Massively Parallel Algorithms for Small Subgraph Counting

Authors Amartya Shankha Biswas, Talya Eden, Quanquan C. Liu, Ronitt Rubinfeld, Slobodan Mitrović



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Amartya Shankha Biswas
  • CSAIL, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA
Talya Eden
  • CSAIL, MIT, Cambridge MA, USA
  • Boston University, MA, USA
Quanquan C. Liu
  • Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
Ronitt Rubinfeld
  • CSAIL, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA
Slobodan Mitrović
  • University of California Davis, CA, USA

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Amartya Shankha Biswas, Talya Eden, Quanquan C. Liu, Ronitt Rubinfeld, and Slobodan Mitrović. Massively Parallel Algorithms for Small Subgraph Counting. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 39:1-39:28, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.39

Abstract

Over the last two decades, frameworks for distributed-memory parallel computation, such as MapReduce, Hadoop, Spark and Dryad, have gained significant popularity with the growing prevalence of large network datasets. The Massively Parallel Computation (MPC) model is the de-facto standard for studying graph algorithms in these frameworks theoretically. Subgraph counting is one such fundamental problem in analyzing massive graphs, with the main algorithmic challenges centering on designing methods which are both scalable and accurate. Given a graph G = (V, E) with n vertices, m edges and T triangles, our first result is an algorithm that outputs a (1+ε)-approximation to T, with asymptotically optimal round and total space complexity provided any S ≥ max{(√ m, n²/m)} space per machine and assuming T = Ω(√{m/n}). Our result gives a quadratic improvement on the bound on T over previous works. We also provide a simple extension of our result to counting any subgraph of k size for constant k ≥ 1. Our second result is an O_δ(log log n)-round algorithm for exactly counting the number of triangles, whose total space usage is parametrized by the arboricity α of the input graph. We extend this result to exactly counting k-cliques for any constant k. Finally, we prove that a recent result of Bera, Pashanasangi and Seshadhri (ITCS 2020) for exactly counting all subgraphs of size at most 5 can be implemented in the MPC model in Õ_δ(√{log n}) rounds, O(n^δ) space per machine and O(mα³) total space. In addition to our theoretical results, we simulate our triangle counting algorithms in real-world graphs obtained from the Stanford Network Analysis Project (SNAP) database. Our results show that both our approximate and exact counting algorithms exhibit improvements in terms of round complexity and approximation ratio, respectively, compared to two previous widely used algorithms for these problems.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Graph algorithms analysis
  • Computing methodologies → Massively parallel algorithms
Keywords
  • triangle counting
  • massively parallel computation
  • clique counting
  • approximation algorithms
  • subgraph counting

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