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# On Closeness to k-Wise Uniformity

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LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.54.pdf
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## Cite As

Ryan O'Donnell and Yu Zhao. On Closeness to k-Wise Uniformity. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 116, pp. 54:1-54:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.54

## Abstract

A probability distribution over {-1, 1}^n is (epsilon, k)-wise uniform if, roughly, it is epsilon-close to the uniform distribution when restricted to any k coordinates. We consider the problem of how far an (epsilon, k)-wise uniform distribution can be from any globally k-wise uniform distribution. We show that every (epsilon, k)-wise uniform distribution is O(n^{k/2}epsilon)-close to a k-wise uniform distribution in total variation distance. In addition, we show that this bound is optimal for all even k: we find an (epsilon, k)-wise uniform distribution that is Omega(n^{k/2}epsilon)-far from any k-wise uniform distribution in total variation distance. For k=1, we get a better upper bound of O(epsilon), which is also optimal. One application of our closeness result is to the sample complexity of testing whether a distribution is k-wise uniform or delta-far from k-wise uniform. We give an upper bound of O(n^{k}/delta^2) (or O(log n/delta^2) when k = 1) on the required samples. We show an improved upper bound of O~(n^{k/2}/delta^2) for the special case of testing fully uniform vs. delta-far from k-wise uniform. Finally, we complement this with a matching lower bound of Omega(n/delta^2) when k = 2. Our results improve upon the best known bounds from [Alon et al., 2007], and have simpler proofs.

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Theory of computation → Design and analysis of algorithms
##### Keywords
• k-wise independence
• property testing
• Fourier analysis
• Boolean function

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