siani and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan},
  title =	{{Edge Multiway Cut and Node Multiway Cut Are Hard for Planar Subcubic Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-318-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{294},
  editor =	{Bodlaender, Hans L.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-200699},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: multiway cut, planar subcubic graph, complexity dichotomy, graph containment}
}
Document
The Parameterised Complexity Of Integer Multicommodity Flow

Authors: Hans L. Bodlaender, Isja Mannens, Jelle J. Oostveen, Sukanya Pandey, and Erik Jan van Leeuwen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)


Abstract
The Integer Multicommodity Flow problem has been studied extensively in the literature. However, from a parameterised perspective, mostly special cases, such as the Disjoint Path problem, have been considered. Therefore, we investigate the parameterised complexity of the general Integer Multicommodity Flow problem. We show that the decision version of this problem on directed graphs for a constant number of commodities, when the capacities are given in unary, is XNLP-complete with pathwidth as parameter and XALP-complete with treewidth as parameter. When the capacities are given in binary, the problem is NP-complete even for graphs of pathwidth at most 13. We give related results for undirected graphs. These results imply that the problem is unlikely to be fixed-parameter tractable by these parameters. In contrast, we show that the problem does become fixed-parameter tractable when weighted tree partition width (a variant of tree partition width for edge weighted graphs) is used as parameter.

Cite as

Hans L. Bodlaender, Isja Mannens, Jelle J. Oostveen, Sukanya Pandey, and Erik Jan van Leeuwen. The Parameterised Complexity Of Integer Multicommodity Flow. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 6:1-6:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{bodlaender_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.6,
  author =	{Bodlaender, Hans L. and Mannens, Isja and Oostveen, Jelle J. and Pandey, Sukanya and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan},
  title =	{{The Parameterised Complexity Of Integer Multicommodity Flow}},
  booktitle =	{18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-305-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{285},
  editor =	{Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194250},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: multicommodity flow, parameterised complexity, XNLP-completeness, XALP-completeness}
}
Document
Space-Efficient Parameterized Algorithms on Graphs of Low Shrubdepth

Authors: Benjamin Bergougnoux, Vera Chekan, Robert Ganian, Mamadou Moustapha Kanté, Matthias Mnich, Sang-il Oum, Michał Pilipczuk, and Erik Jan van Leeuwen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
Dynamic programming on various graph decompositions is one of the most fundamental techniques used in parameterized complexity. Unfortunately, even if we consider concepts as simple as path or tree decompositions, such dynamic programming uses space that is exponential in the decomposition’s width, and there are good reasons to believe that this is necessary. However, it has been shown that in graphs of low treedepth it is possible to design algorithms which achieve polynomial space complexity without requiring worse time complexity than their counterparts working on tree decompositions of bounded width. Here, treedepth is a graph parameter that, intuitively speaking, takes into account both the depth and the width of a tree decomposition of the graph, rather than the width alone. Motivated by the above, we consider graphs that admit clique expressions with bounded depth and label count, or equivalently, graphs of low shrubdepth. Here, shrubdepth is a bounded-depth analogue of cliquewidth, in the same way as treedepth is a bounded-depth analogue of treewidth. We show that also in this setting, bounding the depth of the decomposition is a deciding factor for improving the space complexity. More precisely, we prove that on n-vertex graphs equipped with a tree-model (a decomposition notion underlying shrubdepth) of depth d and using k labels, - Independent Set can be solved in time 2^𝒪(dk) ⋅ n^𝒪(1) using 𝒪(dk²log n) space; - Max Cut can be solved in time n^𝒪(dk) using 𝒪(dk log n) space; and - Dominating Set can be solved in time 2^𝒪(dk) ⋅ n^𝒪(1) using n^𝒪(1) space via a randomized algorithm. We also establish a lower bound, conditional on a certain assumption about the complexity of Longest Common Subsequence, which shows that at least in the case of Independent Set the exponent of the parametric factor in the time complexity has to grow with d if one wishes to keep the space complexity polynomial.

