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Reconstruction of Full Rank Algebraic Branching Programs

Authors Neeraj Kayal, Vineet Nair, Chandan Saha, Sébastien Tavenas



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Neeraj Kayal
Vineet Nair
Chandan Saha
Sébastien Tavenas

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Neeraj Kayal, Vineet Nair, Chandan Saha, and Sébastien Tavenas. Reconstruction of Full Rank Algebraic Branching Programs. In 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 79, pp. 21:1-21:61, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.21

Abstract

An algebraic branching program (ABP) A can be modelled as a product expression X_1 X_2 ... X_d, where X_1 and X_d are 1 x w and w x 1 matrices respectively, and every other X_k is a w x w matrix; the entries of these matrices are linear forms in m variables over a field F (which we assume to be either Q or a field of characteristic poly(m)). The polynomial computed by A is the entry of the 1 x 1 matrix obtained from the product X_1 X_2 ... X_d. We say A is a full rank ABP if the w^2(d-2) + 2w linear forms occurring in the matrices X_1, X_2, ... , X_d are F-linearly independent. Our main result is a randomized reconstruction algorithm for full rank ABPs: Given blackbox access to an m-variate polynomial f of degree at most m, the algorithm outputs a full rank ABP computing f if such an ABP exists, or outputs 'no full rank ABP exists' (with high probability). The running time of the algorithm is polynomial in m and b, where b is the bit length of the coefficients of f. The algorithm works even if X_k is a w_{k-1} x w_k matrix (with w_0 = w_d = 1), and v = (w_1, ..., w_{d-1}) is unknown. The result is obtained by designing a randomized polynomial time equivalence test for the family of iterated matrix multiplication polynomial IMM_{v,d}, the (1,1)-th entry of a product of d rectangular symbolic matrices whose dimensions are according to v in N^{d-1}. At its core, the algorithm exploits a connection between the irreducible invariant subspaces of the Lie algebra of the group of symmetries of a polynomial f that is equivalent to IMM_{v,d} and the 'layer spaces' of a full rank ABP computing f. This connection also helps determine the group of symmetries of IMM_{v,d} and show that IMM_{v,d} is characterized by its group of symmetries.
Keywords
  • Circuit reconstruction
  • algebraic branching programs
  • equivalence test
  • iterated matrix multiplication
  • Lie algebra

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