Cite as

Benjamin Bergougnoux, Vera Chekan, Robert Ganian, Mamadou Moustapha Kanté, Matthias Mnich, Sang-il Oum, Michał Pilipczuk, and Erik Jan van Leeuwen. Space-Efficient Parameterized Algorithms on Graphs of Low Shrubdepth. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 18:1-18:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{bergougnoux_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.18,
  author =	{Bergougnoux, Benjamin and Chekan, Vera and Ganian, Robert and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha and Mnich, Matthias and Oum, Sang-il and Pilipczuk, Micha{\l} and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan},
  title =	{{Space-Efficient Parameterized Algorithms on Graphs of Low Shrubdepth}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{18:1--18:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.18},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186710},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.18},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parameterized complexity, shrubdepth, space complexity, algebraic methods}
}
Document
Complexity Framework for Forbidden Subgraphs III: When Problems Are Tractable on Subcubic Graphs

Authors: Matthew Johnson, Barnaby Martin, Sukanya Pandey, Daniël Paulusma, Siani Smith, and Erik Jan van Leeuwen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)


Abstract
For any finite set ℋ = {H_1,…,H_p} of graphs, a graph is ℋ-subgraph-free if it does not contain any of H_1,…,H_p as a subgraph. In recent work, meta-classifications have been studied: these show that if graph problems satisfy certain prescribed conditions, their complexity can be classified on classes of ℋ-subgraph-free graphs. We continue this work and focus on problems that have polynomial-time solutions on classes that have bounded treewidth or maximum degree at most 3 and examine their complexity on H-subgraph-free graph classes where H is a connected graph. With this approach, we obtain comprehensive classifications for (Independent) Feedback Vertex Set, Connected Vertex Cover, Colouring and Matching Cut. This resolves a number of open problems. We highlight that, to establish that Independent Feedback Vertex Set belongs to this collection of problems, we first show that it can be solved in polynomial time on graphs of maximum degree 3. We demonstrate that, with the exception of the complete graph on four vertices, each graph in this class has a minimum size feedback vertex set that is also an independent set.

Cite as

Matthew Johnson, Barnaby Martin, Sukanya Pandey, Daniël Paulusma, Siani Smith, and Erik Jan van Leeuwen. Complexity Framework for Forbidden Subgraphs III: When Problems Are Tractable on Subcubic Graphs. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 57:1-57:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{johnson_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.57,
  author =	{Johnson, Matthew and Martin, Barnaby and Pandey, Sukanya and Paulusma, Dani\"{e}l and Smith, Siani and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan},
  title =	{{Complexity Framework for Forbidden Subgraphs III: When Problems Are Tractable on Subcubic Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)},
  pages =	{57:1--57:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-292-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{272},
  editor =	{Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.57},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-185914},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.57},
  annote =	{Keywords: forbidden subgraphs, independent feedback vertex set, treewidth}
}
Document
Parameterized Complexity of Streaming Diameter and Connectivity Problems

Authors: Jelle J. Oostveen and Erik Jan van Leeuwen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 249, 17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022)


Abstract
We initiate the investigation of the parameterized complexity of Diameter and Connectivity in the streaming paradigm. On the positive end, we show that knowing a vertex cover of size k allows for algorithms in the Adjacency List (AL) streaming model whose number of passes is constant and memory is 𝒪(log n) for any fixed k. Underlying these algorithms is a method to execute a breadth-first search in 𝒪(k) passes and 𝒪(k log n) bits of memory. On the negative end, we show that many other parameters lead to lower bounds in the AL model, where Ω(n/p) bits of memory is needed for any p-pass algorithm even for constant parameter values. In particular, this holds for graphs with a known modulator (deletion set) of constant size to a graph that has no induced subgraph isomorphic to a fixed graph H, for most H. For some cases, we can also show one-pass, Ω(n log n) bits of memory lower bounds. We also prove a much stronger Ω(n²/p) lower bound for Diameter on bipartite graphs. Finally, using the insights we developed into streaming parameterized graph exploration algorithms, we show a new streaming kernelization algorithm for computing a vertex cover of size k. This yields a kernel of 2k vertices (with 𝒪(k²) edges) produced as a stream in poly(k) passes and only 𝒪(k log n) bits of memory.

Cite as

Jelle J. Oostveen and Erik Jan van Leeuwen. Parameterized Complexity of Streaming Diameter and Connectivity Problems. In 17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 249, pp. 24:1-24:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{oostveen_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.24,
  author =	{Oostveen, Jelle J. and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan},
  title =	{{Parameterized Complexity of Streaming Diameter and Connectivity Problems}},
  booktitle =	{17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022)},
  pages =	{24:1--24:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-260-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{249},
  editor =	{Dell, Holger and Nederlof, Jesper},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.24},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173808},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.24},
  annote =	{Keywords: Stream, Streaming, Graphs, Parameter, Complexity, Diameter, Connectivity, Vertex Cover, Disjointness, Permutation}
}
Document
Algorithms for the Rainbow Vertex Coloring Problem on Graph Classes

Authors: Paloma T. Lima, Erik Jan van Leeuwen, and Marieke van der Wegen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 170, 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)


Abstract
Given a vertex-colored graph, we say a path is a rainbow vertex path if all its internal vertices have distinct colors. The graph is rainbow vertex-connected if there is a rainbow vertex path between every pair of its vertices. In the Rainbow Vertex Coloring (RVC) problem we want to decide whether the vertices of a given graph can be colored with at most k colors so that the graph becomes rainbow vertex-connected. This problem is known to be NP-complete even in very restricted scenarios, and very few efficient algorithms are known for it. In this work, we give polynomial-time algorithms for RVC on permutation graphs, powers of trees and split strongly chordal graphs. The algorithm for the latter class also works for the strong variant of the problem, where the rainbow vertex paths between each vertex pair must be shortest paths. We complement the polynomial-time solvability results for split strongly chordal graphs by showing that, for any fixed p ≥ 3 both variants of the problem become NP-complete when restricted to split (S₃,…,S_p)-free graphs, where S_q denotes the q-sun graph.

Cite as

Paloma T. Lima, Erik Jan van Leeuwen, and Marieke van der Wegen. Algorithms for the Rainbow Vertex Coloring Problem on Graph Classes. In 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 170, pp. 63:1-63:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{lima_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.63,
  author =	{Lima, Paloma T. and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan and van der Wegen, Marieke},
  title =	{{Algorithms for the Rainbow Vertex Coloring Problem on Graph Classes}},
  booktitle =	{45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)},
  pages =	{63:1--63:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-159-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{170},
  editor =	{Esparza, Javier and Kr\'{a}l', Daniel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.63},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-127331},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.63},
  annote =	{Keywords: rainbow vertex coloring, permutation graphs, powers of trees}
}
Document
Subexponential-Time Algorithms for Finding Large Induced Sparse Subgraphs

Authors: Jana Novotná, Karolina Okrasa, Michał Pilipczuk, Paweł Rzążewski, Erik Jan van Leeuwen, and Bartosz Walczak

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 148, 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)


Abstract
Let C and D be hereditary graph classes. Consider the following problem: given a graph G in D, find a largest, in terms of the number of vertices, induced subgraph of G that belongs to C. We prove that it can be solved in 2^{o(n)} time, where n is the number of vertices of G, if the following conditions are satisfied: - the graphs in C are sparse, i.e., they have linearly many edges in terms of the number of vertices; - the graphs in D admit balanced separators of size governed by their density, e.g., O(Delta) or O(sqrt{m}), where Delta and m denote the maximum degree and the number of edges, respectively; and - the considered problem admits a single-exponential fixed-parameter algorithm when parameterized by the treewidth of the input graph. This leads, for example, to the following corollaries for specific classes C and D: - a largest induced forest in a P_t-free graph can be found in 2^{O~(n^{2/3})} time, for every fixed t; and - a largest induced planar graph in a string graph can be found in 2^{O~(n^{3/4})} time.

Cite as

Jana Novotná, Karolina Okrasa, Michał Pilipczuk, Paweł Rzążewski, Erik Jan van Leeuwen, and Bartosz Walczak. Subexponential-Time Algorithms for Finding Large Induced Sparse Subgraphs. In 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 148, pp. 23:1-23:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{novotna_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.23,
  author =	{Novotn\'{a}, Jana and Okrasa, Karolina and Pilipczuk, Micha{\l} and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l} and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan and Walczak, Bartosz},
  title =	{{Subexponential-Time Algorithms for Finding Large Induced Sparse Subgraphs}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)},
  pages =	{23:1--23:11},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-129-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{148},
  editor =	{Jansen, Bart M. P. and Telle, Jan Arne},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.23},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-114845},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.23},
  annote =	{Keywords: subexponential algorithm, feedback vertex set, P\underlinet-free graphs, string graphs}
}
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